• Adams, Ayhan & Katrin Golsch. 2021. Gender-specific patterns and determinants of spillover between work and family: The role of partner support in dual-earner couples. Journal of Family Research 33.1, 72–98. DOI: 10.20377/jfr-373
  • Objective: The study investigates how partner support affects different types of work-tofamily and family-to-work conflicts in dual-earner couples divided by gender and parenthood. Background: In Germany, as in other Western Countries, interrole conflicts between work and family increase, especially within dual-earner couples. Only few studies focused on the effects of partner support on different types of these conflicts.

    Method: We use longitudinal data deriving from waves 6 to 10 of the German Family Panel (pairfam) to uncover the extent to which the perception of having a supportive partner reduces time- and strain-based work-to-family and family-to-work conflicts. We conduct longitudinal structural equation models based on information of 1,252 persons, which are full-time employed and live in a dual-earner relationship.

    Results: Whereas for men partner support helps reduce stress-based work-to-family conflicts, for women perceived partner support is not beneficial. Within a subsample of parents, the experience of work-to-family conflicts is likely irrespective of partner support. Overall, women’s family-to-work conflicts appear to be reduced by their partners’ support whereas for men this detrimental effect only applies in the case of stress-based family-towork conflicts.

    Conclusion: To sum up the findings, the differences for men and women in the effect of partner support on different types of interrole conflicts indicate a still existing impact of traditional gender norms that connect femininity to house work and masculinity to employed work.

  • Alt, Philipp, Julia Reim &Sabine Walper. 2021. Fall From Grace: Increased Loneliness and Depressiveness Among Extraverted Youth During the German COVID-19 Lockdown. Journal of research on adolescence 31.3, 678–691. DOI: 10.1111/jora.12648
  • The COVID-19 pandemic has substantially affected young people’s social and emotional life. Based on longitudinal data provided by 843 adolescents (57.3% female) of the German Family Panel (pairfam), we investigated effects of extraversion on changes in loneliness and depressiveness between 2018 and 2019 and the first German COVID-19 lockdown in the first half of 2020. Findings of latent change modeling show that highly extraverted adolescents experienced a larger rise in depressiveness, and a third of this total effect was mediated through increases in loneliness. These results contradict previous work evidencing lower depressiveness among extraverted youth and challenge the notion of extraversion as a mere protective factor. Under conditions of restricted access to others, this personality trait may become a burden.

  • Arránz Becker, Oliver & Karsten Hank. 2021. Adult children's estrangement from parents in Germany. Journal of Marriage and Family (Online First). DOI: 10.1111/jomf.12796
  • Objective

    To analyze the prevalence and predictors of children's estrangement from noncoresident biological mothers and fathers during young and middle adulthood.


    Intergenerational relationships exhibit considerable heterogeneity and need not always be close or intact. However, despite its potentially far-reaching impact on the entire family system, only very few quantitative studies have been conducted yet investigating adult parent–child estrangement.


    This study draws on ten waves of longitudinal survey data from the German Family Panel (pairfam;n = 10,228). We estimate two-level random-intercept logit panel regressions of parent–child estrangement, defined as noncontact or emotional distance.


    Substantially, more children experienced periods of estrangement from fathers (20%; corresponding to 12% of person-years of observation) than from mothers (9%; corresponding to 5% of person-years of observation). We observed a longitudinal pattern reflecting “modest” dynamics, that is, neither continuously estranged relationships nor multiple transitions into and out of estrangement were the rule. Disruptive family events and, particularly, children's estrangement from “other” (biological or nonbiological) parental figures turned out to be the most important predictors of being estranged from the “focal” biological parent, especially from fathers. Children expressing stronger familistic attitudes were less likely to experience estrangement.


    Estrangement is a quantitatively relevant phenomenon in adult parent–child relations, where relationships with fathers are particularly vulnerable. Crossovers between children's relationships with various parental figures indicate that estrangement is a family matter that is best addressed by taking a family systems perspective. Estrangement deserves further attention by both researchers and practitioners in family counseling and therapy.

  • Bujard, Martin, Ellen von den Driesch, Kerstin Ruckdeschel, Inga Laß, Carolin Thönnissen, Almut Schumann & Norbert F. Schneider. 2021. Belastungen von Kindern, Jugendlichen und Eltern in der Corona-Pandemie. BIB.BEVÖLKERUNGS.STUDIEN 2.  DOI: 10.12765/bro-2020-02
  • De Moor, Elisabeth, Jaap J. A. Denissen, Wilco H. M. Emons, Wiebke Bleidorn, Maike Luhmann, Ulrich Orth & Joanne M. Chung. 2021. Self-esteem and satisfaction with social relationships across time. Journal of personality and social psychology 120.1, 173–191. DOI: 10.1037/pspp0000379
  • Research on the longitudinal association between self-esteem and satisfaction with social relationships has led to ambiguous conclusions regarding the temporal order and strength of this relation. Existing studies have examined this association across intervals ranging from days to years, leaving it unclear as to what extent differences in timing may explain differences across studies. In the present study, we used continuous time structural equation models (i.e., CT-SEM) to examine cross-lagged relations between the constructs, and also distinguished between-person differences from within-person processes (i.e., RI-CT-SEM). We analyzed 10 years of annual data from the Longitudinal Internet Studies of the Social Sciences (N = 14,741). When using CT-SEM, we found a bidirectional positive relation between self-esteem and satisfaction with social relationships, with larger effects over longer intervals. When using RI-CT-SEM, we found the largest effects of self-esteem and satisfaction with social relationships across intervals of 1 year, with smaller effect sizes at both shorter and longer intervals. In addition, the effect of fluctuations in people's satisfaction with social relationships on fluctuations in their self-esteem was greater than the reverse effect. Our results highlight the importance of considering time when examining the relation between self-esteem and interpersonal outcomes and likely psychological constructs in general. (PsycInfo Database Record (c) 2021 APA, all rights reserved).

  • Diederich, Freya, Hans-Helmut König & Christian Brettschneider. 2021. A longitudinal perspective on inter vivos transfers between children and their parents in need of long-term care. The Journal of the Economics of Ageing 162.2 (Online First). DOI: 10.1016/j.jeoa.2021.100324
  • Once a parent needs long-term care, intergenerational transfers from children to parents are considered as economically important. However, less is known on how child-to-parent transfers evolve, as these kinds of transfers are typically analyzed in the cross section. In the light of aging populations, this study examines how inter vivos transfers from adult children to elderly parents change once a parent needs LTC using longitudinal data from the German Family Panel. Transfers in form of emotional support, financial support, household help, and personal care are distinguished. The results show that children respond to a parent’s need for long-term care by increasing inter vivos transfers. However, the results also reveal that children’s behavior varies by the type of transfer considered. It is concluded that key policy issues, which address the growing need for long-term care in aging societies, should not be discussed without considering the transmission mechanism within the family. This study shows that children react to a parent’s need for log-term care. Likewise, children are also expected to react to changes in the availability of publicly paid long-term care services.

  • El Ghaziri, Nahema, Joëlle Darwiche, Jean‐Philippe Antonietti & Ulrich Orth. 2021. Importance of Self‐Esteem for the Parental Couple: Testing for Actor and Partner Effects. Family Relations (Online First). DOI: 10.1111/fare.12532
  • Objective

    This study investigated the actor and partner effects of self‐esteem on the quality of the parental couple relationships: the romantic relationship and the coparental relationship. The mediating role of romantic quality also was considered.


    Previous findings suggest that self‐esteem affects the quality of the romantic relationship. Yet few studies have focused on self‐esteem in the parental couple or explored self‐esteem related to the coparental relationship, both of which play a significant role in the nature of the family unit.


    Using data from two independent samples (including 2,549 couples), actor–partner interdependence models were tested to analyze the effects of self‐esteem on both relationships of the parental couple.


    Parents with high self‐esteem reported higher romantic quality, as did their partner. Self‐esteem also showed actor and partner effects on negative coparenting. Accordingly, parents with high self‐esteem reported fewer conflicts about the child and fewer undermining behaviors. In contrast, the link between self‐esteem and positive coparenting received little support. However, when mothers had high self‐esteem, they engaged more frequently in positive coparental behaviors, such as including the father. Finally, romantic relationship quality mediated the actor and partner effects of self‐esteem on negative coparenting.


    Having high self‐esteem appears to be a couple resource with beneficial effects for both parents.


    Improving parents' self‐esteem could be an important gateway for enhancing the functioning of families with romantic and coparental difficulties.

  • Fang, Shichen, Nancy L. Galambos & Matthew D. Johnson. 2021. Parent–Child Contact, Closeness, and Conflict Across the Transition to Adulthood. Journal of Marriage and Family (Online First). DOI:10.1111/jomf.12760
  • Objective

    This study examined whether youth and parent perceptions of parent–child contact, closeness, and conflict change during the transition to adulthood, and how perceived parent–child relations vary as a function of life course experiences such as residential, education, and relationship status.


    The parent–child relationship is one of the most influential and long‐lasting social ties. Much research on this relationship focuses on childhood, adolescence, and late life, with data from one generation only. Guided by a life course perspective, this study sought to investigate youth and parent perceptions of parent–child relations during the transition to adulthood—a relatively understudied area.


    Data were from a community sample of German parent–child dyads (N = 2,301, 50% daughter, 65% mother) who participated in the German Family Panel study (pairfam; and were followed annually from ages 17 to 22.


    Latent growth models revealed that parent–child contact and conflict decreased, and parent–child closeness remained relatively stable from ages 17 to 22; youth coresidence with parents was associated with higher levels of youth‐ and parent‐reported contact and conflict, but youth student and relationship statuses were not related to changes in parent–child relations.


    This study describes general patterns of parent–child relations in a transitional period and offers insights into the role of life course event status in changing parent–child relations. Findings reveal separation from parents along with connectedness, and provide support for understanding development in the context of linked lives.

  • Feldhaus, Michael & Gunter Kreutz. 2021. Familial cultural activities and child development – Findings from a longitudinal panel study. Leisure Studies (Online First), 1–15. DOI: 10.1080/02614367.2020.1843690
  • We investigated the associations between parent-child leisure activities and perceived relationships longitudinally during the transition from childhood to adolescence. The German Family Panel (pairfam) covering four biannual waves (N = 1,816 children; age range: 8–15 years; 48.4% female) between 2009 and 2015/16 served as our data base. Frequencies of engaging in book reading (Reading), singing or playing music (Music), and playing computer games (Computer), were entered as independent measures, and children’s views on Intimacy, Prosocial Behaviour and Conduct Problems in their relationships with parents were entered as dependent measures in a series of regression analyses. The results revealed complex associations between parent-child leisure activities and parent-child relationships across waves. Specifically, Reading and Music were found positively associated with Prosocial Behaviour, and Computer was found negatively associated with this variable, and positively associated with Conduct Problems. Gender differences and influences of socioeconomic variables were noted. These findings suggest important and continued roles of parent-child leisure activities to regulate intrafamilial relationships during later childhood and the early stages of puberty. Further research is required to investigate the moderators of these associations and underlying mechanisms.

  • Fischer-Neumann, Marion & Petra Böhnke. 2021. Facets of parent–child relations in adulthood and their role in transmitting economic deprivation across generations. Advances in Life Course Research 48, 100397. DOI: 10.1016/j.alcr.2020.100397
  • Despite the well-documented effect of parent–child relations in childhood on the reproduction of social disad-vantage, little is known about how relationships between parents and their grown-up children are associated with this process. The present study addresses this research gap by investigating whether structural, cognitive, and functional aspects of family social capital in adulthood are connected to the risk of relative income poverty and its intergenerational reproduction. Based on a longitudinal sample from data of the German Family Panel (pairfam), random effects regression models as well as mediation analysis (KHB method) reveal that affectual and  structural facets of  intergenerational relations in  adulthood matter in  two  ways for  understanding the intergenerational transmission of  poverty. First, emotionally close intergenerational relations and  living in proximity of the parental home in adulthood counterbalance the experience of economic deprivation in child-hood by alleviating poverty risks. Second, emotionally and spatially distant relations between adult children and their parents partially mediate the social inheritance of poverty across generations and time. We additionally tested the possible moderating role of migration background but could not find considerable evidence that later- life family social capital matters differently for native and migrant families in predicting the risk of poverty.

  • Filser, Andreas & Richard Preetz. 2021. Do Local Sex Ratios Approximate Subjective Partner Markets? : Evidence from the German Family Panel. Human nature 32.2, 406–433. DOI: 10.1007/s12110-021-09397-6
  • Sex ratios have widely been recognized as an important link between demographic contexts and behavior because changes in the ratio shift sex-specific bargaining power in the partner market. Implicitly, the literature considers individual partner market experiences to be a function of local sex ratios. However, empirical evidence on the correspondence between subjective partner availability and local sex ratios is lacking so far. In this paper, we analyzed how closely a set of different local sex ratio measures correlates with subjective partner market experiences. Linking a longitudinal German survey to population data for different entities (states, counties, municipalities), we used multilevel logistic regression models to explore associations between singles' subjective partner market experiences and various operationalizations of local sex ratios. Results suggest that local sex ratios correlated only weakly with subjective partner market experiences. Adult sex ratios based on broad age brackets, including those for lower-level entities, did not significantly predict whether individuals predominantly met individuals of their own sex. More fine-grained, age-specific sex ratios prove to be better predictors of subjective partner market experiences, in particular when age hypergamy patterns were incorporated. Nevertheless, the respective associations were only significant for selected measures. In a complementary analysis, we illustrate the validity of the subjective indicator as a predictor of relationship formation. In sum, our results suggest that subjective partner availability is not adequately represented by the broad adult sex ratio measures that are frequently used in the literature. Future research should be careful not to equate local sex ratios and conscious partner market experiences.

  • Gattig, Alexander & Lara Minkus. 2021. Does Marriage Increase Couples’ Life Satisfaction? Comparative Population Studies 46: 123–148. DOI: 10.12765/CPoS-2021-05
  • Many contemporary studies find that married couples are more satisfied with life than unmarried people. However, whether marriage makes people more satisfied with life or whether more satisfied couples are more likely to marry remains a debated question. We reassess this relationship with panel data from the German Family Panel (pairfam) and extend previous analyses by adding individual trajectories (slopes) to standard fixed-effects regressions (FEIS). We are thereby able to distinguish – controlling for time-constant unobserved heterogeneity – whether there is in fact an effect of marriage on life satisfaction, whether people who are simply happier in their relationship are more likely to get married, or whether people whose development in life satisfaction is more positive are more likely to get married. We translate these different social mechanisms into different analytical strategies and find that OLS regression – due to its confounding effects between and within persons – overestimates the effect of marriage on life satisfaction. A fixed-effects estimator reveals a much lower effect of marriage on life satisfaction for couples who marry compared to those who continue to live apart together or cohabitate. Additionally, using a FEIS estimator and adjusting for – non-linear – development of individual life satisfaction over time, suggests that this effect is in fact causal.

  • Gonzalez Avilés, Tita, Christine Finn, Franz J. Neyer. 2021. Patterns of Romantic Relationship Experiences and Psychosocial Adjustment From Adolescence to Young Adulthood. Journal of youth and adolescence 50.3, 550–562. DOI: 10.1007/s10964-020-01350-7
  • Engaging in a romantic relationship is a key developmental task of adolescence and adolescents differ greatly in both the age at which they start dating and in how romantically active they are. These differences in romantic relationship experiences could be relevant for adolescents’ short- and long-term psychosocial adjustment. The present study describes the diversity of relationship experiences during adolescence and examines their connection to psychosocial adjustment in adolescence and young adulthood. N = 2457 adolescents (49.3% female) from a German representative longitudinal study provided information on their relationship experiences between the ages 10 and 20, as well as on their psychosocial adjustment. Data were collected via annual assessments starting in 2008 at age M = 16.50 years (SD = 0.88) through young adulthood (M = 25.46, SD = 0.87). Latent profile analysis identified three romantic involvement groups: late starters, moderate daters, and frequent changers, which were further compared to adolescents without any romantic experiences (continuous singles). Growth curve analyses indicated that continuous singles reported lower life satisfaction and higher loneliness than the moderate daters in adolescence and young adulthood. The continuous singles were also less satisfied with their life in young adulthood and felt more lonely in both adolescence and young adulthood compared to the late starters. The findings of the study suggest great variability in adolescents’ romantic relationship experiences and point toward the developmental significance of these experiences for short- and long-term well-being.

  • Gröpler, Nicolai, Johannes Huinink & Timo Peter. 2021. Does the birth of a child still prompt a marriage? A comparison of Austria, France, Germany and Hungary. European Societies 23.3, 333359DOI: 10.1080/14616696.2021.1922930 
  • Austria, France, Germany, and Hungary are four neighbouring European societies all with conservative welfare regimes, yet with distinct institutional and structural features. We investigate how these differences shape a particular example of culturally contingent behaviour: cohabiting couples’ marriage behaviour when they have a child. Based on a discussion of relevant differences in family policy, legal frames and normative contexts, we develop hypotheses on country-specific marriage patterns. We test these hypotheses using longitudinal data from the Generations and Gender Programme (GGP) and the German Family Panel (pairfam). A number of relevant covariates were harmonized in order to be able to control for potential confounders which may affect the fertility process as well as marriage formation. Using discrete-time event history analysis, we observe robust differences in the effects of fertility on the marriage rate of cohabiting couples between the four countries. Pregnancy increases the marriage rate in Austria, Germany and Hungary, whereas no significant effect of fertility is found for France. After childbirth, the transition rate drops to its prepregnancy level in Austria and Germany and even below that in Hungary. Our findings point to a critical role of the socio-cultural context in which couples make relevant decisions about their private lives.

  • Hajek, Kristin 2021. The Interplay of Having an Abortion, Relationship Satisfaction, and Union Dissolution. Comparative Population Studies 46, 97-122. DOI: 10.12765/CPoS-2021-04
  • This study researches the associations between having an abortion, relationship satisfaction, and union dissolution. Empirical evidence on this topic is scarce, and there is a pronounced lack of studies analysing longitudinal data: Most previous studies have used data from women recruited from abortion clinics who are about to undergo an abortion, and therefore do not incorporate a prospective measure of relationship satisfaction pre-pregnancy. Panel studies, on the other hand, collect prospective data on various topics and allow for the estimation of more advanced models that can help identify causal mechanisms. Using data from the German Family Panel pairfam in combination with pooled logistic regressions, discrete-time event history models, as well as fi xed effects regression models, this study compares relationships up to nine years before having had an abortion and eight years afterwards. The findings of the analyses can neither confi rm that relationship satisfaction acts as a confounding factor that infl uences both the likelihood of terminating a pregnancy and union dissolution, nor as a mediating factor between having an abortion and union dissolution. A negative effect of having an abortion on relationship satisfaction appears to be only temporary. In the year of an abortion, relationship satisfaction decreases slightly. In the following years, a significant difference in relationship satisfaction to pre-abortion years is no longer visible. By using panel data, the temporal order of events can be retraced, resulting in the discovery that relationship satisfaction and union dissolution do not change drastically from pre-abortion values after having an abortion.

  • Hank, Karsten. 2021. Linked in Life and Death: A Note on the Effect of Parental Death on Sibling Relations in Young and Middle Adulthood. Journal of Family Issues (Online First), 1–12. DOI: 10.1177/0192513X20985566
  • Despite the important role of adult parent–child and sibling relations in the family system, only few studies have investigated yet, how the common adult experience of parental death impacts sibling relations. Estimating fixed-effects regression models using four waves of data from the German Family Panel (pairfam; n = 4,123 respondents), the present note focused on changes in three dimensions of adult siblings’ relationship qualities following the first parent’s death. Our analysis revealed a short-term positive effect of parental death on sibling contacts as well as longer-lasting increases in emotional closeness and conflicts. Next to an intensification of sibling relations following the first parent’s death, we also detected significant spillover effects from respondents’ relationship with the surviving parent to their sibling relations. Our analysis thus provided evidence for adult parent–child and sibling relations to be “linked in life and death,” underlining the benefits of jointly analyzing intra- and intergenerational family relationships.

  • Hank, Karsten & Anja Steinbach. 2021. The virus changed everything, didn’t it? Couples’ division of housework and childcare before and during the Corona crisis. Journal of Family Research 33.1, 99–114. DOI: 10.20377/jfr-488
  • Objective: To contribute to the discussion about the potential impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on gender (in)equality.

    Background:  We focus on a core aspect of gender (in)equality in intimate relationships, namely couples’ division of housework and childcare, and whether this has changed during the Corona crisis.

    Method: Our descriptive analysis is based on pre-release data from the German Family Panel (pairfam; Wave 12) and its supplementary Corona web-survey (n=3,108).

    Results: We observe no fundamental changes in established aggregate-level patterns of couples’ division of labor, but some shift towards the extremes ('traditional' and 'role reversal') of the distribution. Regarding changes within couples, there is an almost equal split between those in which the female partner’s share in housework and childcare increased and those in which it decreased. Particularly in previously more egalitarian arrangements, a substantial proportion of women is now more likely to be primarily responsible for everything. If male partners increased their relative contribution to housework and childcare, they rarely moved beyond the threshold of an equal split. Changes in employment hours were associated with adaptations of men's, but not women's, relative contribution to domestic and family responsibilities.

    Conclusion: Our findings neither support the notion of a 'patriarchal pandemic', nor do they indicate that the Corona crisis might have fostered macro-level trends of gender convergence. We rather observe heterogeneous responses of couples to the 'Corona shock'.

  • Hiekel, Nicole & Mine Kühn. 2021. Mental health before and during the COVID-19 pandemic: The role of partnership and parenthood status in growing disparities between types of families. MPIDR Working Paper WP: 2021.013
  • This study set out to investigate mental health inequalities by family type and gender during the COVID-19 pandemic in Germany. We analyzed three dimensions of mental health (i.e., selfreported stress, exhaustion, and loneliness) one year before the pandemic and in spring 2020. First, two-parent families emerge as a vulnerable group, as they experienced the largest increases in levels of stress and exhaustion, converging with those experienced by single parents. Second, a gender gap emerges during this global health crisis, with women, and particularly mothers, carrying the heaviest burdens, and having the greatest mental health declines. The findings presented here underline the empirical and substantive value of studying mental health inequality from a multidimensional perspective and over time. Based on these findings, we urge policy-makers to consider more seriously the disproportionate burdens that members of families, and women in particular, have been carrying due to the pandemic, both directly and indirectly.

  • Huss, Björn. 2021. Well-Being Before and After Pregnancy Termination: The Consequences of Abortion and Miscarriage on Satisfaction with Various Domains of Life. Journal of Happiness Studies (Online First). DOI: 10.1007/s10902-020-00350-5
  • The consequences of pregnancy outcomes other than live birth on subjective well-being have rarely been analysed in research to date. This study examines pre-event determinants as well as the temporary and long-term effects of induced abortion and miscarriage (spontaneous abortion) on satisfaction with various domains of life. The data were derived from the German Panel Analysis of Intimate Relationships and Family Dynamics (pairfam). The longitudinal sample consists of 5331 women of reproductive age, of whom 214 women had an induced abortion, 331 women had a miscarriage, and 1156 women had a live birth during the observation period. First, pre-event measures of women who had an induced abortion and women who had a miscarriage were compared with the pre-event measures of those women who gave birth. Second, fixed effects models were used to examine whether overall or domain-specific life satisfaction changed following a pregnancy termination. The results show that pregnancies resulting in abortion or miscarriage were less frequently preceded by pregnancy intentions compared to those resulting in live birth, and that induced abortion—but not miscarriage—was furthermore accompanied by lower pre-event satisfaction than live birth. Following both miscarriage and induced abortion, women experienced temporary declines in overall life satisfaction and showed persistently lower satisfaction in several domains of life. With regard to induced abortion, pre-event measures were a better predictor of overall well-being than the consequences of the event itself. Low life satisfaction might therefore be a risk factor for having an abortion rather than a result.

  • Jessen, Jonas, Katharina C. Spiess, Sevrin Waights & Katharina Wrohlich.2021. Sharing the Caring? The Gender Division of Care Work during the COVID-19 Pandemic in Germany. IZA Institute of Labor EconomicsDP: 14457
  • The COVID-19 pandemic and related closures of daycare centers and schools significantly increased the amount of care work done by parents. There is much speculation over whether the pandemic increased or decreased gender equality in parental care work. Based on representative data for Germany we present an empirical analysis that shows greater support for the latter rather than the former hypothesis. A key finding is that there is a significant increase in the number of couples where the mother is left completely or almost completely alone with the care work. We see only small increases in the prevalence of fathers doing more than mothers or in splitting these tasks 50:50. Additionally we find that the increase in mothers solely responsible for care work is greatest when the mother alone works from home. The division of care work is perceived very differently by mothers and fathers, a difference that also increased during the pandemic.

  • Johnson, Matthew D., Franz J. Neyer & Christine Finn. 2021. Subjective Well-Being Across Partnerships. Journal of Family Psychology 35.4: 546–551. DOI: 10.1037/fam0000793
  • Drawing on data gathered from 554 focal participants in the German Family Panel (pairfam) study surveyed at 4 time points spanning 2 intimate unions, this brief report investigated changes in 3 indicators of subjective well-being (life satisfaction, depressive symptoms, and self-esteem) across partnerships. Latent change score–modeling results showed no mean-level changes in life satisfaction or self-esteem from Time 1 in Partnership 1 to Time 2 of Partnership 2 and a slight increase in depressive symptoms across partnerships. This overall stability in subjective well-being was evident despite a series of changes in the interim period: Subjective well-being worsened as the end of Partnership 1 approached, improved after the initiation of Partnership 2, and leveled off as Partnership 2 progressed. Being female predicted worse initial subjective well-being at the outset of the study, a greater decrease in well-being as participants approached the end of Partnership 1, and an overall reduction in self-esteem and increase in depression symptoms across partnerships. Being older, married in Partnership 1, and having a longer duration first partnership predicted worse initial well-being, a steeper decrease in life satisfaction as Partnership 1 drew to a close, and older participants had lower life satisfaction across unions. These findings add to a growing literature documenting the remarkable stability of individual and relational functioning across time while also highlighting those most at risk of reduced subjective well-being across partnerships.

  • Johnson, Matthew D., Justin A. Lavner, Marcus Mund, Martina Zemp, Scott M. Stanley, Franz J. Neyer, Emily A. Impett, Galena K. Rhoades, Guy Bodenmann, Rebekka Weidmann, Janina Larissa Bühler, Robert Philip Burriss, Jenna Wünsche & Alexander Grob. 2021. Within-Couple Associations Between Communication and Relationship Satisfaction Over Time.Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin (Online-First). DOI: 10.1177/01461672211016920
  • Relationship science contends that the quality of couples’ communication predicts relationship satisfaction over time. Most studies testing these links have examined between-person associations, yet couple dynamics are also theorized at the withinperson level: For a given couple, worsened communication is presumed to predict deteriorations in future relationship satisfaction. We examined within-couple associations between satisfaction and communication in three longitudinal studies. Across studies, there were some lagged within-person links between deviations in negative communication to future changes in satisfaction (and vice versa). But the most robust finding was for concurrent within-person associations between negative communication and satisfaction: At times when couples experienced less negative communication than usual, they were also more satisfied with their relationship than was typical. Positive communication was rarely associated with relationship satisfaction at the within-person level. These findings indicate that within-person changes in negative communication primarily covary with, rather than predict, relationship satisfaction.

  • Johnson, Matthew D., Karsten Hank & Jennifer Yurkiw. 2021. Longitudinal Associations Between Adult Relations with Intimate Partners and Siblings. Journal of Marriage and Family 83.2, 551-562. DOI: 10.1111/jomf.12710
  • Objective: Drawing on a relational developmental systems approach, this brief report examines spillover and compensation processes in self‐disclosure and conflict in adult relations with intimate partners and siblings.

    Background: Although some studies have examined links between sibling and partner relationships during adolescence, no research has examined the link between dynamics with siblings and intimate partners in adulthood.

    Method: This study draws on longitudinal survey data from 1,709 individuals participating in the German Family Panel (pairfam) study and latent change score modeling to answer the research questions.

    Results: Several associations supported the spillover hypothesis: those with more self‐disclosure or conflict with their partner also tended to report more self‐disclosure or conflict with their sibling at baseline and those who experienced intraindividual reductions in self‐disclosure and conflict in one relationship over time also experienced concurrent intraindividual reductions in self‐disclosure and conflict in the other relationship. Those with higher initial levels of conflict with their partner also experienced a more gradual decrease in sibling conflicts across time. Two findings provided evidence of compensatory processes: those who reported more frequent conflicts with their partner at baseline also reported higher concurrent self‐disclosure with their sibling and those experiencing increased conflict with a partner experienced steeper declines in future sibling conflict.

    Conclusion: These findings underscore the importance of considering spillover and compensation in adult relationships with siblings and intimate partners.

  • Kislev, Elyakim. 2021. Reduced relationship desire is associated with better life satisfaction for singles in Germany: An analysis of pairfam data. Journal of Social and Personal Relationships 38.7, 2703–2083 DOI: 10.1177/02654075211005024
  • This research estimates the extent to which life satisfaction of singles is influenced by their desire to be single. Regression analyses on data from the Panel Analysis of Intimate Relationships and Family Dynamics (pairfam) studies are used to investigate this question, paying particular attention to longitudinal differences between never-married and divorced/separated men and women. Panel data analyses between different waves of the pairfam data indicate that decreases in desires for a relationship are significantly associated with greater life satisfaction. These patterns hold for all but one of the demographic groups investigated (divorced/separated men). The results are used to suggest how many singles may be able to maintain high levels of life satisfaction in the face of social stigmata.

  • Krapf, Sandra, Clara H. Mulder & Michael Wagner. 2021. The Transition to a Coresidential Partnership: Who Moves and Who Has the Partner Move In? Population Research and Policy Review (Online First). DOI: 10.1007/s11113-021-09665-4
  • Moving into a joint household is an important step in the process of union formation. While a growing body of literature investigates differences between those couples who start coresidence and those who do not, we know little about the likelihood of moving upon the start of coresidence. The aim of this paper is to investigate how individual and couple-level characteristics are associated with moving, or having a partner move in, at the start of coresidence. We use data from 10 waves of the German Family Panel pairfam for those who started coresidence (n = 983) and estimate logistic regression models of moving versus having a partner move in. The respondents in the sample are quite young with a mean age of 27. For long-distance relationships, those with a higher level of education than their partner and women who were living in close proximity to their parents were less likely to move. In short-distance relationships, respondents living in the parental home or in crowded housing were more likely to move than those living in uncrowded housing. In contrast with previous research, we did not find that women were more likely to move than men. Our results highlight that factors like educational resources, housing demands, and local family ties have differential effects on moving decisions at the start of coresidence depending on the distance moved.

  • Kreuzer, Marianne & Mario Gollwitzer. 2021. Neuroticism and satisfaction in romantic relationships: A systematic investigation of intra- and interpersonal processes with a longitudinal approach. European Journal of Personality 12.1. DOI: 10.1177/08902070211001258
  • Relationship satisfaction—the degree to which a close relationship is perceived as rewarding and satisfying by both partners—is reliably predicted by both partners’ neuroticism, but the psychological mechanisms underlying this effect are not sufficiently well understood. By analyzing several cognitive, emotional, and behavioral processes simultaneously, the current longitudinal study looked at how both partners’ neuroticism affects their respective (and mutual) relationship satisfaction both on an intra- and on an interpersonal level. Dyadic data from 2090 heterosexual couples from the “Pairfam” study were analyzed with Actor-Partner Interdependence Mediation Models (APIMeM). Results support the assumption that neuroticism reliably predicts cognitive, emotional, and behavioral variables, which, in turn, predict both partners’ relationship satisfaction. Importantly, cognitive processes play a particularly important role both on an interpersonal as well as on an intrapersonal level. These findings help to shed light on the maladaptive cognitive, emotional, and behavioral processes underlying the effect of neuroticism on relationship satisfaction.

  • Köppen, Katja, Heike Trappe & Christian Schmitt. 2021. Who can take advantage of medically assisted reproduction in Germany? Reproductive Biomedicine & Society Online (Online First). DOI: 10.1016/j.rbms.2021.05.002.
  • Compared with other European societies, access to medically assisted reproduction (MAR) in Germany is rather restrictive. Surprisingly little is known about the actual utilization of MAR in Germany and its social selectivity, primarily due to a lack of appropriate data. This article studies the use of MAR by drawing on 11 waves of the German Family Panel (pairfam), an annual survey that collects data on partnership and family dynamics in Germany. In estimating pooled logistic regression models that take into account whether or not MAR has been used, the following treatments were included: (i) in-vitro fertilization or micro-fertilization; (ii) intrauterine insemination; and (iii) any type of surgery performed to treat infertility. The highest odds of seeking medical help for infertility were found among married, childless couples who had a higher income, a strong desire to have children, a poor self-assessed health status, and who reported having problems conceiving a child prior to the year of the interview. Among these married couples, those with an above-average income were particularly likely to use MAR. These findings indicate that social selectivity in the uptake of MAR is based on economic resources and on the importance of marriage as the cultural ideal for a ‘normal family’.

  • Kuhnt, Anne-Kristin, Lara Minkus & Petra Buhr. 2021. Uncertainty in fertility intentions from a life course perspective: Which life course markers matter? Journal of Family Research 33.1, 184–208. DOI: 10.20377/jfr-426
  • Objective: The aim of this study is to extend our knowledge about uncertainty in fertility intentions from a life course perspective. We want to find out if life course markers such as economic circumstances, relationship status, family size, and the so-called “biological clock” (getting older) influence uncertainty in fertility intentions. Uncertainty in fertility intentions is the state in which individuals are not sure whether they will have (more) children.

    Background: Determining what drives uncertainty in fertility intentions may lead to a better understanding of fertility decision-making and its outcomes.

    Method: We use German panel data (German Family Panel, pairfam) for three birth cohorts (1971-73, 1981-83, 1991-93), and employ multinomial fixed-effects logit models as well as bivariate analyses based on waves 1 to 11.

    Results: Uncertainty in fertility intentions is volatile across an individual’s life course, serving as a transitional phase between certainly intending and not intending to have any (more) children. Approaching the end of the reproductive life span (getting older), separating from a partner, having two or more children, and, for men, subjective economic fears increase the odds of being uncertain.

    Conclusion: By showing that uncertainty in fertility intentions is a volatile concept and that relevant life course markers shape this volatility, we provide new insights into the process of fertility decision-making.

  • Lim, HanNa & Preston Morgan. 2021. Financial Integration and Financial Conflict: Does Less Financial Integration Relate to Increased Financial Conflict Between Romantic Partners? Journal of Family and Economic Issues 42,184–208. DOI: 10.1007/s10834-020-09703-x
  • This study examined the association between romantic partner’s financial integration and financial conflict. Using the data from 2016 to 2017 wave of German Panel Analysis of Family Dynamics and Intimate Relationships (Pairfam), this study found that partners who were less financially integrated reported more financial conflicts. This study further explored how non-traditional aspects of couple relationship moderate the association between couple’s financial integration and financial conflicts. Dual-earner partnership and reciprocity orientation moderated the association between having a separate bank account and the frequency of financial conflicts. However, younger birth cohort and cohabitation failed to moderate this association. These findings provide insights to researchers and practitioners that the meaning of pooling resources can be different across partners when they show non-traditional aspects toward relationships.

  • Min, Joohong, Matthew D. Johnson, Jared R. Anderson & Jennifer Yurkiw. 2021. Support exchanges between adult children and their parents across life transitions. Journal of Marriage and Family. (Online First). DOI: 10.1111/jomf.12787.
  • Objective
    This study examined whether adult children's transitions to marriage, parenthood, and divorce were related to intergenerational support exchanges.
    Intergenerational support fluctuates over the life span, often in response to major transitions, but surprisingly little research has examined longitudinally how life transitions shape the bidirectional flow of intergenerational support.
    Method Using data from adult children who participated in Waves 2, 4, 6, and 8 of the German Family Panel (pairfam) study, we estimated fixed effect models to explore how marital and parenthood transitions of adult children predict support exchanges between adult children and their parents (n = 5245 adult children's report of support exchanges with their mother and n = 4604 with their father; total 14,359 and 12,147 observations).
    Getting married was associated with adult children receiving less emotional support from mothers, while providing less instrumental support to their parents. Becoming a mother was associated with receiving more instrumental support from parents and receiving less material/financial support among adult children closer to their parents. When adult children became a parent, emotional and instrumental provision to mothers decreased. Getting divorced was associated with adult children receiving more emotional and material support from parents, but findings varied based on child gender and closeness with parents.
    Adult children's life transitions influence patterns of support exchanged with their parents differentially based on parent–child gender composition and intergenerational closeness.

  • Morgan, Preston, HanNa Lim & Michelle Washburn-Busk. 2021. Financial stress and financial management roles: Trajectories of couples' financial disagreements. Personal Relationships (Online First). DOI: 10.1111/pere.12393.
  • Using the family stress model and marital bargaining theory, we aimed to investigate how financial stress and financial management roles are associated with both partners' (men's and women's) initial levels and rates of changes in financial disagreements over time. To test this, we used dyadic latent growth curve analyses obtained from 2158 German heterosexual couples over four waves or a 6-year time span from the Panel Analysis of Intimate Relationships and Family Dynamics dataset. Financial stress and discrepant or unclear financial management roles were associated with higher initial financial disagreements in both partners. Only discrepant financial management roles were associated with lesser declines in women's financial disagreement trajectories. Additionally, in the context of greater financial stress, discrepant financial roles were associated with ever higher initial financial disagreements in women. Practitioners working with couples in financial distress should consider exploring the couple's level of financial stress as well as specialized and discrepant views on financial role division.

  • Morgan, Preston C., Michelle Washburn-Busk, Hunter M. Stanfield & Jared A. Durtschi. 2021. The Role of Leisure Activities on Partnered Men’s and Women’s Types of Depressive Symptoms Over Time. Marriage & Family Review (Online First).  DOI: 10.1080/01494929.2021.1902454
  • Leisure activities may mitigate depressive symptoms, but it is unclear in what way leisure activities may be linked with depressive symptoms in partnered men and women. Using 1,156 heterosexual German couples from the Panel Analysis of Intimate Relationships and Family Dynamics (Pairfam) study and a Family Systems theoretical framework, this study tested separate growth mixture models of partnered men’s and women’s depressive symptom trajectories. The results supported three types of depressive symptom trajectories for both men and women: a low-stable type, moderate-increasing type, and moderate-decreasing type. Results revealed that the more time partnered men and women spent with friends was associated with increases in depressive symptoms trajectories in the moderate-increasing types, but decreases in depressive symptom trajectories in the moderate-decreasing types. These findings provide a better understanding of the link between leisure activities and partnered men’s and women’s depressive symptoms over time. We suggest therapists explore in greater depth the effects of leisure activities on clients as certain leisure activities could be helpful or unhelpful depending on the type of depressive symptoms and gender.

  • Mund, Marcus & Matthew D. Johnson. 2021. Lonely Me, Lonely You: Loneliness and the Longitudinal Course of Relationship Satisfaction. Journal of Happiness Studies 22, 575–597. DOI: 10.1007/s10902-020-00241-9
  • Individuals feel lonely when they perceive a discrepancy between the amount of closeness and intimacy in social relationships they desire and what they actually experience. Across several studies, partner relationships have consistently been found to be the most powerful protective factor against loneliness. Previous research on this topic, however, has exclusively focused on loneliness as a concomitant or outcome of low relationship quality, but not as a predictor in its own right, which is surprising given the trait-like features of loneliness. In the present study, we investigated the role of loneliness in predicting later levels and the development of relationship satisfaction over a period of 8 years in a heterogeneous sample of 2337 stable couples drawn from the German Family Panel. By applying Actor–Partner Interdependence Models and dyadic response surface analyses, we found that loneliness evinced substantial negative actor and partner effects on relationship satisfaction and its development over 8 years. Furthermore, we found that women were most satisfied with their relationships when both partners scored low on loneliness, whereas men were most satisfied when their own loneliness was low, irrespective of their partners’ loneliness. Congruently low levels of loneliness between women and men as well as declines in loneliness of at least one partner were additionally associated with increases in relationship satisfaction over time.

  • Müller, Bettina & Claudia Schmiedeberg. 2021. Do respondents get used to answering sensitive questions? Public Opinion Quarterly 19, 71. DOI: 10.1093/poq/nfaa041
  • Issues associated with collecting data on sensitive topics are widely studied in survey research. Respondents’ reactions to sensitive questions have rarely been addressed from a longitudinal perspective, however, despite panel surveys representing a fundamental data source for social research. This article evaluates whether respondents’ acceptance of sensitive questions increases with repeated interviewing in a panel survey. Drawing on data from the German Family Panel (pairfam), we apply fixed-effects regression models to assess within-respondent changes in refusal to items on sexuality and fertility. The analysis reveals that refusal attenuates for some, but not all questions under study and increases for other items over time, with patterns varying across age groups. We conclude that a general beneficial effect of panel experience on the refusal to answer questions regarding sexuality and fertility does not exist. Rather, refusal patterns appear to stem from aging processes and specific life situations.

  • Nauck, Bernhard & Qiang Ren. 2021. Coresidence with kin and subjective well-being in the transition to adulthood: A comparison of the United States, Germany, Japan and China. Chinese Journal of Sociology 7.1, 22–47. DOI: 10.1177/2057150X20984864
  • Although residence patterns during the transition to adulthood are dynamic and have a high influence on subjective well-being, empirical studies are scarce, especially with regard to international comparisons. The way living arrangements during the transition to adulthood are normatively framed in bilinear, neolocal kinship cultures is very different from the way they are framed in patrilineal, patrilocal cultures. Thus, living arrangements such as living alone, living with parents and especially living with in-laws should correspond to varying levels of well-being depending on the culture. Based on panel data (National Longitudinal Survey of Youth – NLSY97, German Panel Analysis of Intimate Relationships and Family Dynamics, Japanese Life Course Panel Survey and China Family Panel Studies), we analyzed the levels of subjective well-being of young adults aged 20–35 in households of varying family composition across cultures and over time. Differences between patrilineal, patrilocal kinship systems in Japan and China and bilineal, neolocal kinship systems in Germany and the United States became evident in lower levels of subjective well-being of young adults in China and Japan than in Germany and the United States, when living alone or in single-parent families. Germany and the United States were similar in their strong gender differences in subjective well-being, with young women showing a much lower level than men, but differed with regard to the variation by coresidence type, which was higher in the United States than in Germany. Gender differences in Japan and China were related to living in extended households, which resulted in very low levels of subjective well-being for young women, whereas the impact was small in China. Despite the differences in kinship systems, institutional regulations, and opportunity structures, living in a nuclear family of procreation was associated with the highest level of subjective well-being for young men and women in all four countries.

  • Park, Yoobin, Emily A. Impett, Geoff MacDonald. 2021. Generalizability of Results From Dyadic Data: Participation of One Versus Two Members of a Romantic Couple Is Associated With Breakup Likelihood. Personality & social psychology bulletin 47.2, 232-240. DOI:10.1177/0146167220920167
  • With a growing body of relationship research relying on dyadic data (i.e., in which both members of a couple are participants), researchers have raised questions about whether such samples are representative of the population or unique in important ways. In this research, we used two large data sets (Study 1: n = 5,118; Study 2: n = 5,194) that included participants with and without a romantic partner participating to examine if co-participation status has substantive relationship implications. Results showed that co-participation status predicted breakup even after controlling for other known predictors such as satisfaction, although the effect weakened over time (Study 2). There was also tentative evidence that factors such as conflict may be differentially related to breakup among couples in which one versus both partners participated. These findings raise caution in interpreting effects found in dyadic studies and highlight the need to be mindful of potential bias in recruitment.

  • Park, Yoobin, Emily A. Impett & Geoff MacDonald. 2021. Singles’ Sexual Satisfaction is Associated With More Satisfaction With Singlehood and Less Interest in Marriage. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin 47.5,741-752. DOI: 10.1177/0146167220942361
  • Despite the worldwide increase in single-person households, little research has examined what factors contribute to a satisfying single life. We used three data sets (N = 3,890) to examine how satisfaction with sexual and social aspects of life are linked with single people’s perceptions of marriage and singlehood. Our results suggest that higher sexual satisfaction is associated with less desire to marry (Study 1), stronger beliefs that unmarried people can be happy without marriage (Study 2), and greater satisfaction with singlehood and less desire for a partner (Study 3). All effects in Studies 1 and 3 remained significant controlling for life satisfaction and sexual frequency. Satisfying friendships were associated with variables related to satisfaction with singlehood but not variables related to desire for a partner, whereas no effect was found for satisfaction with family. This study highlights the potential importance of maintaining a satisfying sex life in people’s satisfaction with singlehood.

  • Pettay, Jenni E., Mirkka Danielsbacka, Samuli Helle & Antti O. Tanskanen. 2021. Kin recognition and step-paternal investment: the effect of childhood co-residence duration. SocArXiv. [online unter:]
  • Evolutionarily relevant nepotistic kin investment requires reliable kin detection. Evolutionary scholars have argued that childhood co-residence is one of the most important indirect cues for kinship. While childhood co-residence duration has been found to correlate with kin investment in intragenerational studies (i.e., among siblings), intergenerational investigations considering the association between childhood co-residence duration and kin investment have been scarce. Here, we  investigate  whether  the investment  of biological  and  stepfathers  is  correlated  with childhood co-residence duration. We used data from adolescents and adults (aged 17–19, 27–29, and 37–39 years) from the German Panel Analysis of Intimate Relationships and Family Dynamics (Pairfam), wave 2, collected in 2010–2011. Paternal investment was measured as financial and practical help, emotional support, intimacy, and emotional closeness. We found that while stepfathers invested less than biological fathers, both biological and stepfathers’ investments increased with increased childhood co-residence duration  in  most  measures. Financial help correlated with childhood  co-residence  in  stepfathers  but  not  in  biological fathers  who  helped  financially  more  than  stepfathers  regardless  of  childhood  co-residence duration. Emotional support, intimacy, and emotional closeness were correlated with childhood co-residence in both biological fathers and stepfathers. Practical help did not correlate with co-residence in either father. Thus, our results partially support the hypothesis that childhood co-residence duration serves as a kin detection cue and directs intergenerational altruism.

  • Potarca, Gina. 2021. Online Dating Is Shifting Educational Inequalities in Marriage Formation in Germany. Demography (Online First). DOI: 10.1215/00703370-9420350.
  • Digital technologies govern a large part of our social lives, including the pursuit of a romantic partner. Despite recent inquiries into the social consequences of meeting online, what remains unclear is how the link between education and union formation varies in online versus offline meeting contexts, particularly on the backdrop of growing educational gaps in marriage. Using 2008-2019 pairfam data from Germany (N = 3,561), this study ran a series of Fine-Gray competing risks models to assess how online dating shapes the transition to marriage for partnered adults with nontertiary and tertiary education. Results reveal that irrespective of education, men in online-formed couples had greater chances of marrying than men in couples established offline. Highly educated women who met their partner in nondigital ways were less prone to marry than lower-educated women; for women in couples initiated online, however, the pattern was reversed. The internet dating marriage advantage of well-educated women was partly related to better matching on marriage attitudes and gender ideology. Facing a scarcity of eligible partners offline, high-educated women draw on more abundant online options to select more egalitarian-minded men. This study overall suggests that internet dating fosters an uneven distribution of opportunities for marriage, highlighting the role of digital partner markets in the social demography of union formation.

  • Reim, Julia. 2021. Inanspruchnahme von Beratungs- und sonstigen Unterstützungsangeboten für Eltern und Kinder. DJI Verlag Deutsches Jugendinstitut. München: Deutsches Jugendinstitut e. V. [Online unter:]
  • Richter, Julia & Christine Finn. 2021. Transactions between self-esteem and perceived conflict in romantic relationships: A 5-year longitudinal study. PloS one 16.4, e0248620. DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0248620
  • Self-esteem has been shown to be both predictive of and predicted by characteristics of romantic relationships. While there is an increasing number of studies yielding support for reciprocal influences between self-esteem and perceived conflict in romantic relationships, longitudinal transactions between these constructs from both partners’ perspectives have not been studied systematically to date. Our aim was to close this gap. To that end, we examined the transactional and longitudinal interplay between self-esteem and perceived relationship conflict in continuing romantic couples from a dyadic perspective. Our sample consisted of N = 1,093 young adult female–male relationships from the German Family Panel. Individuals’ self-esteem, perceived conflict frequency, and their perceptions of their partners’ dysfunctional conflict styles (i.e., unconstructive behavior, withdrawal) were examined annually throughout a time span of five years. Based on dyadic bivariate latent change models, we tested our assumption that self-esteem and aspects of perceived relationship conflict are negatively interrelated within individuals and between partners both within and across time. We found one actor effect of self-esteem on changes in unconstructive behavior above and beyond initial unconstructive behavior levels, supporting self-broadcasting perspectives. Moreover, we found strong support for sociometer perspectives. Actor effects highlighted the importance of perceived conflict frequency for subsequent self-esteem changes. In addition, perceived conflict styles affected both partners’ self-esteem. The results imply that perceiving conflict is a between-person process, and might be more important for the development of self-esteem than vice versa.

  • Schmiedeberg, Claudia & Christiane Bozoyan. 2021. Do Economic Hardship and Pressure Really Influence Parenting? European Sociological Review 37.2287–304 DOI: 10.1093/esr/jcaa051
  • Poverty and its effect on parenting in the context of the family stress model have a long tradition in research, but results are rather mixed. Following this theoretical approach, we analyse whether poverty and financial pressure are associated with disrupted parenting. We draw on data from the German Family Panel pairfam and implement both between and within approaches to test whether parenting behaviours are associated with economic hardship and pressure. While basic between-group regressions confirm the link between economic hardship and parenting as predicted by the family stress model, we do not find a significant association of poverty and parenting when including additional confounders or using fixed-effects models. We conclude that rather than the financial situation itself unobserved heterogeneity causes differences in parenting behaviours between better and worse off families, at least in Germany.

  • Schmiedeberg, Claudia & Carolin Thönnissen. 2021. Positive and negative perceptions of the COVID-19 pandemic: Does personality play a role? Social Science & Medicine 276.113859. DOI: 10.1016/j.socscimed.2021.113859
  • Objective: The lockdown measures following the COVID-19 outbreak in early 2020, intended to slow the spread of the virus, forced a sudden and dramatic change to most everyday lives. However, not all individuals may have been affected in the same way. In addition to situational factors such as occupation, family status, and health, personality traits may affect how individuals experienced the initial crisis.

    Methods: Using data from the pairfam COVID-19 survey, an online survey of the participants of the German Family Panel pairfam conducted from May to July 2020, as well as personality data from the pairfam panel data, this study shows that three of the Big Five personality traits – neuroticism, extraversion, and openness to experiences – influence the degree to which young and middle-aged individuals (16 to 49 years old) felt negatively affected by and were able to see any benefits of the initial COVID-19 lockdown in Germany.

    Results: While neuroticism is linked to a more negative perception of the restrictions to daily life, openness to experiences is associated with more positive perceptions of the situation. Like neuroticism, extraversion is also associated with a more negative perception, but only among respondents without a partner. For respondents with a romantic partner, no association was found.

    Conclusion: Results confirm that personality plays a role in individual perceptions of the pandemic situation. Moreover, they show that most individuals perceived not only negative but also positive aspects of the COVID-19 pandemic situation.

  • Schmid, Lisa, Jonathan Wörn, Karsten Hank, Barbara Sawatzki & Sabine Walper. 2021. Changes in employment and relationship satisfaction in times of the COVID-19 pandemic: Evidence from the German family Panel. European Societies 23.sup1, 743–758. DOI: 10.1080/14616696.2020.1836385
  • Families have been hit hard by the COVID-19 pandemic and its associated lockdown, but barely any research has been conducted yet, investigating how COVID-19-related stressors – and, specifically, disruptions in established employment arrangements – affected couples’ relationship quality. To account more comprehensively for such non-monetary costs of the COVID-19 pandemic, the present study investigates whether changes in partners’ employment situation during the COVID-19 crisis – particularly home-office and short-time work – had an immediate impact on the relationship satisfaction of cohabiting married and unmarried couples. To do so, we estimated fixed-effects regression models, exploiting unique data from the German Family Panel (pairfam; wave 11) and its supplementary COVID-19 web-survey. We observed a substantial proportion of respondents experiencing positive (20%) or negative (40%) changes in relationship satisfaction during the crisis. Relationship satisfaction has decreased, on average, for men and women alike, almost irrespective of whether they experienced COVID-19-related changes in their employment situation. While partners’ employment situation hardly moderated the negative association between respondents’ employment and relationship satisfaction, the presence of children seemed to buffer partly against a COVID-19-related decrease. Our results thus confirm previous findings suggesting that the COVID-19 pandemic constitutes a threat to couples’ relationship quality and healthy family functioning more generally.

  • Tanskanen, Antti O. & Mirkka Danielsbacka. 2021. Does Parental Investment Shape Adult Children's Fertility Intentions? Findings From a German Family Panel. Frontiers in sociology . 6, 693119. DOI: 10.3389/fsoc.2021.693119
  • Parents can play an important role in the childbearing plans of adult children. However, studies testing whether changes in parental investment are associated with subsequent changes in fertility intentions over time are lacking. We investigated whether parental investment, measured as contact frequency, emotional closeness, financial support, and childcare, is associated with adult children’s intentions to have a first and a second, or subsequent, child within the next 2 years. These associations were studied in four different parent-adult child dyads based on the sex of parents and adult children (i.e, motherdaughter, mother-son, father-daughter, father-son). The participants are from the German Family Panel, which is a longitudinal survey of younger and middle-aged adults with eight follow-up waves. We exploited within-person (or fixed-effect) regression models, which concentrated an individual’s variation over time (i.e., whether changes in parental investment frequencies are associated with subsequent changes in adult children’s fertility intentions). It was detected that increased emotional closeness between fathers and daughters was associated with increased adult daughter’s intentions to have a first child but father-daughter contact decreased daughter’s intentions to have another child, and maternal financial support decreased son’s intentions to have a first child. Overall, statistically nonsignificant associations outweighed significant ones. Although it is often assumed that parental investment is an important factor influencing the childbearing decisions of adult children, the present findings indicate that parental investment may not increase adult children’s intentions to have a/another child in Germany.
  • Trappe, Heike & Köppen, Katja. 2021. Soziodemografische Ursachen und Folgen des Aufschubs des Erstgebäralters von Frauen. In Reproduktionsmedizin: Zahlen und Fakten für die Beratung, Hrsg. Markus S. Kupka, 95-102. München: Elsevier.
  • Van Damme, Maike, Sandra Krapf & Michael Wagner. 2021. Housing density and its consequences for couples in Germany: staying, moving, or breaking up? Housing Studies, 1–26. DOI: 10.1080/02673037.2021.1961694
  • High housing density has been considered a stressor that is detrimental to couples’ relationships. However, empirical research on this topic has been mixed, which might be due to the fact that not all couples respond to density in the same way. We contribute to the literature by not only considering separation as a potential reaction to density but also moving to a new place. Moreover, we combine insights from different theoretical models to explain how couples react differently to an overcrowded home, depending upon their resources. For our analyses, we use the German Family Panel PAIRFAM (10 waves, 2008/09 to 2017/18) with a sample of N = 4180 couples, of which 484 experience a move and 488 a separation. Applying competing risk models, we find that vulnerable groups such as the poor and the low-educated are significantly more likely than others to separate when in a dense home rather than to stay in the same dwelling.
  • Walper, Sabine, Julia Reim, Annika Schunke, Anne Berngruber & Philipp Alt. 2021. Die Situation Jugendlicher in der Corona-Krise. München: Deutsches Jugendinstitut e. V. [online unter:].
  • Wenzel, Mario, Doris Staab, Zarah Rowland & Manon A. van Scheppingen. 2021. Relationship satisfaction can help to maintain the positive effect of childbirth on parental self-esteem. Social Psychology and Personality Science 12.7, 1358–1368. DOI: 10.1177/1948550620971532
  • Abstract

    The transition to parenthood is accompanied by declined self-esteem levels, which may be explained by parents’ relationship satisfaction. However, prior research examined self-esteem only shortly before and after childbirth and had no or only unmatched childless respondents as a control group, limiting the possibility to examine long-term adaptive processes and the causal interpretation of the associations. Thus, we used panel data (10 years, 4,075 individuals, and 16,122 observations) to compare self-esteem and relationship satisfaction trajectories of parents with matched childless respondents using propensity score matching. We found a quadratic trajectory for parents’ self-esteem, which declined and increased before birth and declined and returned to baseline levels after birth. In contrast, matched childless respondents’ self-esteem decreased linearly before childbirth and then recovered. The quadratic postpartum process in parents was significantly associated with reduced relationship satisfaction. Thus, a fulfilling relationship may help to maintain the positive effects of childbirth on self-esteem in parents.

  • Yucel, Deniz & Beth A. Latshaw. 2021. How Do Mothers’ and Fathers’ Work–Family Conflict Impact Children’s Problem Behaviors? Journal of Family Issues 42.3, 571-98. DOI: 10.1177/0192513X20926209
  • Using 509 mother/father–child dyads drawn from Wave 8 of The German Family Panel (pairfam), this study examines the direct effects of mothers’ and fathers’ work–family conflict (WFC) on children’s internalizing (emotional) and externalizing (conduct) problem behaviors. We also test whether these effects are moderated by several child characteristics and family characteristics. Results suggest that both mothers’ and fathers’ WFC are associated with greater emotional problems, whereas only mothers’ WFC is associated with greater conduct problems. The detrimental effect of fathers’ (mothers’) WFC on emotional problems is stronger for older children and girls (households with a preschool-aged child and boys). While there is no direct effect of fathers’ WFC on conduct problems, results show that the detrimental effect of mothers’ WFC on conduct problems is stronger for boys, as well as in households with more children and those with a preschool-aged child.

  • Yurkiw, Jennifer & Matthew D. Johnson. 2021. Perceived Stress, supportive dyadic coping, and sexual communication in couples. Journal of Social and Personal Relationships 38.5, 1729–1737. DOI: 10.1177/0265407521996446
  • This study investigated associations between perceived stress and sexual communication, considering supportive dyadic coping as a potential mediator and whether being male or female moderated associations. Data from 2,529 couples from Wave 5 of the German Family Panel (pairfam) were used in the analyses. Structural equation modeling results showed higher levels of stress were linked with lower levels of dyadic coping and higher levels of dyadic coping were associated with higher levels of sexual communication. There was no direct association between stress and sexual communication, but there was an indirect relationship between higher levels of perceived stress and less sexual communication via supportive dyadic coping. Sex did not moderate these associations. These results highlight supportive dyadic coping as an important protective factor against the effects of perceived stress on sexual communication and call for further investigation of how couples can maintain a healthy sex life in the face of stress.

  • Zimmermann, Okka. 2021. Is Early Partnership Formation Instrumental for Fertility in Germany? Influences of Fertility Orientations on Partnership Transitions. Comparative Population Studies 46, 3-34. DOI:10.12765/CPoS-2021-01
  • Using panel data from childless respondents of the German Family Panel (pairfam, n=3,802 respondents), this paper investigates whether fertility orientations (biographical orientations with respect to fertility) influence the risk of different partnership transitions among German men and women over the age of 18 (for n=14,572 observation periods between two panel waves). Significant influences are found for both gender and partnership transition types, and are generally stronger among men than women and for the transition to a coresidential as opposed to a romantic partnership. Uncertainty about anticipated fertility has a stronger negative impact on transition risks among men than among women. Results strongly suggest that the early stages of the partnership formation process are instrumental in terms of future fertility in Germany, at least to some degree. This indicates that a more comprehensive conceptualisation and analysis of fertility within the life course paradigm (as suggested by Huinink/Kohli 2014) should consider the impacts of fertility orientations on life course events in other dimensions, especially among men. Viewed more broadly, the results also underline two factors: the role of agency in coordinating life course dimensions in time and space in order to maximise individual welfare; and the importance of considering the impacts that anticipation of future life course events will have, as suggested by different theoretical approaches.

  • Zoch, Gundula. 2021. Thirty Years after the Fall of the Berlin Wall—Do East and West Germans Still Differ in Their Attitudes to Female Employment and the Division of Housework? European Sociological Review (Online First). DOI:10.1093/esr/jcab002
  • Previous cross-sectional studies highlight persistent East–West differences in gender ideologies after German reunification. This study examines the extent to which gender ideologies in the East and West have converged and whether differences are still relevant for younger cohorts who experienced childhood around the time of reunification, or after 1989. Using data from the German Family Panel pairfam (2008–2019) and differences in regime-specific socialization for three cohorts born before and after reunification, results reveal that different dimensions of gender ideologies have only partly converged 30 years after reunification. Attitudes towards housework and female employment converged particularly, yet, in all cohorts, views on maternal employment remain substantially different between East and West. Observed convergence occurred only partly due to contrasting trends of modernization in West Germany and re-traditionalization in East Germany. Moreover, the results highlight smaller attitude changes with increasing age, particularly for the younger cohorts, contributing to further variations in East–West differences. Overall, the findings confirm the existence of long-lasting ideology differences due to regime-specific socialization, and a persistently altered composition of society in East and West Germany. At the same time, they point towards slow convergence among younger cohorts due to a more similar institutional and socialization context following reunification.


  • Adams, Ayhan, Katrin Golsch & Kai-Olaf Maiwald. 2020. Solidarity in Couple Relationships – A Mixed Methods Approach. Zeitschrift für Soziologie 49.2-3: 164–182. DOI: 10.1515/zfsoz-2020-0016
  • In family research, there have not yet been many attempts to grasp theoretically and empirically solidarity in couple relationships, a gap that this study addresses combining qualitative and quantitative strategies. One purpose of this article is to develop a theoretical frame­work to understand solidarity as an overarching structural element of cooperation in couples. We then propose, in the best possible way, a measurement of solidarity to be used in quantitative analysis. To this end, data from the German Family Panel (pairfam, waves 2008–2017) are used in a longitudinal design. We offer an empirical test of our measurement by employing autoregressive cross-lagged analyses with random intercepts (n = 2,588 couples) and establish the cause-and-effect relationship between solidarity and one important dimension of relationship quality, i. e. relationship satisfaction. The results of this analysis lend support to our assumption that couples cooperate on a basic rule of solidarity, having a unidirec­tional influence on relationship quality.

  • Augustijn, Lara. 2020. The intergenerational transmission of self-esteem. Zeitschrift für Soziologie der Erziehung und Sozialisation 40.4, 296–311. DOI: 10.3262/ZSE2004296
  • Although self-esteem is of great importance for physical and mental health, no previous empirical study has investigated the potential relationship between parents’ and children’s self-esteem. To close this research gap, the present study examined the intergenerational transmission of self-esteem between parents and their children, while taking into account the mediating role of parents’ use of negative communication and potential differences between same-sex and opposite-sex parent-child dyads. Based on data from the eighth and ninth waves of the German Family Panel (pairfam), multilevel linear regression models were estimated for an analytical sample consisting of 1,121 children between the ages of nine and 16 and their parents. The results of the statistical analysis indicated that parents’ selfesteem was only moderately related to self-esteem in their children. Furthermore, the results suggested that negative parent-child communication partially mediated the relationship, leading to lower levels of self-esteem in the younger generation. However, no significant differences in the intergenerational transmission of selfesteem could be found between same-sex and opposite-sex parent-child dyads.

  • Borgmann, Lea-Sophie, Petra Rattay & Thomas Lampert. 2020. Longitudinal Analysis of Work-to-Family Conflict and Self-Reported General Health among Working Parents in Germany. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health 17.11. DOI: 10.3390/ijerph17113966
  • The combination of work and family roles can lead to work-to-family conflict (WTFC), which may have consequences for the parents’ health. We examined the association between WTFC and self-reported general health among working parents in Germany over time. Data were drawn from wave 6 (2013) and wave 8 (2015) of the German family and relationship panel. It included working persons living together with at least one child in the household (791 mothers and 723 fathers). Using logistic regressions, we estimated the longitudinal effects of WTFC in wave 6 and 8 on self-reported general health in wave 8. Moderating effects of education were also considered. The odds ratio for poor self-reported general health for mothers who developed WTFC in wave 8 compared to mothers who never reported conflicts was 2.4 (95% CI: 1.54–3.68). For fathers with newly emerged WTFC in wave 8, the odds ratio was 1.8 (95% CI: 1.03–3.04). Interactions of WTFC with low education showed no significant effects on self-reported general health, although tendencies show that fathers with lower education are more affected. It remains to be discussed how health-related consequences of WTFC can be reduced e.g., through workplace interventions and reconciliation policies.

  • Borowsky, Christine, Sonja Drobnič & Michael Feldhaus. 2020. Parental commuting and child well-being in Germany. Journal of Family Research 32.2, 357–392 . DOI: 10.20377/jfr-370
  • The number of people commuting to work is increasing, including those who spend at least two hours travelling to and from work per day. In Germany, the group of these long-distance commuters comprises about 1.6 million people. To date, there has been little research on the possible consequences of long commuting times for family life and commuters’ children. On the basis of a pooled data set from the German Family Panel pairfam, we examine the relationship between parental commuting, the parent-child relationship and child well-being, both from the parent’s as well as the child’s perspective while also distinguishing between mothers and fathers. Some results indicate that long-distance commuting is associated with a poorer parent-child relationship and ultimately with lower child well-being. However, the association is rather sporadic and substantively weak.

  • Bozoyan, Christiane & Claudia Schmiedeberg. 2020. Zufriedenheit in der Partnerschaft und Untreue: Ein Zusammenhang, zwei Richtungen. KZfSS Kölner Zeitschrift für Soziologie und Sozialpsychologie 72, 1–31. DOI: 0.1007/s11577-020-00660-9
  • Wie hängen untreues Verhalten in einer Beziehung und die Zufriedenheit mit der Partnerschaft zusammen? Plausibel erscheint zunächst der Einfluss der Beziehungsqualität auf das Treueverhalten: Je unzufriedener ein Partner in einer Beziehung ist, desto eher sucht er oder sie Außenbeziehungen. Dies schließt jedoch nicht aus, dass sich die Partnerschaftsqualität oder deren Einschätzung nach der Untreueepisode aus Perspektive des Täters oder der Täterin ebenfalls verändern kann, z. B. aufgrund von durch die Untreue ausgelösten Konflikten und Ehekrisen oder um Gefühle kognitiver Dissonanz zu reduzieren. Anhand von Fixed-effects-Modellen auf Basis der Daten des Beziehungs- und Familienpanels pairfam über den Beobachtungszeitraum 2008 bis 2016 untersuchen wir beide möglichen Wirkrichtungen im Längsschnitt mit 1‑ und 2‑jährigem Abstand zwischen den Messzeitpunkten. Es zeigt sich, dass Wechselwirkungen zwischen den beiden Faktoren bestehen, wobei die Auswirkungen von Untreue auf die Beziehungszufriedenheit bei Frauen größer sind als bei Männern. Während der Zusammenhang von Beziehungszufriedenheit und Untreuerisiko eher gering ist, zeigt sich, dass das Risiko fremdzugehen deutlich ansteigt, wenn die Langzeitorientierung in der Beziehung sinkt.

  • Brömmelhaus, Ana, Michael Feldhaus & Monika Schlegel. 2020. Family, Work, and Spatial Mobility: The Influence of Commuting on the Subjective Well-Being of Couples. Applied Research Quality Life 15.3: 865–891. DOI: 10.1007/s11482-019-9710-z
  • Previous research shows that commuting is often accompanied by increased stress, exhaustion and less time for partners and children. On the basis of the life course approach and work-life balance theory, we argue that these negative outcomes also influence the dynamics of the social relationships of individuals who live together in the same household. Most research has focused on the commuter, whereas less is known regarding how commuting affects the subjective well-being of other household members, in this case, the partner. Our paper contributes to this research gap by analysing the interdependencies of parents who commute in regard to their overall and domain-specific well-being. We use pooled data from three waves of the German Family Panel, which includes standardised information related to working conditions and job-related mobility as well as family dynamics from both parents’ perspectives. The resulting subsample has N = 2443 dyads in families. Our dyadic analysis shows negative spillover effects of commuting times on all included measures of subjective well-being, but only for mothers. Moreover, there are two crossover effects: a negative crossover effect from mothers commuting on fathers’ satisfaction with family life and a positive crossover effect of fathers commuting on mothers’ satisfaction with social contacts outside the family (i.e. friends). Overall, the findings indicate that mothers own commuting works as a more general burden, whereas fathers seem to suffer more from their partner’s commuting time than vice versa.

  • Castiglioni, Laura. 2020. Zur Inanspruchnahme von Beratungsangeboten: Befunde des pairfam-Panels. Bestandaufnahme Online-Paarberatung. München: Deutsches Jugendinstitut e. V. [online unter:].
  • Danielsbacka, Mirkka, Antti O. Tanskanen & Francesco C. Billari. 2020. Meeting online and family-related outcomes: evidence from three German cohorts. Journal of Family Studies (Online First). DOI: 10.1080/13229400.2020.1835694
  • In recent years, the Internet has become an increasingly important venue for meeting partners. While meeting online may have a range of effects on family-related outcomes, studies on the link between meeting online and family-related outcomes are scarce. Using eight follow-up waves of the German Family Panel (Pairfam), with observations from 8177 persons from three birth cohorts between 2009 and 2016, this study investigates whether meeting online is associated with relationship satisfaction, intention to separate, separation, moving in together, intentions to have a child, and entry into parenthood. More specifically, a series of between-person regressions are used to compare those who met their partners offline and those who met their partners online. Results show that meeting online is associated with likelihood to separate and intentions to have a child in the youngest birth cohort, and transition to parenthood in the oldest birth cohort. These findings are discussed with the concepts of selectivity and intentionality in searching for and meeting partners online.

  • Diederich, Freya, Hans-Helmut König & Christian Brettschneider. 2020. How Politico-Economic Systems Shape Individuals’ Value of Elderly Care: Evidence From the German Reunification. The Gerontologist 60.2, 350–358. DOI: 10.1093/geront/gnz128
  • Background and Objectives

    Perceptions of how societies should care for the elderly people can differ among countries. This study examines to what extent individuals’ value of informal care is shaped by the politico-economic system in which they grew up and if this value adjusts once an individual lives in a different politico-economic system.

    Research Design and Methods

    We use data from the German Family Panel and take advantage of the unique setting of the German separation and reunification. Probit models are used to examine the effect of being born in East Germany on individuals’ value of informal care relative to employment at different birth cohorts and survey waves (N = 14,093). Average marginal effects are calculated.


    Twenty years after reunification, East Germans who spent their adolescence under communism exhibit a higher value of informal care relative to employment than West Germans who grew up in a western social market economy. Differences in values between East and West Germans do not significantly converge over time.

    Discussion and Implications

    Individuals’ value of informal care is deeply shaped by the politico-economic system in which they grew up. If immigration policies are introduced to increase the care for elderly people, differences in individuals’ cultural perceptions of elderly care should be considered as these will not suddenly adjust.

  • Diederich, Freya, Hans-Helmut König & Christian Brettschneider. 2020. The Importance of Cultural Traits in Children’s Willingness to Provide Informal Care to a Parent. Innovation in Aging Volume 4.1, 561–562. DOI: 10.1093/geroni/igaa057.1850
  • The likelihood that a child will provide informal care to a parent varies across countries and between social groups within countries. We highlight the importance of cultural traits in children’s value of informal care and their willingness to provide informal care to a parent. We initially construct a cultural measure of the strength of family ties at the country level using data from the World Values Survey. Then, we use a sample of second-generation immigrants from the German Family Panel (N=1,041) and regress their value of informal care on the strength of family ties that prevails in their parents’ country of origin. Immigrants who have origins in countries with strong family ties are significantly more likely to report a high value of informal care. Finally, we show that children who report a high value of informal care are significantly more likely to provide informal care to a parent in need. Part of a symposium sponsored by the International Aging and Migration Interest Group.

  • Feldhaus, Michael & Monika Schlegel. 2020. Berufsmobilität und das Arrangement der Lebensbereiche in Familien. BIOS 31(1-2018), 150-176. DOI: 10.1037/dev000089
  • Der vorliegende Beitrag untersucht die Auswirkungen berufsbedingter Mobilität auf Familien. Entgegen bisherigen Publikationen wird hierbei explizit nicht der Fokus auf einen Lebensbereich oder eine zentrale abhängige Variable gelegt, sondern den Annahmen der Lebenslauftheorie folgend auf die Interdependenz der Lebensbereiche. Welche Vor- und Nachteile ergeben sich durch diese Perspektiverweiterung und welche typischen Muster lassen sich daraus ableiten? Zur Umsetzung dieser Fragestellung wurden vertiefende qualitative Interviews aus dem Sample des Beziehungs- und Familienpanels durchgeführt und analysiert. Die qualitative Analyse erfolgt in zwei Schritten. Nach einer ersten offenen Kodierung wurde zunächst der qualitative Merkmalsraum berufsbezogener Mobilität in den einzelnen Lebensbereichen erfasst. Darauf aufbauend ließen sich sechs typische Arrangements von familialen Lebensbereichen unterscheiden, die abschließend diskutiert werden. 

  • Finn, Christine, Matthew D. Johnson & Franz J. Neyer. 2020. Happily (n)ever after? Codevelopment of romantic partners in continuing and dissolving unions. Developmental Psychology 56.5, 1022–1028. DOI: 10.1037/dev0000897
  • Do patterns of intimate relationship development foreshadow whether couples’ unions stay together or end in separation? Integrating tenets from the enduring dynamics and emergent distress models of relationship development, we propose an accumulating distress model suggesting that the trajectories of those in dissolving partnerships (i.e., unions that ultimately end) are characterized by higher base levels of distress that increase more rapidly over time compared to those in continuing partnerships. In addition, we propose that this pattern applies to codevelopment between partners: those in dissolving unions are expected to have higher base dissimilarity that increases more rapidly over time compared to continuing couples. We further test whether the proposed patterns of codevelopment are equally apparent in young and middle adult couples. To test this model, we draw on data from 1,965 couples from 2 age groups in the German Family Panel study surveyed annually 7 times. Results support the concept of accumulating distress in the trajectories of relationship satisfaction, commitment, and conflict. For codevelopment, increasing dissimilarity in dissolving couples emerged for connectedness and autonomy in the relationship. In addition, dissolving partners became more similar in their low degree of commitment to the relationship. Age-related analyses broadly replicated the pattern of accumulating distress in young and middle adult couples with few exceptions for young adult women. In sum, in accordance with an accumulating distress concept of relationship codevelopment, our results revealed higher base and increasing levels of distress and dissimilarity across time among partners in dissolving unions compared to continuing couples.

  • Gniewosz, Gabriela & Burkhard Gniewosz. 2020. Psychological Adjustment During Multiple Transitions Between Childhood and Adolescence. The Journal of Early Adolescence 40.4, 566–598. DOI: 10.1177/0272431619858422
  • Based on the temporal framework of transition experiences, this study tested time-graded patterns of family resource effects on children’s and early adolescents’ psychological adjustment during a time of multiple transitions. Using data of a longitudinal study including 2,020 German children covering the age span between 8 and 12 (nboys = 1,035, ngirls = 985), internalizing and externalizing problems were predicted by parent-child relationship and family’s educational background in a multi-group structural equation model, applying time-lagged autoregressive models. The results showed positive resource effects especially through parent-child relationship. The gender-specific effect patterns over time supported the assumption of stronger resource effects when early puberty onset and secondary school transition co-occurred. Thus, it is important to provide support for this vulnerable group during times of multiple transitions.
  • Gummer, Tobias, Claudia Schmiedeberg, Martin Bujard, Pablo Christmann, Karsten Hank, Tanja Kunz, Detlev Lück & Franz J. Neyer. 2020. The impact of COVID-19 on fieldwork efforts and planning in pairfam and FReDA-GGS. Survey Research Methods 14.2: 223–227. DOI: 10.18148/ srm/2020.v14i2.7740
  • The worldwide spread of the COVID-19 pandemic has disrupted the fieldwork of surveys. The data collection efforts via the face-to-face mode have been affected especially, including the ongoing surveys that were in the field during the COVID-19 outbreak and the planned surveys scheduled for fieldwork later in 2020. We provide an account of how COVID-19 has impacted two family studies in Germany: “The German Family Panel” (pairfam) and the “Generations and Gender Survey” (GGS) both of which will be part of the “Family Research and Demographic Analysis” (FReDA) infrastructure. Based on pairfam, we illustrate the effects of the pandemic on ongoing data collection and the measures taken to proceed with fieldwork, and we report on a special COVID-19 survey. Based on FReDA-GGS, we outline how COVID-19 has affected our planned survey schedules, what future challenges are expected when fieldwork becomes possible again, and how we have adapted our plans accordingly.

  • Hämäläinen, Hans, Antti O. Tanskanen, Mirkka Danielsbacka & Bruno Arpino. 2020. Short-term reciprocity between adult children and parents: A within-person investigation of longitudinal data. Advances in Life Course Research 44. DOI: 10.1016/j.alcr.2020.100337
  • Although reciprocity of intergenerational support has been widely considered in family studies, empirical investigations utilizing panel data are still rather scarce. This study used data from four waves of the German Family Panel (pairfam), which were collected in two-year intervals between 2009 and 2016. We examined whether the frequency of received support from parents previously is associated with the frequency of provided support to parents later. Multiple forms of support were considered that may be used as currencies of intergenerational exchange (i.e., one could be exchanged for another): emotional support, practical help, financial aid and personal care. Our analyses used multilevel regression models and investigated both between- and within-person effects. Between-person effects indicated mainly positive associations between different forms of received and provided support. However, these associations were confirmed by only a few of the within-person effects, which examined individuals’ variations over time. According to within-person effects, an increase in the frequency of emotional support that a son received from a parent was positively associated with subsequent provision of financial support for that parent. Additionally, an increase in the frequency of practical help that daughters received from their fathers was positively associated with subsequent provision of financial aid to their fathers. The magnitude of these positive within-person effects was smaller compared to the between-person effects. Within-person effects did not provide further evidence for causal intergenerational reciprocity within the investigated time period.

  • Herzig, Michel. 2020. Mediating Factors of Family Structure and Early Home-leaving: A Replication and Extension of van den Berg, Kalmijn, and Leopold (2018). European Journal of Population 36, 643–674. DOI: 10.1007/s10680-019-09544-x
  • Young adults from non-intact families are more likely to leave the parental home at an early age than are young adults from intact families. While this association is well established in the existing literature, the underling mechanisms remain puzzling. In a recent investigation with prospective data from the SOEP (van den Berg et al. in Eur J Popul 34(5):873–900, 2018., a large share of the effect of family structure on early home-leaving remained unexplained, in particular for stepfamilies. This study draws on longitudinal data from the German Family Panel (pairfam) to replicate and extend the analyses of van den Berg et al. (Eur J Popul 34(5):873–900, 2018. The quality of the stepfather–child relationship, as well as parental monitoring and support, is added to existing analyses. However, an extended assessment of social resources does not seem to substantially help explain the association between family structure and early home-leaving.

  • Hiekel, Nicole  & Michael Wagner. 2020. Individualized Relationship Practices and Union Dissolution: Differences Between Marriage and Cohabitation. European Sociological Review 36.6, 868–885. DOI: 10.1093/esr/jcaa021
  • Emotional disclosure, self-determination and egalitarianism are considered central benefits of individualized relationships. Yet, the body of research linking relationship practices and union stability is sparse. We study the extent to which relationship practices in the spheres of intimacy, autonomy, and democracy affect the risk of union dissolution, comparing marriage and cohabitation. Using longitudinal data from nine waves of the German Pairfam survey, we predict union dissolution of n = 3,650 cohabiting and married women and men. Cohabiters report higher levels of individualized relationship practices compared to the married. Intimacy is the key dimension predicting union stability. Individuals thus exhibit relatively low resilience towards decline in emotional gratification in their couple relationships. Autonomy and democracy are not empirically relevant to predict union stability beyond the extent to which they were connected to levels of intimacy. Differences between cohabitation and marriage were marginal with spouses’ benefits from higher levels of intimacy for union stability being larger compared to cohabiting individuals. Our study contributes to the analytical clarification of the consequences of the changing meaning of intimate relationships in individualized societies, and ultimately, to cultural explanations for increased relationship instability.

  • Hiekel, Nicole & Vidal, Sergi. 2020. Childhood family structure and complexity in partnership life courses. Social Science Research 87: 102–400 DOI: 10.1016/j.ssresearch.2019.102400
  • This study investigated the associations between childhood living arrangements and complex adult partnership trajectories. The authors defined first union dissolution as the event initiating a complex partnership life course, and measured the level of complexity using a weighted cumulative index of subsequent partnership episodes. The analyses were based on a representative sample of the German population born in 1971–73 from the German Family Panel and used multivariate hurdle models to estimate the probability of experiencing the initiation of a complex partnership trajectory, as well as the level of complexity. Results showed that respondents who did not grow up with both biological parents (i.e. those who experienced an alternative family structure) had both a greater likelihood of experiencing the dissolution of their own first union, and followed more complex subsequent partnership trajectories. These associations varied across types of (alternative) family structures experienced during childhood and according to the level of parental partnership (in)stability. This study contributes to our understanding of contemporary partnership complexity and its precursors using a long term life course theoretical and methodological frame. We acknowledge that continuities and disruptions in the development of adult (complex) partnership trajectories can be linked to a growing diversity of family structure in childhood. Thereby, we expand knowledge on intergenerational interdependencies of family instability and complexity beyond the reproduction of the event of union dissolution.

  • Hess, Stephanie & Pollmann-Schult, Matthias. 2020. Associations between Mothers’ Work-Family Conflict and Children’s Psychological Well-being: The Mediating Role of Mothers’ Parenting Behavior. Journal of Child and Family Studies 29, 1561–1571. DOI: 10.1007/s10826-019-01669-1
  • Objectives Work-family conflict (WFC) has severe negative effects on workers’ health and well-being. This study examined whether parents’ WFC also affects the well-being of their children. It was analyzed whether, and to what extent, maternal WFC is associated with child emotional and behavioral problems, and whether this association is mediated by mothers’ use of harsh parenting practices. Methods Using data from two waves of the German Family Panel (pairfam) a total of 1781 children and their employed mothers were analyzed using mediation modeling with pooled OLS regressions. Results The analyses show that children whose mothers experience higher levels of WFC report higher levels of emotional problems, conduct problems, and hyperactivity. The results also indicate that this association is mediated by mothers’ parenting behavior. Conclusions The findings suggest that mothers’ parenting behavior underpins the association between maternal WFC and child behavioral problems: Mothers who experience higher levels of WFC use harsher parenting practices, which negatively affects their children’s well-being.

  • Horne, Rebecca M., Emily A. Impett & Matthew D. Johnson. 2020. Exclude me, enjoy us? Unmitigated communion and relationship satisfaction across 7 years. Journal of Family Psychology 34.6: 653–663.DOI: 10.1037/fam0000620
  • This study explored 2 key questions at the intersection of care, well-being, and development in romantic relationships. First, what are the links between unmitigated communion (i.e., being overinvolved with meeting a partner's needs to the exclusion of one's own needs) and both partners' relationship satisfaction over time? Second, are there gender differences in the longitudinal links between unmitigated communion and relationship satisfaction? We answered these questions using data from 1,340 couples who participated in the German Family Panel over a 7-year period. Latent change score modeling results revealed that on average, people declined in both unmitigated communion and relationship satisfaction over time, and these declines occurred in concert with each other across each wave: A more rapid decrease in unmitigated communion occurred in tandem with a more rapid decrease in relationship satisfaction. Furthermore, higher initial levels of unmitigated communion predicted a slower rate of decline in relationship satisfaction, and higher initial levels of satisfaction stabilized future declines in unmitigated communion. Lastly, higher initial relationship satisfaction among men predicted a more gradual decline in female partners' unmitigated communion, but women's satisfaction did not predict male partners' unmitigated communion. Overall, this is the first study to demonstrate the codevelopment of and bidirectionality between unmitigated communion and relationship satisfaction in established romantic relationships. Unmitigated communion and relationship satisfaction tend to bolster each other in ways that protect them from steeper declines across time, which may explain why people continue to give in relationships when it is personally costly to themselves.

  • Hudde, Ansgar. 2020. Homogamy in Gender Role Attitudes Among Young Couples: Evidence from Germany. Kölner Zeitschrift für Soziologie und Sozialpsychologie 72.3, 403–428. DOI: 10.1007/s11577-020-00711-1
  • Romantic partners’ similarity in gender role attitudes affects important outcomes such as sharing of housework, relationship stability, or fertility. However, there is little knowledge about how similar romantic partners are in these attitudes. Using dyadic panel data from German couples (sourced from pairfam), this study puts the degree of homogamy in gender role attitudes among young couples into perspective by comparing real couples with two types of counterfactuals. To create these counterfactuals, I re-mate couples in two ways: (a) randomly and (b) in such a way that similarity in attitudes between partners is maximized. Real couples differ only slightly from randomly mated couples, which suggests rather weak attitudinal similarity. Using longitudinal information, I further test the mechanisms that determine the degree of homogamy: there is strong evidence for alignment over time and for lower rates of separation among homogamous couples, but no evidence for homogamy as a by-product of assortative mating on other variables. This paper offers methodological and substantial contributions to the literature: it presents a method for intuitive assessment of the degree of homogamy with multiple variables simultaneously. It also shows that in Germany, macro-level diversity in attitudes largely translates into dissimilar attitudes between partners—with important implications for relationship dynamics.

  • Hudde, Ansgar & Henriette Engelhardt. 2020. Intra-Couple (Dis)Similarity in Gender Role Attitudes and the Transition to Parenthood in Germany. European Sociological Review 36.6, 852–867. DOI: 10.1093/esr/jcaa024
  • This paper tests whether couples in which partners hold dissimilar gender role attitudes are less likely to have a first child together compared to couples in which both partners share similar attitudes. The study contributes to micro-level research on gender role attitudes and fertility, which has examined the content of one partner’s attitudes, but not the fit of both partners’ views. We analyse unique panel data from the German Family Panel (pairfam) collected between 2008 and 2017, which includes information on the attitudes of both partners in a couple. Results show that couples whose members have dissimilar gender role attitudes are substantially and significantly less likely to have a child together over time. This observation holds independently of both partners’ individual attitudes and holds against a number of robustness checks.

  • Huss, Björn & Matthias Pollmann-Schult. 2020. Relationship Satisfaction Across the Transition to Parenthood: The Impact of Conflict Behavior. Journal of Family Issues 41.3,  383–411. DOI: 10.1177/0192513X19876084
  • The transition to parenthood is often accompanied by declines in relationship satisfaction. Using longitudinal data from six waves of the German family panel pairfam (N = 1,739), the authors tested whether these declines are driven by increases in and more intense forms of conflict (differential exposure hypothesis) and by a greater sensitivity to relationship conflicts after the transition to parenthood (differential vulnerability hypothesis). The analyses showed strong support for the differential exposure hypothesis among women and partial support among men. Across the transition to motherhood, women experience increases in conflict that account for decreases in relationship satisfaction. The findings showed no support for the differential vulnerability hypothesis, as neither men’s nor women’s relationship satisfaction becomes more sensitive to relationship conflicts across the transition to parenthood.

  • Hünteler, Bettina & Clara H. Mulder. 2020. Geographic Proximity to Parents, Intergenerational Support Exchange, and Migration within Germany. European Journal of Population 36, 895–918. DOI: 10.1007/s10680-020-09558-w
  • Previous research on internal migration has emphasised the importance of local ties to family members outside the household, and to parents in particular. Family members who live close to an individual’s place of residence represent a form of local social capital that could make migrating costlier, and therefore less likely. This idea has been empirically supported. Yet, how family ties bind remains largely unexplained. We assume that intergenerational support is a manifestation of local social capital, and that spatial proximity is needed for support to be exchanged. Thus, we used mediation analysis that includes explicit measures of support exchanges between parents and their adult–children born in 1971–1973, 1981–1983, and 1991–1993 to explain the binding effect of living close to parents. Logistic regression models of migrating a distance of more than 40 km were conducted using eight waves of the German pairfam data. Living close to one’s parents was indeed found to be negatively associated with the likelihood of migration, and part of this association could be explained through intergenerational support: the more the instrumental support an adult child exchanged with her/his parent, the less likely she/he was to migrate. Receiving emotional support from the parents was associated with an increase in migration propensity. Neither giving emotional help nor receiving help with childcare functioned as mediators. It thus appears that adult children are particularly likely to value the proximity of their parents when they are exchanging instrumental support, but that the emotional bond between adult children and their parents can often be maintained over longer distances

  • Hünteler, Bettina & Martin Wetzel. 2020. Relationship-Based Selective Participation of Secondary Respondents in a German Multi-Actor Panel Study. Journal of Marriage and Family 82, 1677–1695. DOI: 10.1111/jomf.12671
  • Objective

    This study investigates the extent to which participation of secondary respondents (SRs), here mothers, in a multi‐actor study is cross‐sectionally and longitudinally biased regarding relationship characteristics with the primary respondent (PR) of the same study.


    Family research emphasizes the importance of analyzing family relations over time and from the perspectives of several family members. Following the leverage‐salience theory, selective (re‐)participation of PRs and SRs might bias a sample toward certain relationship characteristics, in particular over time.


    For 8,579 PRs of the German Family Panel Study (, it is analyzed whether or not their mothers as SRs participated in Wave 2 and 4. A latent class analysis identifies relationship types based on the PR's evaluation of “intergenerational solidarity and conflict”. Their influence on the respondents' probability of (re‐)participation is examined using simultaneously estimated linear probability models.


    Each of the four identified relationship types exhibited a particular but constant pattern of SR survey participation. This resulted in an overrepresentation of structurally and functionally closer relationships at each observation. This bias is mostly based on the PR's selectively given consent to interview her/his SR and to a smaller extent on the selective (re‐)participation of the SR or PR themselves.


    SR data are selective, but the degree of selectivity remains rather stable over time. We discuss these findings with respect to both data users and future data collectors.

  • Jalovaara, Marika & Michaela Kreyenfeld. 2020.  Childbearing Across Partnerships in Finland and Germany. In Divorce in Europe, European Studies of Population 21 edited by Dimitri Mortelmans, 315–336.  Cham: Springer. DOI: 10.1007/978-3-030-25838-2_15
  • This chapter examines gender differences in “multipartner fertility” – i.e., having children with several partners – in Germany and Finland. The analyses focus on women and men born around 1970 who are followed until age 41. We show that multipartner fertility is more common in Finland than in Germany. However, there are large East-West differences within Germany. East Germans are less likely to have a second or third child than West Germans, but those East Germans who progress to a higher order birth often have this child with a new part-ner. We also find some gender differences in behaviour. Men display lower transi-tion rates than women of having a second child with a new partner. Further, having a first child at an early age is strongly and positively associated with multipartner fertility. No consistent relationship between education and multipartner fertility was found for Germany. In Finland, however, low education is associated with elevated risks of having children with different partners.

  • Kislev, Elyakim. 2020. Does Marriage Really Improve Sexual Satisfaction? Evidence From the Pairfam Data Set. The Journal of Sex Research 57.4, 470–481. DOI: 10.1080/00224499.2019.1608146
  • In light of the growing unmarried demographic, this study analyzed the extent and determinants of sexual satisfaction among seven relationship-status groups: married, never married, and those who are divorced/separated, where the latter two groups are further divided into single, living apart together (LAT), and cohabiting. In addition, the study measured the levels of sexual self-esteem, sexual communication, and sex frequency for the different relationship-status groups as predictors of sexual satisfaction. Finally, this study also analyzed sexual satisfaction while accounting for overall life satisfaction. Using the ninth wave of the Pairfam data set and analyzing the responses of 3,207 respondents in total, this study suggests that marriage is not a determinant for sexual satisfaction. In fact, it can even be a negative correlate when married respondents are compared to certain unmarried groups. The only exception is that of unmarried individuals who currently have no partner. Even this situation is shown to be dependent only on less frequent intercourse, not on a lack of sexual self-esteem and sexual communication. These conclusions challenge previous research as well as the explanations of earlier scholars. Several directions for future research are discussed in light of these findings.

  • Kislev, Elyakim. 2020. How do relationship desire and sociability relate to each other among singles? Longitudinal analysis of the Pairfam survey. Journal of Social and Personal Relationships 37.8-9, 2634–2650. DOI: 10.1177/0265407520933000
  • This study examines the effect of relationship desire on singles’ social lives and vice versa. Based on the German-based Panel Analysis of Intimate Relationships and Family Dynamics study, never-married singles and divorced singles were analyzed. Cross-sectional results showed a correlation between the extent to which singles desire relationship and both the relative importance of friendships and overall social satisfaction. Further analysis, using longitudinal methods, showed that the move to a lower degree of relationship desire had a significant effect on the relative importance of friends. Furthermore, both higher levels of the relative importance of friends and social satisfaction are negatively correlated with relationship desire. These results clarify previous studies and point to the fact that singles with low relationship desire are more social and derive greater support from their friends.

  • Kislev, Elyakim. 2020. The Sexual Activity and Sexual Satisfaction of Singles in the Second Demographic Transition. Sexuality Research and Social Policy (Online First). DOI: 10.1007/s13178-020-00496-0
  • Introduction

    Previous studies depicted a recent drastic reduction in sexual activity in tandem with the rise of the second demographic transition (SDT). However, very little attention has been paid to the questions of whether and how these processes are connected and how they play out in measuring sexual satisfaction among the diverse population of single people.


    Therefore, the current research focused on exploring this relation among the groups of never-married singles and divorced singles, further divided into men and women (N = 5944) and compared with married people (N = 18,733). Data were drawn from the Panel Analysis of Intimate Relationships and Family Dynamics (Pairfam) study.


    The results of this study indicated that voluntary singlehood positively correlates with sexual satisfaction among all four groups. Moreover, voluntary singlehood among women of both groups negatively correlates with sex frequency, desired sex frequency, and pornography usage, while among men voluntary singlehood negatively correlates with desired sex frequency.


    These results indicate that within the second demographic transition, voluntary singles are generally more sexually satisfied, and this is not associated with having more casual sex, but rather with desiring less sex and, among women, with being less sexually active relatively to involuntary single women.

  • Köppen, Katja, Michaela Kreyenfeld & Heike Trappe. 2020. Gender Differences in Parental Well-being After Separation: Does Shared Parenting Matter? In Parental Life Courses after Separation and Divorce in Europe, Hrsg. Kreyenfeld, Michaela & Heike Trappe, 235–264. Life Course Research and Social Policies 12. Cham: Springer. DOI: 10.1007/978-3-030-44575-1_12
  • A large body of literature has examined how separation and divorce influence social and economic well-being. One consistent finding of the literature is that women and men are affected differently by divorce and separation. Women, and particularly mothers, are likely to suffer from a loss of income. Fathers frequently suffer from having reduced contact with their children, who usually continue to live with their mother after a union dissolution. This chapter uses 10 years of data from the German Family Panel (pairfam) to examine more closely the gender differences in life satisfaction after separation. In line with previous research, we show that following a separation, satisfaction with family life declines more among fathers than among mothers, and that mothers tend to experience a greater decline in their satisfaction with their financial situation than fathers. We also examine the role of shared parenting (Wechselmodell) in parents’ life satisfaction. Our findings indicate that shared parenting is positively associated with well-being, but also that the association is not stable to the inclusion of socio-economic characteristics that explain the selection into shared parenting. The results are discussed in the context of the current German policy debate on shared parenting.

  • Krapf, Sandra & Michael Wagner. 2020. Housing Affordability, Housing Tenure Status and Household Density: Are Housing Characteristics Associated with Union Dissolution? European Journal of Population 36, 735–764. DOI: 10.1007/s10680-019-09549-6
  • Housing is an important dimension of social inequality between couples, but it has been largely ignored in prior research on union dissolution. Extending the literature that controlled for the stabilizing effect of homeownership, we investigate whether housing, measured as household density, housing tenure and housing affordability, is related to the risk of union dissolution. Based on data from the German Family Panel (pairfam), we analyze 3441 coresidential partnerships. We run discrete-time event-history models to assess the risk of separation within a time frame of 7 years. Housing affordability is found to be negatively related to the risk of union dissolution among couples, as those couples with a high residual income (i.e., household income after deducting housing costs) were less likely to separate than those with a lower residual income. By contrast, household density is found to be unrelated to separation. In line with previous research, our findings indicate that homeowners had more stable relationships than tenants. The analysis shows that this was the case regardless of whether the home was jointly owned or was owned by one partner only.

  • Kreutz, Gunter & Michael Feldhaus. 2020. Does music help children grow up? Parental views from a longitudinal panel study. Musicae Scientiae 24.2, 139–154. DOI: 10.1177/1029864918782581                    

    pairfam Best Publication Award 2019

  • Previous research has identified families as hubs for musical development, but little is known about the reciprocal effects on familial dynamics. Here, we address the long-term associations between familial music and parental perceptions of their children’s personality. To these ends, we analysed a subset of data from the German Panel Analysis of Intimate Relationships and Family Dynamics study, a longitudinal cohort study. A total of 839 data sets from parents with their children, covering four waves over a period of six years, served as our database. The frequency of engagement in Singing and Playing Musical Instruments, Reading Books or Storytelling and Shopping represented independent measures, whereas the ratings of Prosocial Behaviour, Intimacy, Admiration, and Conflicts served as dependent measures in the panel regression models. A substantial decline in everyday activities was noted as children grew older, with the exception of Shopping. Parental education, but not family net income, was found to be correlated with familial music activities. These activities were correlated with three facets of children’s personality, Prosocial Behaviour, Intimacy, and Admiration, based on both fixed- and random-effects models. The correlations, however, were partially weakened when Reading or Storytelling and Shopping were entered into the models. Our findings suggest that familial music activities may exert long-term and causal influences on familial dynamics, as reflected through important facets of children’s personality.

  • Li, Jianghong, Heike Ohlbrecht, Matthias Pollmann-Schult & Filip Elias Habib. 2020. Parents’ nonstandard work schedules and children’s social and emotional wellbeing: A mixed-methods analysis in Germany. Journal of Family Research 32.2, 330–356. DOI: 10.20377/jfr-371
  • Many children live in households where either one or both parents work nonstandard schedules in the evening, night or weekend. Using a mixed methods design, this study examined whether nonstandard work schedules were linked to lower social and emotional wellbeing in children. The quantitative analysis based on the German Family Panel Study (pairfam) showed that children whose parents worked rotating shifts and other types of nonstandard schedules reported elevated levels of emotional and conduct problems. However, not all types of nonstandard schedules were detrimental to child wellbeing: fixed shift work did not have a negative impact on child social and emotional wellbeing. Overall, the effect of mothers’ work schedule on child wellbeing was stronger than that of fathers. The qualitative interviews revealed that nonstandard work schedules made everyday life unsettling and family environment chaotic because it was difficult to plan. Thus, for most families where one or both parents worked such schedules stress was a defining feature of the daily life and parents accepted it as “part of their life”. Families used different strategies to deal with stress and attempted to protect children from it. Contingent on what resources available to them, some families managed well, while others did not cope so well and children were adversely affected.

  • Mönkediek, Bastian; Wiebke Schulz, Harald Eichhorn & Martin Diewald. 2020. Is there something special about twin families? A comparison of parenting styles in twin and non-twin families. Social Science Research 90. DOI: 10.1016/j.ssresearch.2020.102441
  • Twin comparisons offer a powerful quasi-experimental design to study the impact of the family of origin on children's life chances. Yet, there are concerns about the generalizability of results obtained from twin studies because twin families are structurally different and twins have a genetic resemblance. We examine these concerns by comparing mothers' reports on their parenting styles for twin and non-twin children between twin and non-twin families, as well as within twin families. We use two German studies for our comparisons: TwinLife and pairfam. Our results demonstrate that twins receive more differential treatment and more emotional warmth than non-twins; however, these differences are largely accounted for by age differences between children. Overall, our results indicate that results on parenting obtained from twin studies can be generalized to non-twin families.

  • Morgan, Preston & HanNa Lim. 2020. Depressive Symptom and Financial Conflict Relate Over Time Among Couples. Journal of Family and Economic Issues 41.3, 391–404. DOI: 10.1007/s10834-020-09693-w
  • Since the housing market collapsed in the late 2000′s, researchers have explored the link between finances and mental health in more depth. Although there is discussion around how financial conflict is related to mental health illnesses, it remains unclear how financial conflict and depressive symptoms are related bidirectionally over time. Using an integrated family stress model and stress generation theoretical lens, we sought to investigate bidirectional relations between financial conflict trajectories and depressive symptom trajectories among partnered men and women. Using 1273 German couples and multivariate latent growth models, we tested this bidirectional association over three waves. Our results revealed that men’s and women’s initial financial conflict and initial depressive symptoms were related. This bidirectional association, however, was more nuanced when we examined these associations longitudinally. Men’s and women’s initial depressive symptoms were associated with the partner perceiving greater financial conflict over the three waves. In addition men’s initial financial conflict was associated with increases in their partner’s depressive symptoms over the three waves. These findings begin to address a gap literature, which has not yet explored the bidirectional association between financial conflict and depressive symptoms among couples over time. These findings also offer insights for practitioners to explore with couples regarding the relation between their financial conflicts and depressive symptoms.

  • Morgan, Preston, Richard Dell’Isola, Bornell Nicholson & Chelsea Spencer. 2020. Stress generation theory in couples with depression: A latent profile analysis. Journal of Social and Personal Relationships 37.7, 2205–2228. DOI: 10.1177/0265407520919992
  • Depressive symptoms and conflict negatively affect romantic relationships, but does this differ among couples? Using a stress generation theory framework, we aim to understand the types of profiles based on both partners’ responses of depressive symptoms and conflict. We used data from 1,598 German couples (different-sex) and conducted latent profile analyses in order to examine if there are different profiles of couples related to the male and female partners’ depressive symptoms and levels of conflict. We then examined if these profiles predicted relationship instability 1 year later. Our results revealed four profiles: congruent low conflict, incongruent female moderate conflict, incongruent male moderate conflict, and congruent moderate conflict. Both males and females in the congruent low and moderate conflict profiles showed agreement in their level of depressive symptoms and conflict, hence congruent. However, males and females differed in their levels of depressive symptoms and conflict in two incongruent profiles. For example, females in the incongruent female moderate conflict profile had higher levels of depressive symptoms and conflict than their partners. Prior depressive symptoms and conflict increased the odds of being in the incongruent female moderate conflict, incongruent male moderate conflict, and congruent moderate conflict profiles compared to the congruent low conflict profile. The congruent moderate conflict profile had the highest probability of relationship instability 1 year later. This study adds to our knowledge about the different profiles of couples with depressive symptoms and conflict as well as relationship instability.

  • Müller, Bettina & Laura Castiglioni. 2020. Do Temporary Dropouts Improve the Composition of Panel Data? An Analysis of “Gap Interviews” in the German Family Panel pairfam. Sociological Methods & Research 49.1, 193–215. DOI: 10.1177/0049124117729710
  • In the context of cross-sectional surveys, the scope of research on the impact of response enhancing strategies on sample composition and nonresponse bias is vast. This topic has rarely been addressed for panel studies, however, although these are becoming an increasingly important data source in social research. In this article, we evaluate the impact of reissuing wave nonrespondents on sample composition and survey estimates in the German Family Panel pairfam. In light of concerns about an adequate representation of life changes in panel studies, we focus on whether temporary dropouts improve sample composition in this respect: Using retrospective information from these cases provided at reentry, we approximate the impact of “lost” reports of life changes due to attrition. Our analysis reveals that the inclusion of temporary dropouts does increase sample variability regarding life changes. However, example analyses indicate that substantive conclusions would not be compromised if temporary dropouts were excluded.

  • Ochnik, Dominika & Gal Slonim. 2020. Satisfaction with Singlehood in Never-Married Singles: The Role of Gender and Culture. The Open Psychology Journal 13, 17–26. DOI: 10.2174/1874350102013010017
  • Aim:

    The aim of this study was to reveal the role of gender and culture (German vs Polish) in Satisfaction With Singlehood (SWS).


    Due to the number of singles increasing over the past decades, the assessment of the extent to which such people are satisfied with their singlehood and establishment of specific variables enabling satisfaction with life in singlehood to be predicted seem valid. An additional factor was gender and culture, as feminine and masculine roles are defined mainly by familial and matrimonial life and diverse cultural context.


    Study 1 encompassed 512 never married childless singles above 30 years old, Study 2: 196 Polish never-married singles, and Study 3: 265 German never-married singles (pairfam data).

    Research methods were: Satisfaction with singlehood, Multidimensional Sexuality Questionnaire (MSQ), Inventory of Gender Assessment (IPP), Multidimensional Self-Esteem Inventory (MSEI), UCLA III Loneliness Scale, Romantic Beliefs Scale (RBS), Interpersonal Competences Questionnaire (ICQ), Satisfaction with Life Scale (SWLS). German sample was retrieved from The German Panel Analysis of Intimate Relationships and Family Dynamics – pairfam.


    Study 1 revealed significant medium effects of gender and country, with women and German sample reporting a higher SWS. Study 2 showed different prediction models for Polish sample. SWS was explained by satisfaction with life, romantic belief, loneliness, and competence in women. The predictors in Polish men were: initiating relationships and internal sexual control. Study 3 revealed willingness to have a partner as the only predictor in German women, and in German men: satisfaction with life, loneliness and mating confidence.


    Satisfaction With Singlehood (SWS) was higher in women than men, regardless of culture. German single never-married women were the most satisfied group. Traditional masculine role predicted higher SWS in single men. Satisfaction with singlehood proved to be separate from satisfaction with life.

  • Passet-Wittig, Jasmin, Martin Bujard, Julia McQuillan & Alfred L. Greil. 2020. Is perception of inability to procreate a temporal phenomenon? A longitudinal exploration of changes and determinants among women and men of reproductive age in Germany. Advances in Life Course Research 45. DOI:10.1016/j.alcr.2020.100339

  • Continued postponement of births and increasing use of reproductive medicine enhance the relevance of infertility and related perceptions for fertility research. Fertility researchers tend to assume that an existing perception of inability to procreate is a stable trait among persons of reproductive age. This assumption is questionable from a life course perspective and has not been thoroughly investigated. Therefore we investigate the prevalence, stability, and correlates of perceived inability to procreate. We apply between-within logit models to annual panel data (2008-2015) to study variation in perceived inability to procreate within individuals over time and between individuals. We find that approximately every 20th person of reproductive age is affected. There is considerable instability among those who ever perceive an inability to procreate: On average, 39 % of women and 48 % of men who perceive an inability in one year change to not perceiving an inability in the next year. Multivariate analysis shows that increases in age and perception of one’s partner as unable to procreate are associated with higher odds of perceiving an inability to procreate. Not using contraception is associated with higher odds of perceiving an inability to procreate. Perceived procreative ability further differs by parity, level of education, immigration background, and religious denomination. In summary, perception of inability to procreate is a temporal phenomenon that is shaped by lifecourse contexts and social group differences.

  • Raab, Marcel & Emanuela Struffolino. 2020. The Heterogeneity of Partnership Trajectories to Childlessness in Germany. European Journal of Population 36, 53–70. DOI: 10.1007/s10680-019-09519-y
  • In recent decades, childlessness has increased across many European countries. In addition to socioeconomic characteristics, having a partner is considered a prerequisite in most fertility studies. Yet, still little is known about the partnership biographies of childless women and men. We assess the heterogeneity in the partnership trajectories of childless persons in Germany and explore compositional differences of partnership trajectories by gender and education. We use data from the German Family Panel to reconstruct partnership biographies reflecting the occurrence and frequency of different partnership states (singleness, living apart together, cohabitation, marriage). The sample comprises women and men born 1971–1973 whose life courses are observed from age 18–40. Applying sequence and cluster analysis, we identify five patterns of partnership trajectories: (1) ‘Marriage’ (14.6%); (2) ‘Long-term cohabitation’ (11.8%) with one partner; (3) ‘Serial cohabitation’ (15.6%); (4) ‘LAT’ (18.8%), long-term/multiple living-apart-together relationships; and (5) ‘Single’ (39.3%), long-term singleness. Men are overrepresented in the ‘Single’ cluster, especially if highly educated. Women are more often married and more likely to experience long-lasting singleness or multiple LAT episodes when being highly educated. We speculate that theories predicting high levels of childlessness in contexts where gender norms and work-family policies do not account for the increasing gender equality in education and labor force participation might also explain differences in the pathways leading to childlessness. Generally, our findings point at a more elaborate conceptualization of childlessness that moves away from a binary cross-sectional indicator and set the ground for future cross-national comparisons.

  • Sacchi, Livia, Mariia Merzhvynska & Mareike Augsburger. 2020. Effects of cumulative trauma load on long-term trajectories of life satisfaction and health in a population-based study. BMC public health 20.1,1612. DOI: 10.1186/s12889-020-09663-9
  • Background

    Lifetime traumatic events are known to have a detrimental long-term impact on both mental and physical health. Yet, heterogeneity in the stress response regarding well-being in adults is not well understood. This study investigates effects of cumulative trauma on latent trajectories of two indices of well-being, subjective health and life satisfaction in a large representative sample by means of latent variable modelling techniques.


    Data from the pairfam study wave 2–9, a longitudinal representative survey was used (N = 10,825). Individuals reported on lifetime trauma type exposure on wave 7 and indicated levels of life satisfaction and health at each wave. Different types of latent Variable Mixture Models were applied in an iterative fashion. Conditional models investigated effects of cumulative trauma load.


    The best fitting model indicated three latent trajectories for life, and four for health, respectively. Trauma load significantly predicted class membership: Higher exposure was associated with non-stable trajectories for both indices but followed complex patterns of both improving and decreasing life satisfaction and health. Trauma load also explained variability within classes.


    The current study expands on evidence to the long-term development of health and life satisfaction in response to traumatic events from a latent variable modelling perspective. Besides detrimental effect, it also points to functional adaptation after initial decline and increased well-being associated with trauma exposure. Thus, response to traumatic stress is marked by great heterogeneity. Future research should focus on variables beyond exposure to trauma that can further identify individuals prone to trajectories of declining well-being.

  • Schemer, Christian, Philipp K. Masur, Stefan Geiß, Philipp Müller & Svenja Schäfer. 2020. The Impact of Internet and Social Media Use on Well-Being: A Longitudinal Analysis of Adolescents Across Nine Years. Journal of Computer-Mediated Communication 26.1, 1–21. DOI: 10.1093/jcmc/zmaa014
  • The present research examines the longitudinal average impact of frequency of use of Internet and social networking sites (SNS) on subjective well-being of adolescents in Germany. Based on five-wave panel data that cover a period of nine years, we disentangle between-person and within-person effects of media use on depressive symptomatology and life satisfaction as indicators of subjective well-being. Additionally, we control for confounders such as TV use, self-esteem, and satisfaction with friends. We found that frequency of Internet use in general and use of SNS in particular is not substantially related subjective well-being. The explanatory power of general Internet use or SNS use to predict between-person differences or within-person change in subjective well-being is close to zero. TV use, a potentially confounding variable, is negatively related to satisfaction with life, but it does not affect depressive symptomatology. However, this effect is too small to be of practical relevance.

  • Schmid, Matthias, Thomas Welchowski, Marvin N. Wright & Moritz Berger. 2020. Discrete-time survival forests with Hellinger distance decision trees. Data Mining and Knowledge Discovery 34: 812–832. DOI: 10.1007/s10618-020-00682-z
  • Random survival forests (RSF) are a powerful nonparametric method for building prediction models with a time-to-event outcome. RSF do not rely on the proportional hazards assumption and can be readily applied to both low- and higher-dimensional data. A remaining limitation of RSF, however, arises from the fact that the method is almost entirely focussed on continuously measured event times. This issue may become problematic in studies where time is measured on a discrete scale t=1,2,...t=1,2,..., referring to time intervals [0,a1),[a1,a2),…[0,a1),[a1,a2),…. In this situation, the application of methods designed for continuous time-to-event data may lead to biased estimators and inaccurate predictions if discreteness is ignored. To address this issue, we develop a RSF algorithm that is specifically designed for the analysis of (possibly right-censored) discrete event times. The algorithm is based on an ensemble of discrete-time survival trees that operate on transformed versions of the original time-to-event data using tree methods for binary classification. As the outcome variable in these trees is typically highly imbalanced, our algorithm implements a node splitting strategy based on Hellinger’s distance, which is a skew-insensitive alternative to classical split criteria such as the Gini impurity. The new algorithm thus provides flexible nonparametric predictions of individual-specific discrete hazard and survival functions. Our numerical results suggest that node splitting by Hellinger’s distance improves predictive performance when compared to the Gini impurity. Furthermore, discrete-time RSF improve prediction accuracy when compared to RSF approaches treating discrete event times as continuous in situations where the number of time intervals is small.

  • Schröder, Jette & Claudia Schmiedeberg. 2020. Effects of Partner Presence During the Interview on Survey Responses: The Example of Questions Concerning the Division of Household Labor. Sociological Methods & Research (Online First). DOI: 10.1177/0049124120914938
  • Despite the fact that third parties are present during a substantial amount of face-to-face interviews, bystander influence on respondents’ response behavior is not yet fully understood. We use nine waves of the German Family Panel pairfam and apply fixed effects panel regression models to analyze effects of third-party presence on items regarding the sharing of household tasks between partners. We find that both male and female respondents report doing a smaller share of household tasks when their partner is present during the interview as compared to when their partner is not present. Similarly, if the respondent’s partner is present, both partners’ reports correspond more, so that they are less prone to resulting in unrealistically high sums. These results indicate that for items concerning household labor, partner presence does not compromise data quality but may in fact improve it.

  • Steinbach, Anja & Merril Silverstein. 2020. The Relationship Between Religion and Intergenerational Solidarity in Eastern and Western Germany. Journal of Family Issues 41.1: 109–130. DOI: 10.1177/0192513X19868750
  • This article investigated the relationship between religiosity and intergenerational solidarity in Germany, with a focus on differences between eastern and western regions that have maintained unique religious profiles that trace back to before unification. Based on data from Wave 6 (2013-2014) of the German Family Panel (pairfam), 8,637 reports from 4,622 adult children about their relationships with mothers and fathers were analyzed. Using an index comprising four dimensions of the intergenerational solidarity model (distance, contact, closeness, and support), hierarchical linear regression demonstrated general support for the hypothesis that having a religious denomination is positively associated with the strength of intergenerational relations in Germany. However, this positive association is stronger in the more religious western part of Germany than in the highly secularized eastern part. These results emphasize the importance of taking social context and political history into account when studying core institutions of religion and families.

  • Stenpaß, Anna. 2020. Pendelmobilität und partnerschaftliche Arbeitsteilung. Eine Studie über Geschlechterungleichheiten in heterosexuellen Paarbeziehungen. Wiesbaden: Springer Fachmedien Wiesbaden.
  • Anna Stenpaß verbindet in dieser Studie quantitative und qualitative Daten, um ein umfassendes Bild von einem bisher wenig erforschten Untersuchungsfeld zu erhalten. Anhand eines Mixed-Methods Ansatzes untersucht sie den Einfluss beruflicher Pendelmobilität auf die innerpartnerschaftliche Verteilung der Hausarbeit und Kinderbetreuung. Sie verdeutlicht, dass eine ungleiche Verteilung dieser Arbeiten auch im Zusammenhang mit der Pendelmobilität besteht. Insbesondere weibliche Pendler tragen oftmals weiterhin die Hauptverantwortung für die Hausarbeit und Kinderbetreuung, auch wenn sie neben der Erwerbstätigkeit berufsbedingt pendeln – und stehen damit einer Dreifachbelastung gegenüber. Wohlgleich verdeutlichen die Analysen, dass sich auch Möglichkeiten 'harmonischer' Arrangements etablieren lassen. Wie die Pendler*innen mit den unbezahlten Arbeiten umgehen und welche Arrangements sie im Umgang mit diesen herstellen, hängt von einem Zusammenspiel handlungstheoretischer Aspekte, normativer Einstellungen sowie der subjektiven Wahrnehmung der Pendelmobilität und deren Nutzen und Kosten ab.

  • Stenpaß, Anna & Stefanie Kley. 2020. It’s getting late today, please do the laundry: The influence of long-distance commuting on the division of domestic labor. Journal of Family Research 32.2, 274–306. DOI: 10.20377/jfr-358
  • The study examines the effect of long-distance commuting on the division of domestic la-bor in heterosexual couples. A long journey to work can affect other areas of life. Com-muters often have lower life satisfaction and their intimate relationships may be impaired by mental stress. When looking at domestic labor the question arises of who is in charge of managing the household and childcare. Do women still adopt the “lion’s share of housework” or take over the “second shift” if they spend part of the day on long commutes to work and back home? A long commute is defined as a journey to work of at least 45 minutes, daily or several times a week. We present the results of pooled regression analy-sis and fixed effects regressions conducted on data from the German Panel Analysis of In-timate Relationships and Family Dynamics (pairfam) for the years 2013, 2015, and 2016. The pooled analysis suggests a moderate association between a woman’s long commute and her partner’s engagement in housework and childcare, especially when she com-mutes daily. Instead of living ‘reversed roles’, the partners share such tasks. However, when the association between a woman’s long commute and her partner’s engagement in childcare is estimated exclusively with fixed regression, it remains significant. If the man is a long-distance commuter, most often his partner is solely responsible for all household tasks. Relative labor market position and income distribution within the couples, as well as adherence to gender roles explain the effects of long-distance commuting on labor division.

  • Tanskanen, Antti O. & Mirkka Danielsbacka. 2020. Birth order and relationship quality between adult children and parents: No evidence for the neglected middleborn hypothesis. Finnish Yearbook of Population Research 54: 53–61. DOI: 10.23979/fypr.83319
  • The neglected middleborn hypothesis predicts that middleborn children should have a worse relationship quality with their parents compared to firstborn and lastborn children. However, prior studies investigating this question have produced mixed results. In this study, the neglected middleborn hypothesis was tested using a large-scale, population-based sample of younger adults from Germany. Relationship quality was measured by contact frequency, emotional closeness, intimacy and amount of conflict participants reported towards their mothers and their fathers. It was found that middleborns reported less intimacy towards their mothers than lastborns. However, in all other cases, middleborns did not differ from firstborns or lastborns in their relationship quality with their mothers and fathers. Thus, the study did not find convincing support for the neglected middleborn effect.

  • Van den Eynde, Annelies, Elke, Claessens & Dimitri Mortelmans. 2020. The consequences of work-family conflict in families on the behavior of the child. Journal of Family Research 32.1, 123­–144. DOI: 10.20377/jfr-355
  • The balancing act between work and family life can be a challenge that affects both the parents and other members of a family. This study investigates the effect of a parent’s experience of work -family conflict on the behavior of the child. Parental well-being and parenting act as mediators, as previous studies have suggested that this relationship does not run directly. Data from 969 children in the Pairfam database were analyzed using structural equation modelling. The results reveal that both directions of work-family conflict (WIF and FIW) have a negative impact on parental well-being, and only the specific negative spillover from family to work (FIW) influencing parenting performance. In addition, although good levels of well-being and adequate parenting have a positive influence on the behavior of children, the specific spillover effects from work responsibilities to the family (WIF) are apparently unrelated to parenting.

  • Van der Vleuten, Maaike, Eva Jaspers & Tanja van der Lippe. 2020. Same-Sex Couples’ Division of Labor from a Cross-National Perspective. Journal of GLBT Family Studies 23, 1–18. DOI: 10.1080/1550428X.2020.1862012
  • This study concerns how male and female same-sex couples across countries organize their paid and household labor. Using unique data compiled from multiple national surveys in 7 western countries (N = 723), we examined same-sex couples’ paid and household task allocation and evaluate descriptively how this is associated with countries’ gender egalitarianism. For paid labor, results indicate that female same-sex couples spend less time in total on paid employment than male same-sex couples, but both male and female same-sex couples divide their hours of paid employment equally. For household labor, we find that female couples divide their household tasks more equally than male couples. Moreover, more gender egalitarian countries appear to be correlated to increasing differences between male and female same-sex couples’ total time spent on the labor market and to decreasing differences in how equal they divide their household labor. These findings suggest that larger, society-wide, gender regimes might be an important avenue for future research when studying same-sex couples paid and unpaid labor.

  • Wagner, Michael. 2020.  On Increasing Divorce Risks. In Divorce in Europe, European Studies of Population 21 edited by Dimitri Mortelmans, 37–61.  Cham: Springer. DOI: 10.1007/978-3-030-25838-2_3
  • While intensive and ongoing research on the determinants of marital sta-bility has resulted in the identification of a large number of risk factors, the question of why there has been a nearly continuous upward trend in divorce rates in many developed countries has yet to be answered. This upward trend continued over a period of more than one hundred years, and ended – at least in some countries – in the late twentieth century or early twenty-first century.The aim of this paper is to review the theoretical concepts and the empirical find-ings of studies that have investigated historical trends in divorce rates. Some authors have argued that the quality of marriages has declined, while others have attributed this trend to a weakening of the barriers to divorce, or to increased opportunities to meet alternative partners. Theories of social change generally emphasize the role of either modernization or normative change in marital dissolution patterns. Given the evidence that the cohort and the period effects on the divorce rate cannot be explained by socioeconomic variables, it seems likely that increasing divorce rates are better explained by cultural than by socioeconomic changes.

  • Walper, Sabine & Julia Reim. 2020. Young People in the COVID-19 Pandemic: Findings from Germany. ISSBD Bulletin 2.78, 18–20. [online unter:]
  • Walper, Sabine, Stefanie Amberg, Carolin Thönnissen & Sharon L. Christ. 2020. The Role of Gatekeeping in Non-Resident Fathers’ Contact with Their Children: Mothers’ and Fathers’ Views. In Parental Life Courses after Separation and Divorce in Europe, Hrsg. Kreyenfeld, Michaela & Heike Trappe, 235­–264. Life Course Research and Social Policies 12. Cham: Springer. DOI: 10.1007/978-3-030-44575-1_9
  • We present two studies addressing maternal gatekeeping in separated families and investigate its association with interparental relationship problems and with father-child contact. The first study included 187 custodial mothers and 160 non-resident or shared parenting fathers. The findings suggest that there are significant links between both parents having a negative view of the other and the father having infrequent contact with his children. Coparenting conflict was found to be associated with both parents being worried about the well-being of their children, but only the fathers’ reports of conflict and child-related worries were shown to be linked to low levels of contact, which suggests that paternal withdrawal rather than protective maternal gatekeeping affects levels of father-child contact. The second study (pairfam) used longitudinal data from 145 mothers on the father’s child support payment history, levels of coparenting conflict and cooperation, and the frequency of father-child contact; and from their children on levels of maternal restrictive gatekeeping. Children’s reports of being pressured to side with their mother were shown to predict less frequent contact with their father one year later, even when controlling for earlier contact. Unexpectedly, fathers who did not provide child support were found to have high levels of contact. Overall, we conclude that the role of gatekeeping seems to be limited.

  • Washburn-Busk, Michelle, Preston Morgan & Amber Vennum. 2020. The Interaction of Health Stressors and Power Imbalances in Partnered Women: Wellbeing Outcomes. Journal of Feminist Family Therapy 32.3-4, 192–212. DOI: 10.1080/08952833.2020.18480529
  • Being in poor physical health can be disempowering and place additional stress on couple and individual wellbeing. Given the high prevalence of gendered power imbalances in opposite gender couples, the purpose of this paper was to better understand how health issues interact with power imbalances in couples to influence individual and couple well-being. Our results highlight that feeling powerless in ones relationship takes a uniquely intense toll on relationship satisfaction for women who are in poor health. Practitioners working with couples where one or both partners is in poor health should attune to power dynamics to ensure that treatment is promoting individual and couple well-being for both men and women.

  • Yucel, Deniz & Beth A. Latshaw. 2020. Spillover and Crossover Effects of Work-Family Conflict among Married and Cohabiting Couples. Society and Mental Health 10.1, 35–60. DOI: 10.1177/2156869318813006
  • The present study uses Wave 8 of the German Family Panel to test the spillover and crossover effects of work-family conflict on job satisfaction, relationship satisfaction, and mental health for individuals (actor effects) as well as their spouses/partners (partner effects) in dual-earning couples. We further contribute by assessing whether the results vary by gender and union type. Results suggest that among married couples, for job satisfaction, there are no gender differences in actor effects (but gender differences in partner effects), and actor and partner effects remain distinct. For relationship satisfaction, there are no gender differences in actor or partner effects, but both effects remain distinct. For mental health, however, there are gender differences in actor effects (but not in partner effects), and both effects remain distinct. Among cohabitors, there are no differences in actor effects by gender, and adding in partner effects does not significantly improve the models predicting all three outcomes. Some results also suggest differences in relationship dynamics between married and cohabiting couples.


  • Bastin, Sonja. 2019. Single Mothers' New Partners: Partnership and Household Formation in Germany. Journal of Marriage and Family 81.4: 991-1003. DOI:10.1111/jomf.12575
  • Objective: This article investigates single mothers' repartnering by analyzing two distinct transitions: the formation of a partnership with separate households and the subsequent formation of a household with a partner.

    Background: Previous research found impacts of repartnering on the well‐being of single‐mother families. However, detailed investigations of single mothers' repartnering have been rare and have mostly failed to differentiate the process of finding a partner from the process of forming a household with him.

    Method: Using pairfam data (; Waves 1–3, 2008–2009, 2009–2010, 2010–2011), the study provides event history analyses of a sample of 786 single mothers. It investigates the durations between (a) becoming a single‐mother family and finding a new partner and (b) finding a new partner and forming a household or, alternatively, dissolving.

    Results: Although a large proportion of the women were living alone with their children for several years, many maintained a relationship in separate households. Neither education nor employment status is found to affect the likelihood of repartnering, which suggests that socioeconomically disadvantaged mothers are not able to use repartnering as a strategy for quickly addressing their economic needs. The mother's age, the children's ages, and the partnership context at the time of entry into single motherhood are shown to affect partnership formation and household formation differently.

    Conclusion: The results illustrate that when investigating repartnering among single mothers, it is necessary to separate the analysis of partnership formation from the analysis of household formation.

  • Castiglioni, Laura, Shih-cheng Lien, Christopher Peterle & Nadira Tursun. 2019. Impulse für die  Weiterentwicklung der  Familienerholung. Bericht zur quantitativen Sekundärdatenanalyse (Modul 1). München: DJI. [online unter:]
  • Angebote der Familienfreizeit und Familienerholung gehören gemäß § 16 Absatz 2 Satz 3 SGB VIII zu den staatlichen Leistungen zur Förderung der Erziehung in der Familie. Das Angebot richtet sich insbesondere an Mütter und Väter in belastenden Familiensituationen. Neben Erholung sollte der Aufenthalt in einer gemeinnützigen Familienerholungsstätte Gelegenheiten für gemeinsame Erlebnisse bieten, verbunden mit Angeboten der Familienbildung, Beratung und Kommunikation. Auf diese Weise soll ein Beitrag zur Stärkung von Erziehungs- und Familienkompetenz sowie Familiengesundheit geleistet werden. Ziel der Studie ist es, Informationen über die Bedarfe besonders belasteter Familien zu gewinnen und auf dieser Grundlage Ansatzpunkte zur bedarfsgerechten Qualitäts- und Weiterentwicklung der Familienerholung zu identifizieren. Der Forschungsstand zu den Faktoren, welche bei Familien zum Urlaubsverzicht führen, ist in Deutschland sehr überschaubar: Neben der Tatsache, dass der Verzicht auf Urlaub mit einer schwachen finanziellen Lage zusammenhängt (Hazel 2005), ist wenig über weitere Verzichtsursachen bekannt. Vor allem eine quantitative Einschätzung des Ausmaßes der nicht-monetären Dimensionen fehlt im aktuellen Forschungsstand. Im Rahmen der Studie soll der Kenntnisstand durch die Analyse des Erholungsverhaltens von besonders belasteten Familien und insbesondere die Umstände sowie Belastungsfaktoren, die mit einem Urlaubsverzicht zusammenhängen, ergänzt werden. Des Weiteren wird untersucht, welche Bedeutung die gemeinsam verbrachte Zeit in einer Familienerholungsstätte für diese Familien hat Aus der Forschung zum social tourism aus dem internationalen Kontext ist bekannt, dass insbesondere Kinder und Eltern niedrigerer sozialer Schichten hinsichtlich ihrer Zufriedenheit und ihres Wohlbefindens von Familienurlaubsreisen profitieren könnten sowie im Umkehrschluss, im Falle eines Verzichts, Einbußen hinsichtlich des psychischen Wohlbefindens, bis hin zur sozialen Exklusion, hinnehmen müssten (Sedgley u.a. 2012).

  • Danielsbacka, Mirkka, Antti O. Tanskanen & Francesco C. Billari. 2019. Who meets online? Personality traits and sociodemographic characteristics associated with online partnering in Germany. Personality and Individual Differences 143: 139-144. DOI: 10.1016/j.paid.2019.02.024
  • The Internet has partly displaced traditional offline meeting venues for partners. Here, we study whether meeting online is selective, i.e., whether there are differences in Big Five personality traits and sociodemographic background characteristics between those who meet online and offline. Using eight waves of the German Family Panel (pairfam), with observations from 7192 respondents from three birth cohorts (1991–93, 1981–83, and 1971–73) between 2008 and 2016, we found that meeting online is more likely for female respondents than males; for respondents from the older birth cohorts compared to the youngest one; for respondents with primary education compared to those who are currently enrolled and have no degree; for respondents who have shorter relationship durations; for those who have a higher number of previous partners; and for those who have less extroverted personalities. As we split the data by cohorts, it appears that meeting a partner online is slightly more selective for the oldest birth cohort than for the youngest one. Moreover, extraversion was consistently associated with meeting online in every birth cohort, and the association was negative in every case. These findings are discussed with reference to compensation and rich-get-richer hypotheses.

  • Deiters, Maximilian, Gerda Neyer & Gunnar Anderson. 2019. Policy Receptiveness as Determinant of Policy Effectiveness. German childcare and women’s transition to first birth. Stockholm Research Reports in Demography 2019: 22.
  • During the past decade, German family policies have shifted from supporting the male breadwinner –female carer family to providing infrastructure for mothers’ employment and children’s daycare. Institutional theorists assume that increased availability of childcare will increase fertility, while family transition theorists argue that such increase depends on a change of norms. We examine these propositions for women’s transition to first birth. We apply event-history methods to German Pairfam panel data and consider the importance that women attribute to public childcare, the applicability of childcare to their work and family preferences, and the acceptability of childcare to their motherly care-employment norms. First birth risks are significantly elevated for women who regard childcare as a precondition to have a child, who want to combine work and family (applicability) and who do not oppose maternal employment (acceptability). In contrast, we find no such association between childcare necessity and first birth for women who want to focus on family (no applicability), and for those who are averse to or uncertain about maternal employment (no acceptability). Our results underline the importance to consider attitudes when evaluating the impact of policies on childbearing behavior. They also indicate that macro-level effects of policies on fertility may only become visible when policy offers and attitudes converge.

  • Eckhard, Jan & Johannes Stauder. 2019. Partner market opportunities and union formation over the life course - A comparison of different measures. Population, Space and Place 25.4, e2178. DOI: 10.1002/psp.2178 
  • Even in the online dating era, individuals will seek intimate partners who live physically nearby. This paper considers the validity of different partner market measures in German NUTS‐3 regions; the often used sex ratio is contrasted with different versions of the availability ratio (AR) and versions of the partner market density (PMD). The paper discusses (a) how conceptional aspects of the partner market are reflected in the various indicators. Using aggregated population data provided by German statistical offices, (b) the partner market in Germany is described as measured by the different partner market indicators. Linking them to micro‐level data from the German Socio‐economic Panel, the paper (c) compares the effects of the various partner market measures on union formation. A simple sex ratio does not show variance over the life course or between cohorts, nor does it determine the rate of couple formation. The AR and PMD reveal more plausible distributions by age and cohort and higher criterion validity, especially when accounting for availableness according to marital status. With regard to men, the AR demonstrates the strongest impact on union formation; with regard to women, PMD seems more important.

  • El Ghaziri, Nahema. 2019. Self-esteem as a family resource: An investigation of the parental couple.Dissertation. University of Lausanne
  • Self-esteem has always been considered a social variable, influenced by, and influencing one’s relationships. However, few studies have investigated the impact of self-esteem on the parental couple and its well-being. It is the object of this dissertation. Through the analysis of the literature and the exploration of cross-sectional as well as longitudinal data, my aim is to enhance the understanding of self-esteem’s role as a family resource. The results achieved indicate that the benefits of high self-esteem spread to both members of the couple. Indeed, when one of the partners has high selfesteem, he or she will tend to adopt behaviors that are helpful for the quality of both the romantic and the coparental relationships. Additionally, it will also have a positive influence on the partner’s behaviors. On the long run, high self-esteem will modify the development of the romantic and coparental relationships, buffering their normative decline. Thus, self-esteem appears to play a significant role for the quality of the romantic and coparental relationships and should be considered in family interventions with therapeutic or preventive aims.

  • El Ghaziri, Nahema, Joëlle Darwiche & Jean-Philippe Antonietti. 2019. Is self-esteem a resource for the parental couple? A longitudinal study on the quality of the romantic and coparental relationships. Journal of Social and Personal Relationships 36.11-12: 3773–3795. DOI: 10.1177/0265407519838349
  • The aim of this study is to investigate the longitudinal influence of self-esteem on romantic and coparental relationship quality. The data were drawn from the German Family Panel, pairfam. Parents (ncouples = 2,364) were assessed three times over 4 years. The results indicated that romantic and coparental quality decreased over time, while self-esteem remained stable. The self-esteem of both parents predicted initial romantic and coparental quality. Additionally, mothers’ self-esteem reduced the decline in romantic quality. Finally, romantic quality mediated the relationship between parents’ self-esteem and coparental quality. These results suggest that self-esteem might be a resource for the parental couple and even for the family unit, as romantic and coparental quality are key elements for the well-being of both parent and child.

  • Fang, Shichen. 2019. Trajectories of parent-child contact, affection, and conflict during the transition to adulthood. Dissertation: University of Alberta
  • The parent-child relationship is one of the most influential and long-lasting social ties for many people. Much research on this relationship focuses on childhood, adolescence, and old age, while parent-child relations during the transition to adulthood remains a relatively understudied area. Additionally, many studies have gathered data from only one parent (usually mother) and the child; a full understanding of parent-child relations requires information from both mother, father, and the child. Guided by a life course perspective on human development, this study examined trajectories of perceived parent-child contact, affection, and conflict in the transition to adulthood, as well as the moderating effect of sex composition of the parent-child dyad on these trajectories. This study also investigated associations of youth life course transitions (leaving the parental home, exiting the education system, initiating a romantic relationship) with parent-child relations, controlling for parent age and education. Data used in this study were collected from a community sample of German parent-child dyads (n = 3,680, 60% mother-child) followed annually from late adolescence (age 17) into the transition to adulthood (until age 22). Dyadic latent growth models revealed that parent-child contact and conflict decreased, and parent-child affection remained stable. Mothers on average had better relations with their children than did fathers, with the mother-daughter relationship being the closest and the father-son relationship being the most vulnerable. Older parents tended to report more parent-child contact but less affection at age 17, while more educated parents experienced a greater decline in contact from ages 17 to 22. Parent-child co-residence was associated with more parent-child contact, more conflict, and more youth-reported affection toward parents. Being a student in secondary, vocational, or post-secondary schooling was related to more parent-child contact and less conflict in the late teens, and less contact in the early 20s. Being in a romantic relationship was iii linked with less parent-child contact and less parent-reported affection toward children in the late teens, and less conflict and more parent-reported affection in the early 20s. Using a rigorous analytic approach, this study expands upon our knowledge about general patterns and predictors of parent-child relations in an important transitional period of life.

  • Fulda, Barbara E., Bernhard Nauck & Qiang Ren. 2019. The transition to adulthood in China, Germany and the US: Prevalence and timing in private and professional life. Chinese Journal of Sociology 5.2: 193-213. DOI: 10.1177/2057150X19838728
  • We explore cross-country differences in the transition to adulthood between China, Germany, and the USA. Using large-scale panel studies, we examine the timing of leaving the parental home, first marriage and first parenthood. For those born between 1933 and 1988, we observe a delay in the timing of first marriage in all three societies. But the delay is steeper in the USA than in Germany and China. The age at first childbirth is increasing in all three countries. By age 30, most individuals in China have married their first partner and become parents, whereas in the USA and Germany less than half of the population have experienced one of these events. There are large differences in educational and employment trajectories between the urban and rural populations in China, less so in the USA, whereas almost no differences are observed in Germany. The three countries are alike in the proportion of individuals who have left the parental home by age 30. In all three countries, individuals without tertiary qualifications are more likely to have experienced all three events by age 30. But with regard to first marriage, a larger share of higher-educated individuals get married by the age of 30 in the USA, whereas in China it is the less educated who are more likely to get married.

  • Hajek, Kristin. 2019. Sex and housework: Does perceived fairness of the distribution of housework actually matter?. Zeitschrift für Familienforschung - Journal of Family Research 31.1.:83-104. DOI: 10.3224/zff.v31i1.05
  • Recent findings suggest that couples who perceive their housework distribution to be fair have more frequent sexual encounters and are more satisfied with their sex life. However, past research has relied on between-person comparisons and might therefore be biased due to unobserved confounders. By applying fixed effects panel models, this study seeks to eliminate all time-constant, group-specific heterogeneity. Using data from 1,315 cohabiting and married couples from the German Family Panel (pairfam), I have examined how changes in the distribution of housework and the perception of fairness affect sexual satisfaction and sexual frequency. Moreover, I distinguish between core (traditionally female) and non-core (traditionally male) household tasks to verify the hypothesis that a gender-stereotypic distribution of household tasks fosters sexual activity. No effect of the division of labor or the perception of fairness thereof on sexual satisfaction and sexual frequency could be found.

  • Heintz-Martin, Valerie & Cordula Zabel. 2019. The stability of partnerships across the transition from education to employment. Journal of Youth Studies 22.8: 1017-1034. DOI: 10.1080/13676261.2018.1562164
  • This article examines the dynamics of emerging adults' partnerships across the school-to-work transition. While previous research studied the impact of the school-to-work transition on cohabitation entry only, we focus on partnership disruption, accounting for cohabitation as a parallel process. We examine whether partnership volatility is tied to enrolment in education, which would imply greater opportunities for relationship and identity exploration, but also postponed family formation, for those enrolled in education longer. Moreover, we study the impact of non-employment after education on the stability of early partnerships. The analyses are based on PAIRFAM, a survey on relationship dynamics for young cohorts in Germany. Focusing on western Germany, we study partnerships that began during education. In a three-process model, we examine partnership disruptions and transformations of non-cohabiting partnerships into cohabitations, comparing the impact of educational enrolment, employment, and non-employment while controlling for selectivity in entering employment. We find that young men's transition from education to employment stabilizes their partnerships. However, partnership instability is higher for young men with phases of non-employment after education than for those who are employed. In contrast to men, the school-to-work transition has no effect on partnership stability for women

  • Horne, Rebecca M. & Matthew D. Johnson. 2019. A labor of love? Emotion work in intimate relationships. Journal of Social and Personal Relationships 36.4: 1190-1209. DOI: 10.1177/0265407518756779
  • Drawing on relational developmental systems and gender relations perspectives, this study analyzed data from 1,932 heterosexual couples from Waves 1 and 2 of the German Family Panel to answer three questions: (1) What are the longitudinal associations between male and female partners’ emotion work provision and relationship satisfaction? (2) Are there gender differences in associations between emotion work and relationship satisfaction? (3) Does autonomy moderate associations among these focal variables? An actor–partner interdependence model revealed emotion work was linked to heightened future relationship satisfaction, and female partners’ emotion work was the strongest predictor of both partners’ relationship satisfaction. Latent variable interactions demonstrated male partners’ emotion work was linked to female partners’ heightened relationship satisfaction only when men also reported high levels of autonomy. Emotion work may be a “labor of love” that builds future relationship satisfaction while under the differential “management” of autonomous self-representation and gender norms of affective care.

  • Ivanova, Katya & Nicoletta Balbo. 2019. Cementing the Stepfamily? Biological and Stepparents’ Relationship Satisfaction After the Birth of a Common Child in Stepfamilies. Journal of Family Issues 40.10:  1346–1363   DOI: 10.1177/0192513X19836456
  • This article studies the relationship between having a common child in stepfamilies and partners’ relationship satisfaction. Previous works have primarily looked at children’s adjustment in stepfamilies and have cautioned against seeing a common offspring as a way to “cement” the partnership because the addition of a shared child does not benefit the child from an earlier union. We used seven waves of the German “Panel Analysis of Intimate Relationships and Family Dynamics” to examine the relationship satisfaction of partners in a stepfamily and its association with the potential birth of a common child. After controlling for initial relationship satisfaction, we see that having a common child is linked to higher satisfaction over time. Interestingly, for those whose common child is between 1 and 3 years old, we saw temporarily lower relationship satisfaction, which was less pronounced for the partner who was a stepparent in the context of the union.

  • Johnson, Matthew D. & Franz. J. Neyer. 2019. (Eventual) stability and change across partnerships. Journal of family psychology: JFP: Journal of the Division of Family Psychology of the American Psychological Association 43. DOI: 10.1037/fam0000523
  • Does a new partnership differ from its preceding one? This study investigates whether relationship dynamics change as people transition from 1 partnership to another and examines a number of predictors that might explain variation in change trajectories. We draw on data gathered from 554 focal participants in the German Family Panel (pairfam) study surveyed at 4 time points spanning 2 intimate unions to answer these questions. Latent change score modeling results showed eventual stability in 5 of 7constructs under investigation. When looking at overall change from Time 1 in Partnership 1 to Time 2of Partnership 2, there were no mean-level changes in relationship and sexual satisfaction, perceptions of relational instability, or frequency of conflictual and intimate exchanges. Sexual frequency and partner admiration improved across partnerships. Further analyses showed much change unfolded in the interim; all constructs showed significant deterioration as Partnership 1 drew to a close, marked improvements as individuals moved from the end of Partnership 1 into their next union, and worsening across the 1st year of Partnership 2. Neuroticism and relationship length were the most consistent predictors of change across partnerships: Those in shorter Partnership 1 relationships and with higher neuroticism typically experienced decreases in functioning across partnerships. These findings provide support for an eventual stability conceptualization of relationship development across partnerships.

  • Johnson, Matthew D., Franz J. Neyer & Jared R. Anderson. 2019. Development of Immigrant Couple Relations in Germany. Journal of Marriage and Family 81.4: 1227-1284. DOI: 10.1111/jomf.12580
  • Objective: This study investigates whether relationship satisfaction, conflict frequency, and self‐disclosure follow distinct developmental trajectories for immigrant couples when compared with native‐born couples and explores the factors that explain developmental diversity for immigrant couples.

    Background: Despite nearly a quarter of a billion people worldwide living in a country other than their birth country, no longitudinal research has examined immigrant couple intimate relations. Stress‐focused theoretical perspectives provide motivation for the current study.

    Method: Five annual waves of survey data from the German Family Panel (pairfam) study were analyzed. Propensity score matching was used to select a sample of immigrant (n = 614) and native‐born (n = 2,097) couples matched on a number of potentially confounding demographic (e.g., marital status) and values‐based (e.g., traditional gender‐role attitudes) variables.

    Results: Latent growth curve analyses revealed few differences between immigrant and native‐born couple trajectories and, where differences arose, the trajectories converged by Wave 5. Within immigrant couples, having both partners as immigrants emerged as a protective factor, whereas citizenship status in the receiving country and length of time since immigrating were not consistently associated with the relationship outcomes. Associations among couple supportiveness, traditional gender roles, and Big Five personality variables with the immigrant couple trajectories were consistent with findings in the relationship science literature.

    Conclusion: Although being an immigrant entails navigating additional challenges in daily life as a result of one's minority status, these results bear testament to the remarkable resilience of immigrant couples.

  • Keller, Ferdinand & Alexandra N. Langmeyer. 2019. An Item Response Theory Analysis of the Strength and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ).European Journal of Psychological Assessment 35.2.: 266-279. DOI:10.1027/1015-5759/a000390
  • The Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ) assesses five subscales for measuring child adjustment. In the present study, an item response theory approach was used to analyze the parent version of the SDQ subscales and the total difficulties score (TDS), which is obtained by summing up the scores of the four problem subscales. Analyses are based on two data sets: The German Family Panel “Panel Analysis of Intimate Relationships and Family Dynamics (pairfam, N = 1,078)” and the survey “Growing up in Germany” (Aufwachsen in Deutschland: Alltagswelten; AID:A, N = 1,346). Partial credit and generalized partial credit models were estimated for each subscale and a bifactor model was applied to the TDS. The results showed satisfying psychometric properties in both samples for each of the five subscales, except for the “Hyperactivity/Inattention” subscales which seemed to have a two-dimensional structure. Item discrimination and category threshold parameters were broadly comparable between the samples. According to the bifactor models, there is evidence for multidimensionality in the TDS, but the general factor was strong. Thus, the TDS can be treated as essentially unidimensional, although some subscales may be of additional value. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2019 APA, all rights reserved)

  • Köppen, Katja & Heike Trappe. 2019. The gendered division of labor and its perceived fairness: Implications for childbearing in Germany. Demographic Research 40: 1413-1440. DOI: 10.4054/DemRes.2019.40.48
  • Background: Recently it has been claimed that gender equality and gender equity in the family tend to increase fertility. The strength of this association, however, depends on prevailing gender relations and the level of social support of employment and family within a society.

    Objective: We wish to improve our understanding of the relationship between gender equality, gender equity, and fertility by investigating the impact of the actual division of paid and unpaid labor on first- and second-birth fertility in Germany while including in our analyses a repeatedly measured indicator of gender equity that captures the subjective perception of fairness of this division.

    Methods: Using nine waves of the German Family Panel (pairfam), we apply discrete-time logistic regression models to cohorts of young women and men in coresidential unions to determine whether a birth occurs in a given year while using measures of gender equality and gender equity as lagged time-varying covariates.

    Results: We find that an arrangement in which the woman is in charge of routine housework and the division of paid and unpaid work is perceived as fair is positively associated with family formation. The perception of a fair division of work is no prerequisite for continued childbearing. Yet women’s responsibility for domestic work facilitates family extension.

    Contribution: This paper extends the literature on the relationship between gender equality, gender equity, and family outcomes by using prospective panel data to capture attitudinal and behavioral changes over the life course more fully than has previously been done.

  • Kunze, Susann. 2019. Stieffamilien. Beziehungsqualität und kindliche Kompetenzentwicklung. Wiesbaden: Springer. DOI: 10.1007/978-3-658-28778-8
  • Susann Kunze untersucht den direkten und indirekten Einfluss der partnerschaftlichen Beziehungsqualität auf die Kompetenzen von Kindern, die in Stieffamilien aufwachsen. Mithilfe von statistischen Strukturgleichungsmodellen ermittelt sie aus den Daten des Beziehungs- und Familienpanels pairfam nicht nur verschiedene indirekte Einflüsse. Sie stellt auch in Gruppenvergleichen unterschiedliche Wirkmechanismen bei leiblichen und sozialen Eltern fest. Auf der Grundlage der Untersuchungsergebnisse und der hinzugezogenen Literatur entwickelt die Autorin einen pädagogischen Handlungsleitfaden für Stieffamilien.

  • Lengerer, Andrea & Jeanette Bohr. 2019. Gibt es eine Zunahme gleichgeschlechtlicher Partnerschaften in Deutschland? Theoretische Überlegungen und empirische Befunde. Zeitschrift für Soziologie 48.2: 136-157. DOI: 10.1515/zfsoz-2019-0010
  • Obwohl gleichgeschlechtliche Partnerschaften einen enormen Zuwachs an gesellschaftlicher und rechtlicher Anerkennung erfahren haben, ist das empirisch gesicherte Wissen über ihre Verbreitung weiterhin gering. Der vorliegende Beitrag beschäftigt sich mit der Entwicklung gleichgeschlechtlicher Partnerschaften in Westdeutschland seit Beginn der 1970er-Jahre. Auf Basis des Mikrozensus werden gleichgeschlechtliche Partnerschaften im gemeinsamen Haushalt – teilweise mit Hilfe eines Schätzverfahrens – nicht nur im Zeitverlauf, sondern erstmals auch im Lebensverlauf von Kohorten betrachtet. Theoretisch wird argumentiert, dass die Wahl eines gleichgeschlechtlichen Partners nicht allein von der sexuellen Orientierung, sondern auch von sozialen und strukturellen Rahmenbedingungen abhängt. Die Ergebnisse zeigen, dass der Anteil gleichgeschlechtlicher Partnerschaften im Zeitverlauf kontinuierlich ansteigt. Dieser Anstieg ist auf einen Kohorteneffekt zurückzuführen und zeigt sich für beide Geschlechter, fällt bei Männern allerdings stärker aus.

  • Lux, Ulrike & Sabine Walper. 2019. A systemic perspective on children's emotional insecurity in relation to father: links to parenting, interparental conflict and children's social well-being. Attachment & Human Development 21.5: 467-484. DOI: 10.1080/14616734.2019.1582597
  • Focusing on the father-child-relationship in a family systems perspective, this paper investigates longitudinal links of parenting, interparental conflict, and positive regard by both parents, to their emotional insecurity with father and mother. Furthermore, to clarify fathers’ contribution to children’s social development, aspects of the relationship to both parents are jointly considered. The sample was drawn from the German family panel pairfam and included 372 family triads with parents’ and children’s self-reports. Findings revealed consistent associations between interparental conflict and lack of positive regard and emotional insecurity, while parenting had no independent links with children’s emotional insecurity or social adjustment. Controlling for the stability of child outcomes, interparental conflict predicted children’s lower prosocial behavior and higher peer rejection. In addition, peer rejection was predicted by children’s emotional insecurity with father. The findings are in line with the emotional security hypothesis and highlight the importance of the father-child-relationship for developing positive peer relationships.

  • Müller, Bettina. 2019. Capturing multiple perspectives in a multi-actor survey. The impact of parental presence during child interviews on reporting discrepancies. Survey Research Methods 13.2: 137-151. DOI: 10.18148/srm/2019.v13i2.7419
  • Third-party presence is considered a potential threat to the quality of sensitive information gathered in face-to-face interviews. Issues arising from interference and reduced privacy due to bystander presence appear particularly pressing in child surveys: Parental presence is quite common and likely more pervasive as compared to other interviewee-bystander constellations. Focusing on surveys designed to capture multiple perspectives on the same issues, a key question is whether child interviews – in addition to parent information – can provide an independent opinion if parents are present during the interview. Using longitudinal multi-actor data from the German Family Panel (pairfam), the present study evaluates the impact of parental presence on child-parent discrepancies in survey reports on children’s problem behaviors and difficulties in the parent-child relationship. The longitudinal analysis of child-parent dyads allows for a more extensive consideration of selection processes of parental presence as compared to cross-sectional approaches. While descriptive results suggest that parent and child reports are more similar when parents are present, fixed-effects regression analyses do not find any effects of changes in parental presence on reporting discrepancies within child-parent dyads.

  • Mund, Marcus & Franz J. Neyer. 2019. Loneliness effects on personality. International Journal of Behavioral Development 34: 136-146. DOI: 10.1177/0165025418800224
  • Individuals feel lonely when they perceive a discrepancy between their desired and their actually experienced quantity and quality of social relationships. Prior research has demonstrated the importance of loneliness for various health-related aspects. In the present article, we extend the existing literature on loneliness by investigating its role for predicting personality traits and their development from late adolescence to early midlife. Using data from a representative German sample (N = 12,402) sampling individuals from three different birth cohorts, we found loneliness to predict the levels of all Big Five traits except openness five years later. The effects of loneliness on the development of neuroticism and extraversion reached statistical significance but were only marginal in terms of effect size. Furthermore, we found that a self-regulatory focus geared to the prevention of negative events mediated the effects of loneliness on later levels of the Big Five.

  • Mund, Marcus & Steffen Nestler. 2019. Beyond the Cross-Lagged Panel Model: Next-generation statistical tools for analyzing interdependencies across the life course. Advances in Life Course Research 41. DOI: 10.1016/j.alcr.2018.10.002
  • For decades, researchers have employed the Cross-Lagged Panel Model (CLPM) to analyze the interactions and interdependencies of a wide variety of inner- or supra-individual variables across the life course. However, in the last years the CLPM has been criticized for its underlying assumptions and several alternative models have been proposed that allow to relax these assumptions. With the Random-Intercept CLPM, the Autoregressive Latent Trajectory Model with Structured Residuals, and the Dual Change Score Model, we describe three of the most prominent alternatives to the CLPM and provide an impression about how to interpret the results obtained with these models. To this end, we illustrate the use of the presented models with an empirical example on the interplay between self-esteem and relationship satisfaction. We provide R and Mplus scripts that might help life course researchers to use these novel and powerful alternatives to the CLPM in their own research.

  • Nimmo, Diane. 2019. Falling pregnant and space: The reconstruction of procreation from a practice theory perspective. Family and Space: Rethinking Family Theory and Empirical Approaches edited byHalatcheva-Trapp, Maya, Giulia Montanari & Tino Schlinzig, 111-121. London/ New York: Routledge.

  • Park, Yoobin & Geoff MacDonald. 2019. Consistency between individuals' past and current romantic partners' own reports of their personalities, edited by Susan T. Fiske. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 116: 12793–12797. DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1902937116
  • Do people have a “type” when it comes to their romantic partners’ personalities? In the present research, we used data from a 9-y longitudinal study in Germany and examined the similarity between an individual’s ex- and current partners using the partners’ self-reported personality profiles. Based on the social accuracy model, our analyses distinguished similarity between partners that was attributable to similarity to an average person (normative similarity) and resemblance to the target participant himself/herself (self-partner similarity) to more precisely examine similarity from partner to partner (distinctive similarity). The results revealed a significant degree of distinctive partner similarity, suggesting that there may indeed be a unique type of person each individual ends up with. We also found that distinctive partner similarity was weaker for people high in extraversion or openness to experience, suggesting that these individuals may be less likely to be in a relationship with someone similar to their ex-partner (although the individual difference effects were not mirrored in an alternative analytic approach). These findings provide evidence for stability in distinctive partner personality and have important implications for predicting future partnering behaviors and actions in romantic relationships.

  • Pusch, Sebastian, Marcus Mund, Birk Hagemeyer & Christine Finn. 2019. Personality Development in Emerging and Young Adulthood: A Study of Age Differences. European Journal of Personality 33.3: 245-236. DOI: 10.1002/per.2181 Replicating Material 
  • Early adulthood is a time of substantial personality change characterized by large inter‐individual diversity. To investigate the role of age in this diversity, the present study examined whether emerging adults differ from an older group of young adults in their Big Five personality development. By means of multi‐group latent change modelling, two groups of 16‐ to 19‐year‐olds (n = 3555) and 26‐ to 29‐year‐olds (n = 2621) were tracked over the course of four years and compared regarding four aspects of personality change: mean‐level change, rank‐order change, inter‐individual differences in change, and profile change. In addition, age‐differential socialization effects associated with six first‐time life events were investigated. Analyses revealed substantial age differences in all four aspects of change. As expected, emerging adults showed greater change and diversity in change than young adults. However, the six life events had no age‐differential impact on change in single traits and Big Five profiles. Overall, the results indicate that age differences should be considered even in specific life stages to advance the understanding of personality development.

  • Schmiedeberg, Claudia & Nina Schumann. 2019. Poverty and Adverse Peer Relationships among Children in Germany: a Longitudinal Study. Child Indicators Research 12: 1717-1733. DOI: 10.1007/s12187-018-9606-8
  • Low socioeconomic status is regarded as a risk factor for social exclusion and victimization of children, but empirical evidence is mixed. Using longitudinal data from parent-child dyads of the German Family Panel (pairfam), we apply both pooled OLS (POLS) and fixed-effects regression models to test whether children experience more peer relationship problems if they live in a household with adverse economic conditions, i.e. with a household equivalence income below the poverty line. As fixed-effects models are based on intraindividual change over time, it is precluded that time-constant attributes of the child and its environment bias the estimation. We also estimate POLS models to link our results to prior research and to identify the role of time-constant factors such as migration background and parental education. We find a significant association between poverty and adverse peer relationships in the POLS estimations, but not in the within (fixed-effects) estimations. Parental education and family structure are found to significantly increase the likelihood of peer relationship problems, whereas this is not the case for migration background. Our findings imply that while children from disadvantaged families experience more adverse peer relationships, poverty itself is not the cause, but rather factors related to social status.

  • Stamm, Isabell, Fabian Bernhard & Nicole Hameister. 2019. Empirische Befunde zu Unternehmerfamilien in Deutschland. Soziologie der Unternehmerfamilie edited by Kleve, Heiko & Tobias Köllner, 115-141. Wiesbaden: Springer. DOI: 10.1007/978-3-658-22388-5
  • Die deutsche Wirtschaft zeichnet sich durch einen hohen Anteil an Familienunternehmen aus. Verschiedene empirische Studien belegen dies. Das Zentrum für Europäische Wirtschaftsforschung (ZEW) in Mannheim (Gottschalk und Keese 2014) schätzt auf Basis von Registerdaten, den Anteil der Familienunternehmen an allen deutschen Unternehmen mit einem Jahresumsatz von mehr als € 50.000 auf 96 %.

  • Steinbach, Anja, Johannes Kopp & Patrick Lazarevic (2019). Divergent perceptions of intergenerational relationships: What implications, if any? Journal of Family Studies 25.4: 368-384. DOI: 10.1080/13229400.2016.1269659 
  • People involved in a shared social relationship may perceive their relationship differently. The intergenerational stake hypothesis posits differences in reports of parents and adult children on emotional closeness and conflict; empirical studies have also found different reports on the exchange of support. These findings are tested by looking at assessments of different dimensions of the parent–child relation. Data were drawn from the 2009to 2010 wave of the German Family Panel (pairfam) and include more than 4500 parent–child dyads. Some differences were found (parents reported higher emotional closeness and lower conflict), but does this mean that all empirical studies of intergenerational relationships are potentially biased if they use data from only one generation? Using pairfam data, we show that no great statistical bias is introduced when data from one, not both generations are used. Thus, data from one side of the parent–child dyad are sufficient for most research into intergenerational relations.

  • Tanskanen, Antti O. & Mirkka Danielsbacka. 2019. Relationship Quality Among Half Siblings: the Role of Childhood Co-residence. Evolutionary Psychological Science 5.1: 13-21. DOI: 10.1007/s40806-018-0161-9
  • It is argued that the childhood co-residence duration is one of the most important kin detection mechanisms among siblings and thus should influence the relationship quality between them. Using data from the German Family Panel (Pairfam) sibling module, we detect whether childhood co-residence predicts relationship quality (as indicated by the contact frequency and emotional closeness) among adult half siblings. Individuals who have co-resided with their half siblings during childhood report a better relationship quality with these siblings compared to individuals who have not co-resided with half siblings. Among individuals who have co-resided for most oftheir childhood with halfsiblings, the relationship quality is better in same-sex dyads than opposite-sex dyads. Finally, no difference in relationship quality was detected between full and halfsiblings in cases in which they lived together during their childhood. These findings indicate that childhood co-residence tends to regulate relationship quality among adult halfsiblings.

  • Wagner, Michael, Clara H. Mulder, Bernd Weiß & Sandra Krapf. 2019. The transition from living apart together to a coresidential partnership. Advances in Life Course Research 39: 77-86. DOI: 10.1016/j.alcr.2018.12.002
  • Moving in with a partner is a step in the process of institutionalising a romantic relationship, that is, establishing the relationship in such a way that it is more embedded in the social environment and more strongly regulated by social norms and mutual expectations. But under what circumstances do couples decide to establish a joint household? We study the transition to a coresidential partnership among couples in a ‘living-apart-together’ (LAT) relationship. We use data from the seven waves of the German Family Panel (pairfam) dataset (N = 2428 LAT relationships of men and women born in 1971–1973, 1981–1983, and 1991–1993). In order to analyse especially the partnership processes of younger adults, we focus on respondents in the age range of 18 to 42 in the time period between 2008 to 2016. Using discrete-time event-history models, we test hypotheses about the partners’ resources, relationship quality, degree of relationship institutionalisation, and exposure to different kinds of costs. Our results indicate that especially equality and institutionalisation factors, as well as the costs of moving and of starting to coreside, are associated with the decision to move in together. Resources are important for those LAT partners who are living in the parental household, while for LAT partners who have already left the parental home no effect of resources was found on the transition to a coresidential union.

  • Wagner, Michael, Johannes Huinink & Aart C. Liefbroer. 2019. Running out of time? Understanding the consequences of the biological clock for the dynamics of fertility intentions and union formation. Demographic Research 40: 1-26. DOI: 10.4054/DemRes.2019.40
  • Background: A considerable proportion of childless women in their late thirties or early forties would still like to have children. The number of men and women whose fertility intentions are potentially influenced by the so-called biological clock for childbearing and who remain involuntarily childless is increasing.

    Objective: We analyze the short-term dynamics of fertility intentions and partner search among childless, non-partnered men and women aged 35–37. By comparing people in this age group to younger men and women, we investigate whether and how their awareness of the biological clock for childbearing affects their childbearing intentions.

    Methods: The data stems from the first two waves of the German Panel Analysis of Intimate Relationships and Family Dynamics (pairfam) survey. We selected male and female respondents aged 25–27 (n = 1,073) and 35–37 (n = 369) in Wave 1.

    Results: Our analyses reveal that fertility intentions are more polarized among men and women aged 35–37 than among their 25–27-year-old counterparts, and are more polarized among women than among men. Finding a partner is shown to positively affect fertility intentions. Our results suggest that people who intensify their fertility intentions are not necessarily successful in finding a partner, which can be seen as a major prerequisite for family formation.

    Contribution: This is one of the first studies to investigate the fertility intentions of childless men and women whose biological clock is running out. It provides an instructive example for a longitudinal study of the dynamics of life-course-related intentions.

  • Walper, Sabine, Barbara Wilhelm & Carolin Thönnissen. 2019. Das Beziehungs- und Familienpanel pairfam. In: Forschungsdaten für die Kinder- und Jugendhilfe. Qualitative und quantitative Sekundäranalysen edited byBegemann, Maik-Carsten & Klaus Birkelbach, 127-147 Wiesbaden: Springer. DOI: 10.1007/978-3-658-22388
  • Der folgende Beitrag beschreibt das Beziehungs- und Familienpanel pairfam als wesentlichen Bestandteil der Dateninfrastruktur der Familienforschung in Deutschland und geht auf sein Potential für kinder- und jugendhilferelevante Fragestellungen ein. Angelegt als interdisziplinäre, multiperspektivische Längsschnitterhebung stellt pairfam seit 2008/2009 jährliche Befragungsdaten von Müttern, Vätern, Kindern, Jugendlichen und jungen Erwachsenen zur Verfügung, die breite Analysemöglichkeiten eröffnen. Ein Überblick über die Entstehung und Zielsetzungen des pairfam-Panels sowie das Design und das Befragungsprogramm wird ergänzt durch eine Zusammenschau bereits umgesetzter Forschungsvorhaben und weiterer Auswertungsmöglichkeiten. Konzipiert als Scientific-Use-File und finanziert von der Deutschen Forschungsgemeinschaft stehen die pairfam-Daten interessierten Wissenschaftlerinnen und Wissenschaftlern zur Verfügung.

  • Yucel, Deniz & Wen Fan. 2019. Work–Family Conflict and Well-Being among German Couples: A Longitudinal and Dyadic Approach. Journal of health and social behavior 60.3: 377-395. DOI: 10.1177/0022146519870535
  • This study examines dual-earner couples to determine whether changes in work–family conflict predict changes in one’s own (i.e., actor effects) or partner’s (i.e., partner effects) health and well-being as well as gender differences in these relationships. Using data from 1,001 dual-earner couples in Wave 6 and Wave 8 of the German Family Panel survey (Pairfam), we found (1) significant actor effects for all outcomes, with stronger actor effects among men than women on mental health; (2) significant partner effects for life satisfaction and mental health, with stronger partner effects among men than women on life satisfaction; and (3) stronger actor effects than corresponding partner effects for life satisfaction and mental health. As work–family conflict has become a fact of life for many contemporary workers, our results contribute by highlighting the importance of using couple-level data and testing longitudinal crossover effects to provide a fuller understanding of such conflict’s health consequences.

  • Zemp, Martina, Matthew D. Johnson & Guy Bodenmann. 2019. Out of balance? Positivity–negativity ratios in couples’ interaction impact child adjustment. Developmental Psychology 55: 135-147. DOI: 10.1037/dev0000614
  • Parental conflict is a well-established predictor of child maladjustment. Most research, however, has not considered how the couple’s positivity–negativity interaction ratio (i.e., the ability to compensate for negative behaviors with positive) may be linked with child adjustment. We examined interparental positivity–negativity interaction ratios reported by one partner as a predictor of child self-reported internalizing and externalizing problems using 3 waves of survey data gathered from 809 families across 5 years in the German Family Panel (pairfam) study. Latent class analysis revealed 4 distinct classes of parental positivity–negativity ratios evident at all 3 waves: (a) very high positivity–very low negativity, (b) high positivity–moderate negativity, (c) moderate positivity–low negativity, and (d) low positivity–very high negativity. Latent growth curve analyses revealed that children from parents in the low positivity–very high negativity ratio reported higher scores of internalizing problems across all waves compared with children from the other groups. This finding indicates that the impact of negative couple interactions on child internalizing problems is counterbalanced by the amount of positivity also present in parental relations. The study suggests consideration of positive and negative aspects of parental relations simultaneously is warranted in clinical practice or when studying the impact of parental couple dynamics on child development.

  • Zimmermann, Okka  & Nicole Hameister. 2019. Stable cohabitational unions increase quality of life: Retrospective analysis of partnership histories also reveals gender differences. Demographic Research 40: 657-692. DOI: 10.4054/DemRes.2019.40.24
  • BACKGROUND Prior research focused on the impact of being in a partnership on quality of life from a cross-sectional perspective; the impact of partnership histories has not yet been investigated. OBJECTIVE Based on the life-course paradigm and the theory of cumulative (dis)advantages, we address this research gap.

    METHODS Using pairfam data, we analyse the influence of partnership histories between ages 14 and 41 on depressiveness, overall life satisfaction, and partnership expectations. We demonstrate the additional value of using life-course clusters over simple sequence characteristics by showing that more detailed and accurate conclusions can be drawn.

    RESULTS Results highlight that both men and women benefited from being in a stable cohabitational union. Gender differences were found among those who were negatively affected by not establishing a stable cohabitational union. Among men, longterm singles were significantly more depressed, less satisfied, and had more negative partnership expectations than their cohort peers. Among women, those with a history of unstable relationships were less satisfied and had more negative partnership expectations.


  • Augustijn, Lara. 2018. Berufsbedingte Pendelmobilität, Geschlecht und Stress. Duisburger Beiträge zur soziologischen Forschung: 2018-02. Universität Duisburg-Essen, Institut für Soziologie. DOI: 10.6104/DBsF-2018-02
  • Berufsbedingte Pendelmobilität hat in Deutschland erheblich an Bedeutung gewonnen, insbesondere für weibliche Erwerbstätige. Das Pendeln zwischen Wohn-und Arbeitsort ist jedoch in hohem Maße ambivalent, da Pendelmobilität nicht nur mit vorteilhafteren Arbeitsbedingungen verbunden ist, sondern auch als Stressor wirken kann. Der vorliegende Beitrag widmet sich daher der Frage, ob ein Zusammenhang zwischen berufsbedingter Pendelmobilität und der subjektiven Wahrnehmung von Stress beobachtet werden kann. Zudem wird untersucht, wie das Geschlecht der Pendler auf diesen Zusammenhang wirkt. Analysen auf Basis des deutschen Beziehungs- und Familienpanels (pairfam, Welle 7, 2014/2015) belegen, dass berufsbedingte Pendelmobilität tatsächlich mit einer höheren Stressbelastung bei den Betroffenen einhergeht, allerdings nur bei weiblichen Pendlern. Faktoren wie die Pendeldauer und der Partnerschaftsstatus üben keinen signifikanten Einfluss auf die Wahrnehmung von Stress aus, allerdings trägt das Zusammenleben mit Kindern bei pendelnden Frauen zu einer erhöhten Stressbelastung bei.

  • Balaban, Ebru, Dafina Kurti & Jara Kampmann. 2018. Comparing Sibling Ties in Inter-ethnic and Intra-ethnic Families in Germany. Making Multicultural Families in Europe, edited by Crespi, Isabella, Stefania Giada Meda & Laura Merla, 71-89.  Palgrave Macmillan Studies in Family and Intimate Life. Cham: Palgrave Macmillan. DOI: 10.1007/978-3-319-59755-3_5
  • This chapter examines the cultural factors that influence the quality of sibling relationships in multi-cultural and mono-cultural families in Germany. We focus on the cultural context in general by considering societal values, like individualism and collectivism, and focus more specifically on family values relating to parenting methods and parental roles. Little is known about sibling relationships in multi-cultural families. Drawing on a theoretical approach regarding the variations in family dynamics in different sociocultural contexts, we expect that—in contrast to mono-cultural families—in multi-cultural families, distinct norms and values and parenting methods affect the family, and consequently affect sibling relationships. To test our hypotheses, we use data taken from Wave 5 of the Panel Analysis of Intimate Relationships and Family Dynamics (2012/2013).

  • Berndt, Jan Ole, Stephanie C. Rodermund & Ingo J. Timm. 2018. Social Contagion of Fertility: An Agent-Based Simulation Study. 2018 Winter Simulation Conference (WSC), Gothenburg, Sweden: 953-964. DOI: 10.1109/WSC.2018.8632331
  • Social contagion is a process in which the behavior of a social group spreads across a population. We model and analyze this phenomenon with respect to fertility in an agent-based social simulation study. Our model integrates personal motivations for having children and social influences to allow for quantifying their respective impact on fertile behavior. We use a real-world dataset for model calibration and compare three hypothetical scenarios with the reference setting. Our results show that each of the social influences has a statistically significant impact on birth rates in the agent population. Moreover, we identify differences in the effects of social pressure and social support depending on a person’s age. This shows that our simulation is not only capable of realistically reflecting family development, but can also provide further insights into the functioning of social mechanisms in a controlled experiment setting.

  • Buhr, Petra, Katharina Lutz & Timo Peter. 2018. The influence of the number of siblings on expected family size in a cohort of young adults in Germany. Demographic Research 39: 315-336. DOI: 10.4054/DemRes.2018.39.10 Replicating Material 
  • Background: Previous research has shown that fertility is influenced by the family of origin. However, there is only little evidence about intergenerational transmission of fertility expectations in younger birth cohorts.

    Objective: We investigate if there is a positive relationship between the number of full siblings and expected family size in a young birth cohort in Germany and whether this association can be explained by transmission of socioeconomic status.

    Methods: We use the fifth wave of the German Family Panel (birth cohort 1991–1993) and estimate multinomial logistic regression models.

    Results: We find a positive effect of the number of full siblings on expected family size that remains stable when controlling for the socioeconomic status of the parents. The effect is smaller on an expected family size of two children compared to other parities which is compatible with the prevailing two-child norm in Germany. Contrary to our expectations there is no effect of the number of siblings on being uncertain about having children.

    Conclusions: The family of origin influences fertility expectations in a cohort born in the 1990s in Germany, which cannot be explained by transmission of socioeconomic status. Although it is theoretically plausible, there is no final proof that the relationship is instead due to transmission of family values, as the number of siblings is only a proxy variable for the family values of the parents.

    Contribution: We verify the results of previous studies for a cohort born in the 1990s in Germany, account for parity differences, and include uncertainty in fertility expectations

  • Castiglioni, Laura & Claudia Schmiedeberg. 2018. Joint effect of education and age at childbirth on the risk of caesarean delivery: findings from Germany 2008–2015. Public Health 155: 1-7. DOI: 10.1016/j.puhe.2017.10.020
  • Objectives

    This article aims at assessing the joint effect of maternal age and education on the risk of having a caesarean delivery. As high maternal education is often associated with lower caesarean-birth rates, but high-educated women tend to postpone motherhood, these effects may offset each other in traditional analyses.

    Study design

    Secondary analysis of the data from the German Family Panel pairfam.


    The interview-based data refer to 1020 births between 2008 and 2015. We analyse only reports from mothers and calculate logistic regression models.


    The caesarean delivery rate differs strongly between education levels, and low-educated women are at higher risk of having a caesarean delivery when controlling for parity and age. A positive age gradient is found, indicating a higher risk of caesarean section for older mothers. Without controlling for age, the association of education and caesarean section risk is weaker, i.e., effects of age and education partially level each other out. A model including an interaction term between age and education confirms this result.


    The risk of having a caesarean delivery does not differ between levels of education when maternal age is not taken into account. Lower maternal education and higher age are both positively associated with the risk of experiencing a caesarean section in Germany. However, as higher educated women tend to have their children later, effects of education and age weigh each other out. Preventive campaigns should target women with lower education and raise women's awareness on the risks associated with late motherhood

  • Eckhard, Jan & Johannes Stauder. 2018. Migration and the Partner Market: How Gender-Selective Relocations Affect Regional Mating Chances in Germany. European Journal of Population 34: 59-86. DOI: 10.1007/s10680-017-9422-8 
  • The study explores the consequences of gender-selective internal migration for regional mating chances in Germany, comparing different cohorts as well as different types of regions. Indicators of the partner market based on time series of the official German regional population statistics are combined with indicators of migration and on regional economic, educational, and settlement structures. Instead of the simple sex ratio, which is the standard measure for partner market conditions in previous research, the study at hand uses the availability ratio suggested by Goldman et al. (Popul Index 50(1):5–25, 1984). The availability ratio takes into account that partner markets are structured by age preferences. Like previous studies, results show that gender-selective migration has led to a strong deterioration of mating chances for men in most eastern districts of Germany. Exceptions are districts offering universities as well as a large tertiary sector. But, unlike previous research, results also show that migration-caused imbalances of the partner market in eastern German districts are not extraordinarily high. In the western part of Germany, there were at times even stronger partner market imbalances for some male cohorts as a consequence of oscillating birth rates.

  • Geisler, Esther, Katja Köppen, Michaela Kreyenfeld, Heike Trappe & Matthias Pollmann-Schult (Hrsg.). 2018. Familien nach Trennung und Scheidung in Deutschland. Hertie School of Governance Berlin, Universität Rostock, Otto-von-Guericke-Universität Magdeburg. DOI: 10.24352/UB.OVGU-2018-096
  • Gniewosz, Burkhard & Gabriela Gniewosz. 2018. How to model intraindividual change in cohort data using Mplus’ multi-group approach. International Journal of Behavioral Development 42: 373-380. DOI: 10.1177/0165025417750282
  • The present article aims to show how to model longitudinal change in cohort sequential data applying latent true change models using Mplus’ multi-group approach. The underlying modeling ideas are described and explained in this article. As an example, change in internalizing problem behaviors between the age of 8 and 13 years is modeled and predicted by gender. The example data stems from a large German cohort sequential study and comprises 806 children in three birth cohorts (2001, 2000, 1999). Finally, the advantages and disadvantages of this modelling approach are discussed. Annotated syntax is provided online for the models.

  • Gniewosz, Gabriela, Sabine Walper, Ann-Katrin Meyrose & Ulrike Ravens-Sieberer. 2018. Nicht-monetäre Erträge von Bildung auf das Wohlbefinden in Kindheit, Jugend und (jungem) Erwachsenenalter. Zeitschrift für Soziologie der Erziehung und Sozialisation 38: 41-62.
  • Bisherige Diskussionen zu den Erträgen von Bildung konzentrieren sich vor allem auf monetäre Bildungserträge im Lebensverlauf, die z.B. am Einkommen oder beruflichen Fortkommen festgemacht werden. Nicht-monetäre Erträge von Bildung werden hingegen nur selten systematisch beachtet und stellen den Gegenstand des hier vorgestellten Verbundprojektes "Erträge von Bildung für das Wohlbefinden von Eltern, Kindern, Jugendlichen und jungen Erwachsenen" dar. Auf Grundlage dreier repräsentativer Längsschnittstudien, AID:A, BELLA und pairfam, werden Veränderungen im Wohlbefinden an drei zentralen Übergängen im Lebensverlauf betrachtet und auf Einflüsse familiärer Bildungsressourcen sowie eigener Bildungsverläufe zurückgeführt. Ziel des Artikels ist es, einen inhaltlichen und theoretischen Rahmen aufzuspannen und Potenziale und Herausforderungen im Zusammenhang mit den im Verbundprojekt verfolgten Fragestellungen für Wissenschaft und Praxis darzustellen.

  • Grünwald, Olga. 2018. How do family relations influence interethnic partner choices? The role of cohesion, affection and diversity in native and migrant families. Zeitschrift für Familienforschung - Journal of Family Research 30: 339-351
  • Despite the well-documented effect of parental attitudes and their socioeconomic status on interethnic partnerships, little is known about how family relations are associated with interethnic partner choices. The present study investigates whether cohesive and affective family ties as well as the family structure is connected to interethnic partnerships. Based on data from wave five of the German Family Panel (pairfam), I estimate logistic regression models for natives and migrants separately. Results indicate that for natives, cohesive and affective relations are not connected to interethnic partnerships. For migrants, cohesive relations have a detrimental effect on being in an interethnic partnership. Overall, these findings suggest that family processes may help to understand why some migrant groups are more likely to be in an interethnic union than others.

  • Hämäläinen, Hans, Antti O. Tanskanen, Mirkka Danielsbacka & Bruno Arpino. 2018. Reciprocity between family generations in Germany: A Within-Person Examination of Longitudinal Data. RECSM Working Paper Number 59
  • Although reciprocity of intergenerational support has been widely considered in family studies, empirical investigations are still rather scarce. This study used data from four waves of the Panel Analysis of Intimate Relationships and Family Dynamics (Pairfam), which inquired the respondents about intergenerational support. We examined whether previously received support from parents is associated with later provision of support to parents. Indicators of intergenerational help were emotional support, practical help, financial aid and personal care. Our analyses used multilevel regression models and investigated both between- and within-person effects. Between-person models indicated mainly positive associations between received and provided support; however, these associations often did not hold in within-person models, which were used to detect individuals’ variations over time. According to within-person models, increased emotional support that sons received from a parent was associated with increased financial support to that parent later. Also, increased practical help that daughters received from their fathers was associated with increased financial aid to their fathers later. The magnitude of these positive within-person effects was small compared to the between-person effects; within-person models did not provide any other evidence for causal intergenerational reciprocity.

  • Hajek, Kristin & Nina Schumann. 2018. Continuity Trumps? The Impact of Interviewer Change on Item Nonresponse. Survey Research Methods 12: 211-230. DOI:10.18148/srm/2018.v12i3.7230 Replicating Material 
  • Allocating the same interviewer to each respondent over multiple waves is typically recommended for panel surveys. While some studies have investigated the effect of this strategy on wave nonresponse, there is scarce empirical evidence on how interviewer (dis-)continuity effects item nonresponse. This is surprising, given that the amount and pattern of item nonresponse is a crucial aspect of data quality. Using the first seven waves of the German Family Panel pairfam, we investigate whether interviewer continuity indeed influences item nonresponse in a non-experimental setting. Our analysis di erentiates between “I don’t know” responses and the complete refusal to answer, both with respect to the specific question of household income as well as the entire question program. By applying cross-classified multilevel models and estimating within-respondent efects, we can base our results on an intra-individual comparison, controlling for time-constant unobserved characteristics and taking into account the complex structure of the data. Our analysis shows no detrimental effect of an interviewer change, per se, over the course of the panel; a new interviewer only collects more “I don’t know” answers if the respondent belongs to the oldest age group (born 1971–73). Younger respondents, in contrast, have a lower likelihood to answer with “I don’t know” to the income question if they experience a change in interviewer. Changes in social distance with respect to age and gender do not prove to be relevant mechanisms for this effect. Only female respondents of the youngest cohort exhibit a lower likelihood of “I don’t know” responses on the income question when reassigned to a female interviewer. Older interviewers tend to get more “I don’t know” answers, whereas reassignment to a more experienced interviewer (regardless of age) appears to encourage less “I don’t know” answers.

  • Hank, Karsten & Anja Steinbach. 2018. Intergenerational solidarity and intergenerational relations between adult siblings.Social Science Research 76: 55-64. DOI: 10.1016/j.ssresearch.2018.08.003
  • Few studies have yet investigated how intergenerational solidarity between parents and adult children is associated with intragenerational relations between siblings. Theoretically, one might expect compensation between inter- and intragenerational relationship solidarity as well as spillover effects from parent-child solidarity to sibling solidarity. Using data from the German Family Panel (pairfam), this study analyzes 5410 interviews with young adults who provided detailed information on the relationships to their parents and up to four siblings. Focusing on four dimensions of relationships in families (contact, emotional closeness, intimacy, and conflict), hierarchical linear regression results provide general support for the assumption that inter- and intragenerational relations reinforce each other. We also find evidence for the existence of partially compensating relationships: more frequent intergenerational conflicts, for example, not only predict more frequent conflicts between siblings, but also greater intimacy. The results are in line with predictions derived from family systems theory as well as social learning and attachment theories.

  • Hank, Karsten & Martin Wetzel. 2018. Same-sex relationship experiences and expectations regarding partnership and parenthood. Demographic Research 39: 701-718. DOI:  10.4054/DemRes.2018.39.25
  • Whereas recent years have brought comprehensive demographic accounts of the gay and lesbian population in the United States and several European countries, relatively little is yet known about gays’ and lesbians’ family-related attitudes and expectations.


    The present study contributes to closing this research gap, comparing individuals with and without same-sex relationship experiences regarding their expectations concerning partnership and parenthood.


    We run OLS regressions, using nationally representative survey data for two cohorts of young adults in Germany (born 1971–1973 and 1981–1983).


    In several regards, gays and lesbians expect lower benefits and greater costs of being in a partnership, but not of being a parent.


    We propose that the latter finding results from same-sex parenthood still being a comparatively rare event and expectations being formed on the basis of heteronormatively shaped values rather than on experience. This is different when considering romantic relationships. Even if partnership-related expectations are partially influenced by the same structural constraints that limit gays’ and lesbians’ factual opportunity to form a family, these expectations might still exhibit an independent additional impact on demographic outcomes.


    Accounting for individuals’ expectations might contribute to better explaining why, for example, marriage-like partnerships and cohabitation are less frequent in gay and lesbian couples than in heterosexual partnerships.

  • Heintz-Martin, Valerie & Cordula Zabel. 2018. The stability of partnerships across the transition from education to employment. Journal of Youth Studies. DOI: 10.1080/13676261.2018.1562164
  • This article examines the dynamics of emerging adults partnerships across the school-to-work transition. While previous research studied the impact of the school-to-work transition on cohabitation entry only, we focus on partnership disruption, accounting for cohabitation as a parallel process. We examine whether partnership volatility is tied to enrolment in education, which would imply greater opportunities for relationship and identity exploration, but also postponed family formation, for those enrolled in education longer. Moreover, we study the impact of non-employment after education on the stability of early partnerships. The analyses are based on PAIRFAM, a survey on relationship dynamics for young cohorts in Germany. Focusing on western Germany, we study partnerships that began during education. In a three-process model, we examine partnership disruptions and transformations of non-cohabiting partnerships into cohabitations, comparing the impact of educational enrolment, employment, and non-employment while controlling for selectivity in entering employment. We find that young men’s transition from education to employment stabilizes their partnerships. However, partnership instability is higher for young men with phases of non-employment after education than for those who are employed. In contrast to men, the school-to-work transition has no effect on partnership stability for women.

  • Hiekel, Nicole & Barbara E. Fulda. 2018. Love. Break up. Repeat: The prevalence and stability of serial cohabitation among West German women and men born in the early 1970s. Demographic Research 39: 855-70. DOI: 10.4054/DemRes.2018.39.30
  • Background: Serial cohabitation is of growing scientific relevance as more and more people experience the formation and dissolution of multiple unmarried cohabitations.

    Objective: Knowledge on the prevalence and stability of serial cohabitation outside the US context is limited. We provide unprecedented estimates on serial cohabitation on a West German cohort born in the early 1970s.

    Methods: We analyze 1,461 women and 1,121 men from the Pairfam study aged between 35 and 45 from birth cohorts 1971, 1972, and 1973 in West Germany who ever resided with a partner. Educational differences by cohabitation order are studied using one-way ANOVA. In multiple decrement life table analysis, we examine the stability of cohabitation of different order during the first five years of relationship. Two possible exit routes from unmarried cohabitation are analyzed: union dissolution and marriage.

    Results: Serial cohabitation is not related to educational attainment. The vast majority of cohabiting unions end within five years, more frequently by marriage than dissolution. Among three-and higher-order cohabitations marriage is less frequent. They do not differ from lower-order cohabiting unions regarding dissolution incidence.

    Conclusions: Serial cohabitation is a minority experience in the cohort studied. Unlike in the United States, serial cohabitation is equally prevalent in all educational strata. Cohabitation is a stepping-stone towards marriage for the vast majority of cohabiters.

    Contribution: Having cohabited more than once does not imply a rejection of the institution of marriage or reflect unwillingness to enter potentially stable and committed unions. Most cohabiters opt for marriage although it takes two turns in some cases.

  • Hoppmann, Isabella & Okka Zimmermann. 2018. „Living Apart Together“ in der Jugend ‒ nur eine Vorstufe zur Kohabitation?. Diskurs Kindheits- und Jugendforschung 13:69-86. DOI: 10.3224/diskurs.v13i1.06
  • Living-Apart-Together-Beziehungen (LATs, Paarbeziehungen ohne gemeinsamen Haushalt) sind aus verschiedenen Gründen ein zentrales Element der Jugendphase geworden. Die Forschung zu LATs im Jugendalter befindet sich im Schnittfeld unterschiedlicher Forschungsgebiete, deren jeweiligen Forschungsergebnisse in diesem Beitrag zunächst zusammengefasst werden, woraus verschiedene zu erwartende LAT-Typen abgeleitet werden können. Anschließend werden in einer Sequenzdatenanalyse mit Daten der 1. Welle des Pairfams für Lebensläufe von 14 und 25 Jahren Typen von Partnerschaftsverläufen identifiziert. Das führt teilweise zur Bestätigung, aber auch zur Modifikation und Ergänzung der aus dem Forschungsstand abgeleiteten Annahmen zu LATs von Jugendlichen. Zentral ist, dass die LAT häufig als Vorstufe zu einer Kohabitation auftritt, in dieser Form aber von unterschiedlicher Bedeutung sein kann. Zudem scheint die LAT, anders als bisher oft angenommen, auch schon in der Jugend als dauerhafte, bevorzugte Beziehungsform gewählt zu werden.

  • Horne, Rebecca M. & Matthew D. Johnson. 2018. Gender role attitudes, relationship efficacy, and self-disclosure in intimate relationships. The Journal of Social Psychology 158: 37-50. DOI: 10.1080/00224545.2017.1297288
  • Drawing from the intimacy process model and data from 5,042 individuals who remained partnered across Waves 1 and 2 of the German Panel Analysis of Intimate Relationships and Family Dynamics (pairfam), this study examined the contributions of traditional gender role attitudes and relationship efficacy in predicting levels of self-disclosure within an intimate relationship. Independent samples t-tests demonstrated females scored higher than males on self-disclosure and relationship efficacy measures but lower on traditional gender role attitudes. An ordinary least squares regression analysis revealed relationship efficacy was a stronger predictor of self-disclosure compared to traditional gender role attitudes, which were not associated with self-disclosure. The findings suggest attitudes with an interpersonal motivational system may be especially important for setting the intimacy process into motion within an intimate union.

  • Hubbard, Aimee. 2018. Evaluating Relational Factors as Possible Protective Factors for Work–Life Balance via a Linear Mixed Effects Model. The Work-Family Interface: Spillover, Complications, and Challenges, edited by Blair, Sampson Lee & Josip Obradović , 349-364. Emerald Publishing Limited (Contemporary Perspectives in Family Research Volume 13). ISBN: 978-1-78769-112-4
  • This study seeks to understand how work–life balance (WLB) changes over time, and if relational factors – relationship and sexual satisfaction – may have protective effects. Grounded in Bronfenbrenner’s (1986) family ecological theory a linear mixed effects analysis was used to analyze over 4,000 individual reports of WLB over three years.

    The primary finding showed that on average, individuals rated their WLB just above average and their scores decrease over time. While relationship satisfaction did not have significant associations with WLB alone, the interaction between relationship and sexual satisfaction was found to be a protective factor, increasing WLB scores. This indicates that having higher sexual satisfaction can enhance the protective effect that relationship satisfaction has on WLB.

    An intriguing finding was the significant difference in WLB scores for men compared to women. On average, men experience significantly lower WLB scores. This could be related to how WLB was measured, or possibly due to gender roles. Future research should further explore this relationship.

    The results of this study provide information that researchers’ can consider as they design studies and interventions targeting WLB. An additional hope is that employers will consider these results when they create workplace policy and other initiatives.

    This study is one of the first to explore WLB in association with relationship and sexual satisfaction and the interaction between sexual and relationship satisfaction. This chapter tests the interactions between mesosystems in a unique way that enhances researchers understanding of WLB.


  • Huyer-May, Bernadette, Claudia Schmiedeberg & Nina Schumann. 2018. Neighborhood Effects on Children's Subjective Deprivation: Are Poor Children's Perceptions of the Economic Situation in their Home Influenced by their Neighborhood?. Child Indicators Research 11: 291-305. DOI: 10.1007/s12187-017-9445-z
  • Do social comparison effects exacerbate children’s subjective experiences of poverty? Research on relative income effects indicates that reference groups are relevant to an individual’s well-being. While these effects are rather well understood for adults, it is unclear whether children are affected in a similar way. In our analysis, we investigate if children in low-income families perceive the economic situation in their home differently if they live in a wealthy (as compared to a disadvantaged) neighborhood. Drawing on parent and child data from the German Family Panel pairfam (3600 observations from 1691 dyads) enriched with district-level neighborhood data, we analyze the association between neighborhood socioeconomic status and children’s perceptions of the financial situation in their home. Controlling for a number of indicators for the economic situation in the family such as household income, social welfare benefits, and parents’ perception of family finances, we find that children from low-income families feel less deprived if they are living in neighborhoods with a higher socioeconomic status. In contrast, for children from families with an equivalence income above the median regional equivalence income no neighborhood effects are found.

  • Huyer-May, Bernadette. 2018. Do relationship transitions affect body weight? Evidence from German longitudinal data. Zeitschrift für Familienforschung - Journal of Family Research 30: 316-338. DOI: 10.3224/zff.v30i3.05
  • Despite a considerable amount of empirical studies it is still unclear if changes in union status affect body weight. Using data from the first seven waves of the German Panel Analysis of Intimate Relationships and Family Dynamics (pairfam) project, the current study aims to discover if changes in relationship status lead to changes in body weight considering multiple union transitions with fixed-effects panel regression estimations. Results show that women lose weight within the first year of a relationship, and then gain weight after entering into a non-married cohabiting relationship. Men tend to gain weight from the beginning of the partnership. The results clearly show that the transition from non-married cohabitation to marriage has no significant effecton body weight.

  • Johnson, Matthew D., Rebecca M. Horne & Franz J. Neyer. 2018. The Development of Willingness to Sacrifice and Unmitigated Communion in Intimate Partnerships. Journal of Marriage and Family 81.1: 280-280. DOI: 10.1111/jomf.12544 Eine frühere Version dieses Artikels wurde zurückgezogen.
  • Objective: This study examined developmental trajectories of willingness to sacrifice and unmitigated communion, or putting a partner's needs above one's own to the exclusion of the self.

    Background: Willingness to sacrifice and unmitigated communion have proven important for personal and relationship well‐being, but no prior research has sought to understand their developmental trajectories or the factors that motivate growth in each. We draw from a relational developmental systems perspective to explore these questions.

    Method: Latent growth curve analyses of German Family Panel data from 3,405 focal participants and their partners surveyed across seven years were used to answer the research questions.

    Results: Findings revealed each construct followed a declining curvilinear pattern with much variability underlying average trajectories. Women, those with more prior partnerships, and those in longer‐term relationships were less willing to sacrifice and had lower unmitigated communion at baseline. Participants were more willing to sacrifice when participants were more committed and more insecure in their partner's love. Unmitigated communion was higher when they were more committed, when they and their partners were happier with the union, and when household income was lower.

    Conclusion: Willingness to sacrifice and unmitigated communion develop in response to sociodemographics, personal history, and both partners' relationship cognitions.

  • Kley, Stefanie A. & Michael Feldhaus. 2018. Effects of female commuting on partnership stability in suburban and other residential regions. Population, Space and Place 24 (2): e2093. DOI: 10.1002/psp.2093
  • Long-distance commuting between home and the place of work is a means to combine both labour market participation and staying embedded in family and local social networks. But commuters often report high stress levels due to their commute and negative outcomes on their family life. Recent findings suggest that long commutes are harmful for partnership stability, especially if women commute. This contribution analyses the questions whether these findings can be replicated with a representative cohort panel study from Germany (pairfam), whether the expected negative outcome of female commuting is robust against partnership quality and labour division, and whether the risk of separation varies systematically across urban, suburban, and rural areas. Discrete event history models are applied to estimate the risk of separation for about 2,500 couples over 3 years (N = 49,408 person-months). The findings indicate that women's long commuting is normally harmful for partnership stability but with one important exception: not if the couple lives in a suburban area. The article discusses whether the spatial variation in the influence of female commuting might be due to self-selection processes in the course of family formation.

  • Konietzka, Dirk & André Tatjes. 2018. „Hotel Mama“ revisited: Stabilität und Wandel des Auszugs aus dem Elternhaus im langfristigen Kohortenvergleich. Kölner Zeitschrift für Soziologie und Sozialpsychologie 70: 105–129. DOI: 10.1007/s11577-018-0517-y
  • In der Öffentlichkeit wird seit Jahren eine Debatte über einen immer späteren Auszug aus dem Elternhaus und das zunehmende Phänomen „Hotel Mama“ geführt. Trifft die Wahrnehmung zu, dass sich das Auszugsverhalten junger Menschen in Deutschland längerfristig in diese Richtung verändert hat? Der Beitrag diskutiert individuelle und strukturelle Einflussfaktoren des Auszugsverhaltens und analysiert den kohortenspezifischen Wandel des Auszugsalters. Die empirische Grundlage bildet ein in seiner Art einzigartiger Metadatensatz, der mehr als 29.500 westdeutsche Befragte aus den Kohorten 1925–1984 beinhaltet. Die deskriptiven sowie ereignisanalytischen Auswertungen zeigen eine langfristig eher wellenförmige statt lineare Entwicklung des Auszugsalters mit einer leichten Tendenz der Erhöhung in den jüngsten Kohorten sowie einen positiven Einfluss elterlicher Ressourcen auf die Auszugsneigung. Die Ergebnisse verweisen insgesamt darauf, dass die in der Kohortenfolge veränderten sozialstrukturellen Rahmenbedingungen des Aufwachsens nicht zu einer Verzögerung des Verlassens des Elternhauses geführt haben. Vielmehr liegt der Schluss nahe, dass in Deutschland das soziokulturell verankerte Ziel der frühzeitigen Erlangung von Unabhängigkeit vom Elternhaus nach wie vor handlungsleitend ist.

  • Köppen, Katja, Michaela Kreyenfeld & Heike Trappe. 2018. Loose Ties? Determinants of Father-Child Contact After Separation in Germany. Journal of Marriage and Family 80: 1163-1175.DOI: 10.1111/jomf.12504  - Erratum 
  • Objective

    This article examines the determinants of father–child contact in Germany after divorce and separation, with a special emphasis on the role of legal child support.


    The contact separated fathers have with their children is a policy‐relevant issue that has been intensively addressed in previous research for the United States, the United Kingdom, and Canada. For continental Europe, there has been far less research on this topic. This article investigated how fathers' union status at childbirth, custody arrangements, and past and present partnership dynamics affect the level of contact they had with their first‐born child from a prior union.


    Data were used from Wave 2 (2009–2010) to Wave 8 (2015–2016) of the German Family Panel pairfam ( With a final sample size of 285 fathers, population average logistic models were estimated that examined nonresident fathers' probability of having frequent contact versus having little or no contact with their first‐born children.


    Whether a nonresident father shared legal custody with the mother was a decisive factor in whether he had regular contact with his minor child, particularly if he was not living with the mother of the child at the time of delivery. There were strong interaction effects between having joint legal custody and the time since the parental separation. Joint legal custody did not have an immediate impact on father–child contact around the time of separation, but as time elapsed, men without joint legal custody were more likely to lose contact with their children than men with joint legal custody.


    Joint legal custody may provide an institutional arrangement for separated parents to exercise their responsibility for the well‐being of their children and thus be conducive to regular father–child contact.

  • Krapf, Sandra. 2018. Moving in or Breaking Up? The Role of Distance in the Development of Romantic Relationships. European Journal of Population 34: 313-336.DOI: 10.1007/s10680-017-9428-2

    Best Paper Award Deutsche Gesellschaft für Demographie e.V. Jahrestagung 2018

  • Most romantic relationships start with a living apart together (LAT) phase during which the partners live in two separate households. Over time, a couple might decide to move in together, to separate, or to remain together while maintaining their nonresidential status. This study investigates the competing risks that partners in a LAT relationship will experience the transition to coresidence or to separation. We consider the amount of time LAT partners have to travel to see each other to be a key determinant of relationship development. For our statistical analyses, we use seven waves of the German Family Panel Pairfam (2008/ 2009–2014/2015) and analyze couples in the age group 20–40 years. We distinguish between short-distance relationships (the partners have to travel less than one hour) and long-distance relationships (the partners have to travel one hour or more). Estimating a competing risks model, we find that couples in long-distance relationships are more likely to separate than those living in close proximity. By contrast, the probability of experiencing a transition to coresidence is lower for LAT couples in long-distance than for those in short-distance relationships. Interaction analyses reveal that distance seems to be irrelevant for the relationship development of couples with two nonemployed (unemployed, in education or other inactive) partners

  • Kuhnt, Anne-Kristin, Eva Depenbrock & Sabrina Unkelbach. 2018. Reproduktionsmedizin und Familiengründung–Potentiale sozialwissenschaftlicher Datensätze in Deutschland. Zeitschrift für Familienforschung - Journal of Family Research 30.2: 194-215. DOI: 10.3224/zff.v30i2.04
  • Trotz medialer Dauerpräsenz des Themas „Reproduktionsmedizin“ ist die Faktenlage für Deutschland noch defizitär. Der vorliegende Beitrag konzentriert sich daher auf die Analysepotentiale sozialwissenschaftlicher Datensätze hinsichtlich der Verbreitung von Wissen zu und der Nutzung von Reproduktionsmedizin in Deutschland. Zusätzlich werden Hintergrundinformationen zu gesellschaftlicher Akzeptanz und reproduktionsmedizinischer Infrastruktur in Deutschland präsentiert. Ergänzend dazu wird auf die rechtlichen und finanziellen Rahmenbedingungen reproduktionsmedizinischer Behandlungen in Deutschland eingegangen. Als Ergebnis der Potentialanalyse lässt sich festhalten, dass nur wenige sozialwissenschaftliche Studien explizit Fragen zur Nutzung von Reproduktionsmedizin beinhalten. Fragen zum Wissen über Reproduktionsmedizin sowie Einstellungsfragen zur potentiellen Nutzung sind deutlich weiter verbreitet. Als ursächlich für die Defizite im Wissen über die Nutzung von Reproduktionsmedizin in Deutschland zeigen sich die Hürden in der Datenerhebung, die mit dem sensiblen Forschungsfeld einhergehen.

  • Lott, Yvonne. 2018. Intra-individual and crossover effects of work contact in leisure time on satisfaction with work-life balance. WSI Working Paper No. 210
  • Using data from the 2015/2016 German Family Panel (pairfam), this article examines the intra-individual and crossover effects of work contact in leisure time on satisfaction with work-life balance. Results of mediation analyses show that individuals who have work contact in leisure time are less satisfied with their work-life balance because of the (perceived) obligation to be available after work hours. Partners, by contrast, are less satisfied with work-life balance only when the other partner actually has work contact in leisure time. The negative association between work contact/availability and satisfaction with work-life balance is mediated in both partners by work home conflict.

  • Morgan, Preston C. Jared A. Durtschi & Jonathan G. Kimmes. 2018. Sexual and Relationship Satisfaction associated with Shifts in Dyadic Trajectories of Depressive Symptoms in German Couples across Four Years. Journal of Marital and Family Therapy 44: 655-670. DOI: 10.1111/jmft.12302
  • Depression is a pervasive mental health concern; thus, it is important to identify modifiable factors associated with reducing depressive symptoms across time. Using 1,876 heterosexual couples assessed annually across 4 years from the Panel Analysis of Intimate Relationships and Family Dynamics (Pairfam) study, time-varying covariate growth models tested if sexual and relationship satisfaction were linked with shifts in trajectories of depressive symptoms across time. For both men and women, higher sexual and relationship satisfaction scores were significantly associated with decreasing their own depressive symptom trajectories, but only relationship satisfaction was linked with their partners' depressive symptom trajectories. Potential clinical implications include the treatment of depressive symptoms by making changes across time in their own relationship satisfaction and sexual satisfaction.

  • Morgan, Preston, Heather A. Love, Jared Durtschi & Scott May. 2018. Dyadic Causal Sequencing of Depressive Symptoms and Relationship Satisfaction in Romantic Partners Across Four Years. The American Journal of Family Therapy 46.5: 486-504 10.1080/01926187.2018.1563004
  • Causal sequencing between relationship satisfaction and depressive symptoms has important ramifications for couples therapy. Using dyadic data from the Pairfam study (N ¼ 1,876 German couples), an auto-regressive cross-lagged model was used to test the causal sequencing of these associations annually across four years. Although depressive symptoms had a significant bidirectional association with relationship satisfaction both within and between partners, depressive symptoms tended to serve as a stronger and more consistent predictor of relationship satisfaction than the reverse direction. Thus, clinically focusing on reducing depressive symptoms in couples’ therapy may serve to help prevent future deterioration in relationship quality

  • Morosow, Sabrina & Heike Trappe. 2018. Intergenerational transmission of fertility timing in Germany. Demographic Research 38: 1389-1422. DOI: 10.4054/DemRes.2018.38.46 
  • Background: Intergenerational transmission of completed fertility is widely confirmed for several societies. Less research, however, has focused on differences in the transmission effect of fertility timing and its underlying mechanisms in a regional context.

    Objective: The aim of this study is to examine the association between a mother’s age at her daughter’s birth and that daughter’s transition to first birth in eastern and western Germany, as well as its underlying mechanisms.

    Methods: Using data from the German Family Panel (pairfam), the intergenerational transmission of fertility timing between mothers and daughters born between 1971–1973 and 1981–1983 is investigated using event history analysis. As an alternative to a mother’s age at first birth, a mother’s age at her daughter’s birth is used to determine her daughter’s transition to first birth.

    Results: Results show evidence for intergenerational transmission of young childbearing between mothers and their daughters in eastern and western Germany, though the association was weaker for eastern Germany. This intergenerational transmission effect cannot be explained by the measures used to capture the underlying mechanisms – socialisation, socioeconomic status transmission, and social control.

    Contribution: Our contribution to the ongoing discussion is to close a gap in research on the intergenerational transmission of fertility timing. By using the German context to analyse regional differences, we exemplify the varying strength of the intergenerational transmission of fertility timing between eastern and western Germany that persisted beyond reunification.

  • Nauck, Bernhard & Qiang Ren. 2018. Coresidence in the Transition to Adulthood: The Case of the United States, Germany, Taiwan, and Mainland China. Chinese Sociological Review 50: 443-473. DOI: 10.1080/21620555.2018.1522953
  • This paper compares the prevalence and age-specific changes of coresidence patterns, by means of a classification of 12 coresidence types, for the age range from 16 to 30 in the United States (US), Germany (GE), Taiwan (TW), and mainland China (CN). Panel data were used in separate nested logistic regression models to estimate transitions in coresidence for individuals in each society in the transition to adulthood. On the first level, decisions to move from different types of family-of-origin-households were modeled, depending on intergenerational solidarity and parental resources. On thesecond level, target household types were modeled, depending on others’ trajectory events and their interaction with gender. The analysis used the National Longitudinal Study of Youth (NLSY97) from the United States, the German Family Panel (pairfam), the Taiwanese Youth Project (TYP), and the China Family Panel Studies (CFPS). Age-specific coresidence patterns were pooled and transitions probabilities were estimated for a two-year period. The systematic comparative approach makes it possible to correct misinterpretations based on analyses from single societies. Our results demonstrated that differences in coresidence patterns within the patrilineal, collectivistic societies (CN and TW), and within the bilineal, individualistic societies (US and GE) were as important as the differences between these two groups of societies

  • Nitsche, Natalie & Daniela Grunow. 2018. Do economic resources play a role in bargaining child care in couples? Parental investment in cases of matching and mismatching gender ideologies in Germany. European Societies 20: 785-815. DOI: 10.1080/14616696.2018.1473626
  • This paper examines the factors associated with a gendered division of childcare among parents in Germany. While much is known on the gender division of housework in families and the economic and sociological factors that may be driving it, we still know relatively little about whether and how these factors may affect the division of unpaid childcare in families. We first assess the relevance of partner’s combined gender ideologies and relative resources on the division of unpaid childcare. Second, we assess whether the effect of economic resources may be contingent on the partners’ agreement or disagreement on gender ideologies concerning maternal employment. We address these questions using data from the German Panel Analysis of Intimate Relationships and Family Dynamics (pairfam) and MLM Growth Curve Models. Our findings consistently show a significant positive effect of partners’ combined gender ideologies and her share of income on his share of childcare. These effects are strongest, and robust, among couples with matching ideologies supporting maternal employment, which we term ‘egalitarian island’ couples. Economically efficient divisions of childcare thus appear dependent upon the couples’ ideological pairing and on mothers’ ideologies towards maternal employment.

  • Obersneider, Monika, Jan-Christoph Janssen & Michael Wagner. 2018. Regional Sex Ratio and the Dissolution of Relationships in Germany. European Journal of Population: 1-25. DOI: 10.1007/s10680-018-9506-0
  • The aim of this study is to analyse the connection between relationship stability and attractive alternatives, which is stressed in micro-level theories on union dissolution. The stability of relationships can be influenced by the availability of alternative partners, whereby the probability that a person will meet these alternatives is determined by the distribution of individuals with specific characteristics in the contextual setting the person is embedded in. Research on this macro–micro connection is sparse in Europe. The availability of alternatives on the contextual level is operationalized through varying sex ratios between and within German districts. The estimation of the union dissolution risk as a function of individual and contextual predictors is based on a discrete-time multilevel event-history analysis using pairfam data and data from official statistics. The main hypothesis, which asserts that there is a positive connection between unbalanced sex ratios and union dissolution, is not supported. This result calls into question the robustness of previous findings.

  • Otterbach, Steffen, Alfonso Sousa-Poza & Valerie Møller. 2018. A Cohort Analysis of Subjective Wellbeing and Ageing: Heading Towards a Midlife Crisis. Longitudinal and Life Course Studies 9 (4): 382-411. DOI: 10.14301/llcs.v9i4.509
  • Using eight waves from the German Panel Analysis of Intimate Relationships and Family Dynamics (pairfam), we analyse how different domains of subjective wellbeing evolve within seven years (2008–2015) in three different cohorts born 10 years apart (1971/73, 1981/83, and 1991/93). This study contributes to the ongoing debate about subjective wellbeing following a U-shaped pattern over the life course. In four domains our results show the first half of such a U-shaped pattern: on average, general life satisfaction – as well as satisfaction with leisure time, social contacts and friends, and family – declines substantially between the ages of 15 and 44, with the most significant decrease taking place at a young age (early 20s). Nevertheless, trajectories among the three cohorts differ markedly, indicating that, ceteris paribus, responses on subjective wellbeing differ greatly between cohorts born just a decade apart. The results further indicate that the two older cohorts assess family life and social contacts more favourably than the youngest cohort.

  • Pink, Sebastian. 2018. Anticipated (Grand-) Parental Childcare Support and the Decision to Become a Parent. European Journal of Population 34: 691-720. DOI: 10.1007/s10680-017-9447-z
  • Based on a cost-reduction argument, this study explored whether anticipated childcare support from their mothers influenced adult daughters’ decisions to have their first child. Using six waves of the German Family Panel (pairfam), discrete-time hazard models (N=3155 women) were estimated for the transition to the decision to have the first child. Anticipated childcare support from the women’s mothers was approximated by the travelling distance between adult daughters and their mothers, a measure whose suitability was tested empirically. The results indicated that women in a position to anticipate having access to childcare support in the future decided to make the transition to parenthood earlier. This finding highlights both the strength of social interaction effects on fertility decision-making and the importance of intergenerational relationships for individual fertility histories already at their very beginning.

  • Rattay, Petra, Felicitas Vogelgesang, Elena von der Lippe, Elvira Mauz, Lars Eric Kroll & Thomas Lampert. 2018. Lebensverläufe im jungen Erwachsenenalter und Gesundheit. Ergebnisse einer Sequenzanalyse mit Daten der pairfam-Studie. PPmP - Psychotherapie · Psychosomatik · Medizinische Psychologie 68: e53. DOI: 10.1055/s-0038-1668016 
  • Reifman, Alan & Sylvia Niehuis. 2018. Over-and Under-Perceiving Social Support from One’s Partner and Relationship Quality Over Time. Marriage & Family Review 54.8: 793-805. DOI: 10.1080/01494929.2018.1501632
  • Using dyadic data from a national longitudinal survey in Germany (N = 3,674 couples), we tested associations between congruence/discrepancy in partners’ reports of providing and receiving social support (i.e., whether a recipient reports more or less than the provider) and relationship quality. All participants reported how much social support they provided to, and received from, their partner. Latent Congruence Modeling was used to enhance the reliability of difference scores between one partner’s reported provision and the other's reported receipt. In most instances, perceiving more support than one’s partner reported giving (over-perception) and extensive support reported jointly by providers and recipients were positively associated with recipients’ and providers’ relationship quality. Conceptual, methodological, and possible clinical issues are discussed.

  • Rözer, Jesper, Gerald Mollenhorst & Beate Volker. 2018. Families’ Division of Labor and Social Networks in the 21st Century: Revisiting Elizabeth Bott’s Classic Hypotheses. Journal of Family Issues 39: 3436-3462.DOI: 10.1177/0192513X18783230 
  • In 1957, Elizabeth Bott argued that the organization of family and social networks are intertwined and that the structure and composition of social networks are associated with the ways in which spouses divide household and paid labor. While this idea became a classic in the literature addressing the division of labor, societies have changed tremendously in the past 50 years, and it has become far more common for spouses to divide their labor more equally. In addition, the causal direction is not clear: Do networks affect the division of labor or vice versa? We inquired as to the causal relationship using a large-scale longitudinal data set, collected in 2009/2010 and 2011/2012 (n = 2477; PAIRFAM [Panel Analysis of Intimate Relationships and Family Dynamics]). We found moderate support for the hypothesis that personal networks influence the division of labor in households, but there were stronger effects for the reverse—that is, that the division of labor affects network patterns, particularly for women.

  • Seilbeck, Carolin & Alexandra Langmeyer. 2018. Ergebnisse der Studie „Generationenübergreifende Zeitverwendung: Großeltern, Eltern, Enkel.  Deutsches Jugendinstitut e.V
  • Sommer, Sabrina & Heike M. Buhl. 2018. Intergenerational Transfers: Associations with Adult Children's Emotional Support of Their Parents. Journal of Adult Development 25: 286–296. DOI: 10.1007/s10804-018-9296-y
  • This study investigates how different factors in regard to intergenerational relationships are associated with emotional support given by adults to their parents. The analysis focuses on adult children and their parents in a representative German sample. Data were obtained from the second wave of the German Family Panel (pairfam) consisting of 2064 women and 1841 men. Results show that transfer of emotional support by the adult children was especially associated not only with received emotional support from parents, but also with affection, conflicts, and expectations concerning parents. A moderator analysis focuses on gender and showed differences for the association between given support by adults and conflicts between mothers and fathers. For the offspring, no gender effects were found.

  • Stein, Petra & Sebastian Willen. 2018 Familiengründung als Ergebnis eines partnerschaftlichen Aushandlungsprozesses. Kölner Zeitschrift für Soziologie und Sozialpsychologie: 1-34. DOI: 10.1007/s11577-018-0578-y
  • Familiengründung ist ein Thema, das im Zuge der Diskussion um den demografischen Wandel erheblich an Relevanz gewonnen hat. Obwohl der Übergang in die Elternschaft als Ergebnis sozialer Interaktion und damit als Ergebnis eines Entscheidungsprozesses zwischen zwei Individuen im Kontext einer Partnerschaft verstanden werden kann, existieren bisher nur rudimentäre Forschungserkenntnisse auf der Paarebene. Dies betrifft erstens die Bedeutsamkeit der Kinderwünsche oder die Intentionen beider Partner bezüglich der Entscheidung für oder gegen ein Kind; zweitens die gegenseitige Beeinflussung beider Partner im Rahmen des Aushandlungsprozesses; und drittens die Relevanz der biografischen Kontexte beider Partner für den eigenen Kinderwunsch sowie für den Kinderwunsch des Partners im Prozess der Entscheidungsfindung. Im folgenden Artikel werden diese drei Aspekte zu einem Gesamtmodell zusammengefügt und der Aushandlungsprozess zwischen den beiden Partnern auf der intentionalen Ebene unter Berücksichtigung der Lebensverhältnisse beider Partner längsschnittlich unter Verwendung eines multivariaten Probit-Modells spezifiziert. Die Datengrundlage bildet das Beziehungs- und Familienpanel (pairfam). Als Ergebnis zeigt sich ein annähernd äquivalentes Gewicht sowohl für die individuellen Einflüsse der Kinderwünsche beider Partner als auch hinsichtlich der gemeinsamen Entscheidung zu einer Elternschaft. Für beide Partner finden sich bedeutende Effekte seitens des sozialen Netzwerkes und einer beruflichen Etablierung. Geschlechterspezifische Effekte zeigen sich vor allem P. Stein, S. Willen hinsichtlich negativer Einstellungsmerk male gegenüber Kindern und vorhandener Kinder aus vorherigen Beziehungen.

  • Steinbach, Anja & Karsten Hank. 2018. Full-, Half-, and Step-Sibling Relations in Young and Middle Adulthood. Journal of Family Issues 39: 2639-2658. DOI: 10.1177/0192513X18757829
  • This study investigated relationships of full-, half-, and step-siblings in young and middle adulthood with a focus on frequency of contact, emotional closeness, and conflict. We distinguish full-siblings whose parents still live together as a couple (Type 1) from those whose parents separated or died (Type 2). Based on data from Wave 5 of the German Family Panel (pairfam), we analyzed 8,920 reports from 5,482 respondents representative of three birth cohorts (1991-1993, 1981-1983, and 1971-1973) about their relationships with up to four siblings. Hierarchical linear regression results provided general support for the assumption that although full-siblings of Types 1 and 2 had more contact and felt closer to one another than half-siblings and step-siblings, they also had more conflicts. With one exception (closeness among half-siblings), the results remained stable after controlling for respondent, sibling, and sibling structure characteristics.

  • Zemp, Martina, Matthew D. Johnson & Guy Bodenmann. 2018. Within-Family Processes: Interparental and Coparenting Conflict and Child Adjustment. Journal of Family Psychology 32: 299-309. DOI: 10.1037/fam0000368
  • Previous studies have found evidence that interparental conflict, parents' coparenting behavior, and children's adjustment are reciprocally related. Most prior research, however, has failed to empirically distinguish between-family differences from within-family changes, limiting our understanding of how within-family fluctuations in each construct may be interrelated over time. In the present study, we focused on within-family associations among interparental conflict factors (i.e., verbal aggression and withdrawing), coparenting conflict, and children's internalizing and externalizing problems. Longitudinal data were drawn from 5 annual waves of survey data from 537 German families (i.e., mothers, fathers, and a focal child) in the German Family Panel (pairfam) study (Brüderl et al., 2015; Huinink et al., 2011). Data were analyzed with random intercept cross-lagged panel models, which partition variance into between- and within-person (or family) components in longitudinal data. Cross-lagged analyses of within-family variance revealed that fluctuations in interparental conflict did not predict child problems, but higher than typical child externalizing problems increased fathers' withdrawal and coparenting conflict in the future. Higher than average coparenting conflict within a given family predicted reductions in interparental verbal aggression, less maternal withdrawal, and fewer child externalizing problems. The findings demonstrate that analyses of within-family associations may provide new insights on mutual influences that unfold across time within families and are of particular importance for informing practice.

  • Zoch, Gundula & Pia S. Schober. 2018. Public Child‐Care Expansion and Changing Gender Ideologies of Parents in Germany. Journal of Marriage and Family 80: 1020-1039. DOI: 10.1111/jomf.12486
  • This study investigates whether the expansion of public child care for children aged younger than 3 years in Germany has been associated with individual‐level change in gender ideologies. The authors develop and test a theoretical framework of the short‐term impact of family policy institutions on ideology change. The analysis links the German Family Panel pairfam (2008 to 2015) with administrative records on county‐level child‐care provision for those aged younger than 3 years and applies fixed effects panel models. The findings show that the child‐care expansion has been associated with moderate changes toward less‐traditional gender ideologies only among mothers in West Germany and mostly among mothers without a college degree. In East Germany, the authors found evidence of more traditional gender ideologies among mothers without a college degree as the child‐care reform unfolded. The results provide evidence that policy reforms may alter gender ideologies also in the short‐term


  • Bernardi, Fabrizio & Diederik Boertien. 2017. Non-intact families and diverging educational destinies: A decomposition analysis for Germany, Italy, the United Kingdom and the United States. Social Science Research 63: 181-191. DOI: 10.1016/j.ssresearch.2016.09.004
  • We examine whether the presence of non-intact families in society is related to increased inequality in educational attainment according to social background, as suggested by the ‘diverging destinies’ thesis. We analyze four countries, Germany, Italy, the United Kingdom, and the United States, that differ in the prevalence of non-intact families and in the strength of the negative association between growing up in a non-intact family and children's educational attainment. We use a Blinder-Oaxaca decomposition approach to calculate a ‘counterfactual’ estimate of differences in educational attainment between socioeconomically advantaged and disadvantaged children in the hypothetical absence of non-intact families. Contrary to the diverging destinies thesis, we find little differences between actual and ‘counterfactual’ levels of inequality in educational attainment in all four countries. Whereas growing-up in a non-intact family affects the individual chances of educational attainment, the overall contribution of non-intact families to aggregate levels of social background inequality is minimal.

  • Brüderl, Josef, Laura Castiglioni, Volker Ludwig, Klaus Pforr & Claudia Schmiedeberg. 2017. Collecting Event History Data with a Panel Survey: Combining an Electronic Event History Calendar and Dependent Interviewing. methods, data, analyses 11: 45-66.DOI: 10.12758/mda.2016.013
  • Many panel surveys collect event history data on events occurring between two waves. This is usually done by asking lists of questions on the various changes that took place between interviews (Q-Lists). Recently, some panel surveys introduced a different data collection method: the Event History Calendar (EHC), credited for collecting more accurate data. However, even the use of an EHC cannot prevent the issue that events tend to be reported spuriously at the seam of consecutive waves (seam effect). On the other hand, research has shown that dependent interviewing (DI) can help reduce this seam effect. Thus, the combination of EHC and DI (DI-EHC) promises to provide more accurate event history data that are not plagued by a seam effect. The German Family Panel pairfam was one of the first panel studies to use DI-EHC. In this article we first report on the practical aspects and the pros and cons of DI-EHC. Further, we report the results of an experiment in which we test whether DI-EHC reduces the seam effect. In sum our practical experiences and the results of our experiment indicate that the instrument is less burdensome than traditional Q-Lists and produces more accurate data. In particular, DI-EHC reduces the seam effect significantly.

  • Buhr, Petra & Laura Castiglioni. 2017. Family planning under financial constraints: Contraceptive use among women receiving means-tested unemployment benefits in Germany. Advances in Life Course Research 32: 12-20. DOI: 10.1016/j.alcr.2017.02.001
  • International evidence shows that contraceptive behavior depends, among other things, on socio-economic factors such as income and education. The aim of this paper is to analyze the relationship between low-income status and contraceptive behavior in Germany in more detail. As an indicator of low income we use the receipt of a means-tested benefit called “Unemployment Benefit II” (UB II). We assume that the transition into this benefit program is related to a change in women's contraceptive choices, in favor of using unpaid methods or no contraceptives at all. Using data from the German Family Panel pairfam, we focused on the use of any contraceptive method which involves costs to the user, as opposed to the use of methods which do not incur monetary costs (e.g., natural contraception) or the disuse of any contraceptives.
    Our bivariate logistic model on the pooled dataset shows that women receiving UB II without the intent to have children in the next two years are less likely to use paid contraceptives than non-recipients. However, this appears to be a spurious correlation, as the longitudinal hybrid model shows no relation between intrapersonal changes regarding UB II and the use of contraceptives subject to cost. This model also provides evidence that women with a migration background and lower education are less likely to use paid contraceptives.

  • Buhr, Petra & Johannes Huinink. 2017. Why Childless Men and Women Give Up on Having Children. European Journal of Population 33: 585-606. DOI: 10.1007/s10680-017-9429-1
  • In this paper we address the question why childless women and men aged 35 years and older, who originally were considering having children, voluntarily gave up on having children. We hypothesise that this adjustment could be attributed to five mechanisms: adaptation to a lifestyle without children; resignation because of severe hindrances to having children; approaching the end of the fecund period; perceiving a low degree of social influence from significant others to have children; and a low degree of personal persistence in pursuing life goals. We analyse data from the first six waves of the German Family Panel (Pairfam) and employ multinomial logistic regression models. As the dependent variable we distinguished four types of sequences over the observation period: “permanently considering having children”, “given up on having children”, “switching”, and “permanently not considering having children”. Being female, being not employed, and having low scores on the emotional autonomy scale increased the likelihood of giving up on having children, while anticipating positive consequences of parenthood and perceiving influence from parents to have a child decreased it. The results show that all mechanisms addressed by the hypotheses were at work to a certain extent. In particular, the integration of personality factors and the importance of other life goals beyond parenthood provided valuable insights into the reasons for giving up on having children. Future research in this field should focus more than was possible in our study on societal age norms and the role of partners in giving up on having children.

  • Cornelißen, Waltraud, Jasmin Abedieh & Alexandra N. Langmeyer. 2017. Wege in die Elternschaft. Kein Kind ohne vorgängigen Kinderwunsch seiner Eltern?. Zeitschrift für Familienforschung - Journal of Family Research 29: 202-227. DOI: 10.3224/zff.v29i2.04
  • In diesem Beitrag wird rekonstruiert, welch zentrale Bedeutung der Fertilitätsintention zur Erklärung der Anzahl und des Timing von Geburten beigemessen wird. Auf der Basis vorliegender empirischer Befunde wird auf die Grenzen der entsprechenden Ansätze aufmerksam gemacht: die Theorie der Nutzenmaximierung, die Theorie des geplanten Verhaltens und das traits-desiresintentions-behavior framework. Anschließend werden eigene Auswertungen zum Zusammenhang von vorgängigen Kinderwunschkonstellationen von Paaren und anschließenden Geburten vorgelegt. Diese basieren auf aktuellen Daten einer deutschen Längsschnittstudie (pairfam). Dabei zeigt sich, dass ein bis zwei Jahre vor der Geburt eines Kindes nur bei drei Viertel aller Paare eine konsensuelle positive Fertilitätsintention bestand. Bei Paaren mit geringer Bildung liegt dieser Anteil bei nur 65%. Im Durchschnitt werden 8,1% der Kinder geboren, obwohl sich ihre Eltern ein Jahr zuvor noch beide gegen ein Kind in den nächsten zwei Jahren ausgesprochen hatten, weitere 17%, obwohl das Paar noch keinen Konsens in der Kinderfrage erzielt hatte. Bei Dissens ist es von der Kinderwunschkonstellation in der Paarbeziehung abhängig, ob sich mit der Geburt die egalitarian rule bestätigt oder nicht. Die Autorinnen sehen die Notwendigkeit, ein neues bzw. erweitertes Verständnis für Fertilität zu entwickeln. Sie plädieren dafür, das Leben von Paaren nicht nur als eine Verknüpfung von Intentionen und Rahmenbedingungen für deren Umsetzung zu betrachten, sondern auch als eine Verknüpfung von Alltagspraxen. Im Alltag von Paaren aber dient Sexualität nicht nur dem Zweck der Zeugung von Nachwuchs. Schwangerschaften entstehen deshalb regelmäßig auch als nicht intendierte Folgen von Sex bei Paaren, die sich zu einer gemeinsamen Zukunft mit Kind noch gar nicht entschieden haben.

  • Feldhaus, Michael & Monika Schlegel. 2017. Veränderte Konstellationen von Elternschaft in der Gegenwart. Zeitschrift für Pädagogik und Theologie 69: 195-206. DOI: 10.1515/zpt-2017-0025
  • Der vorliegende Artikel zeigt die hohe Komplexität gegenwärtiger Elternschaftskonstellationen und Familienstrukturen auf, bei denen sich eine besondere Dynamik insbesondere infolge der Trennung der Eltern bzw. deren Wiederverheiratung zeigt. Im Beitrag wird diskutiert, welche Herausforderungen solche Neukonstellationen insbesondere für Eltern und Kinder mit sich bringen. Darüber hinaus wird untersucht, ob sich unterschiedliche Familientypen im Blick auf Rollenerwartungen, Familiennormen und Eltern-Kind-Beziehungen voneinander unterscheiden.

  • Fulda, Barbara E.. 2017. Moving in together and marrying for the first time: A comparison between European countries. In The New Diversity of Family Life in Europe: Mobile Ethnic Groups and Flexible Boundaries, edited by Çitlak, Banu, Sebastian Kurtenbach, Megan Lueneburg & Meglena Zlatkova, 81-98. Wiesbaden: SpringerVS. DOI: 10.1007/978-3-658-17857-4_6
  • Family life has changed. While the standardized life courses of men and women during the “Golden Thirties” has been replaced by a magnitude of different lifestyles, politicians struggle with the development of adequate reactions. Meanwhile lifestyles continue to diversify.

  • Fulda, Barbara E.. 2017. The transition to adulthood in individualistic and collectivistic cultures: Prevalence and timing of premarital cohabitation and direct marriage in Germany and China. In Dating, Mating, and Coupling: The Evolving Nature of Intimate Relationships(Contemporary Perspectives in Family Research, Volume 11), edited by Scott, Christina L. and Sampson L. Blair, 145-172. Bingley: Emerald. ISBN: 978-1-78714-610-5
  • In recent years, Asian countries have experienced rising rates of premarital cohabitation, mirroring a similar trend that could be observed in many European countries several decades ago. As international differences in these trends are often attributed to institutional and societal differences, this study explores how China’s and Germany’s welfare and cultural regimes relate to national differences in the timing and prevalence of premarital cohabitation and direct marriage.

    On the basis of two post-hoc harmonized surveys (pairfam for Germany; CFPS for China), descriptive analyses and logistic regressions were conducted. A higher standardization of partnership trajectories during the transition to adulthood was observed in China; this being probably related to China’s collectivist and Germany’s individualistic culture. While urban–rural differences prevail in China, and are attributable to China’s hukou system, East and West Germans differ considerably in this regard, a finding which can be traced back to regional differences in historical legacy. Discrepancies in economic modernization explain why the likelihood of experiencing these events differs for individuals in the Eastern and Western Chinese provinces.

    Besides these differences, the two national contexts resemble each other in the prevalence of educational hypergamy, as well as in greater rates of cohabitation prior to first marriage, in contrast to direct marriage, seen among wealthier individuals and those with higher education. For the first time, the effects of cultural and institutional differences on the transition to adulthood were compared between a collectivistic vs. individualistic cultural regime and a productivist vs. corporatist conservative welfare regime, enabling researchers to draw conclusions about the link between cultural and welfare regime types and partnership patterns.

  • Geist, Claudia & Sarah Brauner-Otto. 2017. Constrained Intentions: Individual Economic Resources, Regional Context, and Fertility Expectations in Germany. Socius: Sociological Research for a Dynamic World 3: 1-17. DOI: 10.1177/2378023116685334
  • Using five waves of the German Panel Analysis of Intimate Relationships and Family Dynamics (pairfam), we examine how economic circumstances are related to fertility intentions in childless young men and women in East and West Germany. We explore multiple dimensions of fertility intentions: short-term intentions for the next two years, longterm expectations about family size, and uncertainty about these short- and long-term intentions. Our findings suggest that economic circumstances constrain fertility intentions and increase uncertainty. Although fertility intentions differ between men and women and by region, the broad mechanisms that predict intentions are very similar across groups for long-term intentions and uncertainty. However, group differences emerge in short-term intentions.

  • Groll, Andreas, Trevor Hastie & Gerhard Tutz. 2017. Selection of effects in Cox frailty models by regularization methods. Biometrics 73: 846-856. DOI: 10.1111/biom.12637
  • In all sorts of regression problems, it has become more and more important to deal with high-dimensional data with lots of potentially influential covariates. A possible solution is to apply estimation methods that aim at the detection of the relevant effect structure by using penalization methods. In this article, the effect structure in the Cox frailty model, which is the most widely used model that accounts for heterogeneity in survival data, is investigated. Since in survival models one has to account for possible variation of the effect strength over time the selection of the relevant features has to distinguish between several cases, covariates can have time-varying effects, time-constant effects, or be irrelevant. A penalization approach is proposed that is able to distinguish between these types of effects to obtain a sparse representation that includes the relevant effects in a proper form. It is shown in simulations that the method works well. The method is applied to model the time until pregnancy, illustrating that the complexity of the influence structure can be strongly reduced by using the proposed penalty approach.

  • Hank, Karsten, Veronika Salzburger & Merril Silverstein. 2017. Intergenerational transmission of parent-child relationship quality: Evidence from a multi-actor survey. Social Science Research 67: 129-137. DOI: 10.1016/j.ssresearch.2017.06.004
  • Intergenerational transmission is a long-standing interest of social science research. However, little attention has been devoted to the study of transmission of relationship quality between several generations of family members. Exploiting multigenerational multi-actor data from the German Family Panel (pairfam), we estimate multilevel models to investigate whether, in three-generation families, relationship quality between the middle generation and the oldest (that is, grandparent) generation predicts relationship quality between the youngest generation of adolescent children and the middle generation. Our results reveal evidence of intergenerational transmission of emotional closeness, conflict, and ambivalence. Transmission was more consistently observed when emanating from ties to grandfathers than from ties to grandmothers. A hypothesis concerning differences in the strength of transmission between East Germany and West Germany found no support. The paper concludes with a discussion of limitations and perspectives for future research.

  • Johnson, Matthew D., Nancy L. Galambos, Christine Finn, Franz J. Neyer & Rebecca M. Horne. 2017. Pathways Between Self-Esteem and Depression in Couples. Developmental Psychology 53: 787-799. DOI: 10.1037/dev0000276
  • Guided by concepts from a relational developmental perspective, this study examined intra- and interpersonal associations between self-esteem and depressive symptoms in a sample of 1,407 couples surveyed annually across 6 years in the Panel Analysis of Intimate Relations and Family Dynamics (pairfam) study. Autoregressive cross-lagged model results demonstrated that self-esteem predicted future depressive symptoms for male partners at all times, replicating the vulnerability model for men (low self-esteem is a risk factor for future depression). Additionally, a cross-partner association emerged between symptoms of depression: Higher depressive symptoms in one partner were associated with higher levels of depression in the other partner one year later. Finally, supportive dyadic coping, the support that partners reported providing to one another in times of stress, was tested as a potential interpersonal mediator of pathways between self-esteem and depression. Female partners' higher initial levels of self-esteem predicted male partners' subsequent reports of increased supportive dyadic coping, which, in turn, predicted higher self-esteem and fewer symptoms of depression among female partners in the future. Male partners' initially higher symptoms of depression predicted less frequent supportive dyadic coping subsequently reported by female partners, which was associated with increased feelings of depression in the future. Couple relations represent an important contextual factor that may be implicated in the developmental pathways connecting self-esteem and symptoms of depression.

  • Johnson, Matthew D., Adam M. Galovan, Rebecca M. Horne, Joohong Min & Sabine Walper. 2017. Longitudinal Associations Between Adult Children's Relations With Parents and Intimate Partners. Journal of Family Psychology 31: 821-832. DOI: 10.1037/fam0000329
  • Drawing on 5 waves of multiple-informant data gathered from focal participants and their parents and intimate partners (n = 360 families) who completed annual surveys in the German Family Panel (pairfam) study, the present investigation examined bidirectional associations between the development of adults' conflictual and intimate interactions with their parents and intimate partners. Autoregressive cross-lagged latent change score modeling results revealed a robust pattern of coordinated development between parent-adult child and couple conflictual and intimate interactions: increases in conflict and intimacy in one relationship were contemporaneously intertwined with changes in the other relationship. Additionally, prior couple intimacy and conflict predicted future parent-adult child relations in 7 out of 14 cross-lagged pathways examined, but parent-adult child conflict and intimacy was only associated with future couple interactions in 1 pathway. These associations were not moderated by the gender of parents or the adult child or whether the adult child was a young adult or nearing midlife. Frequency of contact between parents and the adult child moderated some associations. Adults simultaneously juggle ties with parents and intimate partners, and this study provides strong evidence supporting the coordinated development of conflictual and intimate patterns of interaction in each relationship.

  • Kreyenfeld, Michaela & Dirk Konietzka. 2017. Childlessness in East and West Germany: Long-Term Trends and Social Disparities. In Childlessness in Europe: Contexts, Causes, and Consequences, edited by Kreyenfeld, Michaela & Dirk Konietzka, 97-114. Dodrecht: SpringerOpen. DOI: 10.1007/978-3-319-44667-7_5
  • This chapter provides an overview of the long-term trends in childlessness in East and West Germany. Based on vital statistics, census, and micro-census data we show that for the East German cohorts born in 1940–1964 the share who have remained childless has stalled at around 10 %. For the same cohorts in West Germany, we find that the share who are childless has increased from 10 % to about 20 %. We furthermore describe socio-economic disparities in the childlessness levels of West German birth cohorts based on our analysis of data from the German Family Panel (pairfam). We find that higher levels of female education are associated with higher levels of childlessness, but that differences by education have narrowed among women of recent birth cohorts. For men, we find a clear negative gradient in childlessness, as less educated men are more likely to be childless than their better educated counterparts. Finally, having a turbulent partnership history is shown to be associated with a high probability of remaining childless.

  • Kuhnt, Anne-Kristin, Michaela Kreyenfeld & Heike Trappe. 2017. Fertility Ideals of Women and Men Across the Life Course. In Childlessness in Europe: Contexts, Causes, and Consequences, edited by Kreyenfeld, Michaela & Dirk Konietzka, 235-251. Dodrecht: SpringerOpen. DOI: 10.1007/978-3-319-44667-7_11
  • This paper explores the stability of women’s and men’s fertility preferences across the life course. The data come from the first six waves of the German Family Panel (pairfam), which span the period from 2008/2009 until 2013/2014. In our analysis, fertility preferences are measured using the following question: “Under ideal circumstances, how many children would you like to have?” The average number cited by both women and men is 2.2. With rising age, this number declines modestly. Relying on fixed-effects modelling, we find that neither partnership status nor economic circumstances have any causal effect on fertility preferences. However, as the number of children a respondent has increases, his or her ideal number of children is also likely to grow. Thus, fertility ideals appear to undergo changes over time, and are adjusted in line with the size of the respondent’s own family.

  • Luciano, Eva C. & Ulrich Orth. 2017. Transitions in Romantic Relationships and Development of Self-Esteem. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 112: 307-328. DOI: 10.1037/pspp0000109

    pairfam Best Publication Award 2017

  • Research suggests that self-esteem increases during late adolescence and young adulthood, but that there is large interindividual variability in this development. However, little is known about the factors accounting for these findings. Using propensity score matching, we tested whether important transitions in the domain of romantic relationships (i.e., beginning a relationship, marrying, and breaking up) explain why individuals differ in the particular self-esteem trajectory they follow. Data came from a longitudinal German study with a large sample of 3 nationally representative cohorts of late adolescents and young adults (total N  9,069). The analyses were based on 4 assessments across a 3-year period. Using matched samples, the results showed that beginning a relationship increased self-esteem and that the increase persisted when the relationship held at least for 1 year. Experiencing a relationship break-up decreased self-esteem, but the effect disappeared after 1 year, even if the participant stayed single. Marrying did not influence self-esteem. Additionally, we tested for selection effects of self-esteem on the later occurrence of relationship transitions. High self-esteem predicted the beginning of a relationship and low self-esteem predicted relationship break-up. All findings held across gender, age, and migration background. Furthermore, relationship quality mediated the effect of self-esteem on relationship break-up and the effect of beginning a longer versus a short relationship on self-esteem. The findings have significant implications because they show that self-esteem influences whether important transitions occur in the relationship domain and that, in turn, experiencing these transitions influences the further development of self-esteem.

  • Müller, Bettina. 2017. Opportunity or Affection? Participation of Respondents' Partners in a Multi-actor Survey.Field Methods 29: 252-265. DOI: 10.1177/1525822X16671702
  • Multi-actor studies are particularly suited for partner and family research, as they capture relationships beyond the conventional restraint of the household. Previous research on partner participation in the German Family Panel indicates higher participation of cohabiting and married partners compared to those living apart together. The present study evaluates whether this finding is due to unobserved relationship quality aspects associated with relationship status, differentially affecting the likelihood of partner response, or rather to field procedures favoring the participation of coresidential partnerships. Fixed effects models find a positive effect of moving in together on partner response, indicating that part of the relationship status effect found in previous research can, in fact, be attributed to coresidence. Analyzing the response process in detail reveals that the effect of moving in together goes back to main respondents’ consent to the partner survey, whereas no significant effect can be found on partner participation.

  • Nauck, Bernhard, Nicolai Gröpler & Chin-Chun Yi. 2017. How kinship systems and welfare regimes shape leaving home: A comparative study of the United States, Germany, Taiwan, and China. Demographic Research 36: 1109-1148. DOI: 10.4054/DemRes.2017.36.38 Replicating Material  
    This paper aims to explain societal differences in the event of leaving the parental home as part of the transition to adulthood, in the United States, Germany, China, and Taiwan. It proposes bridge hypotheses between societal characteristics such as kinship system and welfare regime and home-leaving behavior, and tests them with nationally representative panel studies.
    Four panel studies (NLSY97 for the USA; PAIRFAM for Germany; CFPS for China; TYP for Taiwan) were harmonized for similar cohorts, with an age span of 15 to 30 years. Testing was based on age-specific tabulations of household composition and separate discrete-time event history models.
    The prevalence of home-leaving is highest in the United States, followed by Germany, China, and then Taiwan. Timing is earlier in the United States than in Germany, and earlier in China than in Taiwan. Gender-specific coincidence of home-leaving with entry into higher education, the work force, cohabitation, and marriage can be conclusively related to differences in kinship system and welfare regime, and regional opportunity disparities.
    The empirical results point to significant cultural differences between home-leaving in collectivistic, patrilineal societies (China, Taiwan) and individualistic, bilineal societies (USA, Germany). Whereas neolocal housing signifies an important step in the transition to adulthood in the latter societies, continuous intergenerational housing, or even an early return to it, is normatively supported in collectivistic cultures. Differences between the United States and Germany on the one hand, and China and Taiwan on the other, point to variation in welfare regimes and differences in urbanization.

  • Potarca, Gina. 2017. Does the Internet Affect Assortative Mating? Evidence from the U.S. and Germany. Social Science Research 61: 278-297. DOI: 10.1016/j.ssresearch.2016.06.019
  • The Internet has now become a habitual channel for finding a partner, but little is known about the impact of this recent partnership market on mate selection patterns. This study revisits the supply side perspective on assortative mating by exploring the role played by online venues in breeding couples' educational, racial/ethnic and religious endogamy. It compares couples that met online (through either online dating platforms, Internet social networking, Internet gaming website, Internet chat, Internet community, etc.) to those that met through various offline contexts of interaction. Using unique data from the U.S. for the year 2009 and data from Germany collected between 2008 and 2014, I run log-multiplicative models that allow for the strength of partners' association to vary along meeting settings. Results reveal that the Internet promotes weaker couple endogamy compared to conventional contexts typically known to foster endogamy, such as school, family, friends, or religious venues.

  • Preetz, Richard & Malte Langeheine. 2017. Why were there three? – Determinants of the presence of an intimate partner during face-to-face interviews, Survey Methods: Insights from the Field. Retrieved from DOI: 10.13094/SMIF-2017-00007
  • This study analyses determinants of the presence of an intimate partner during face-to-face interviews. Based on theoretical assumptions about opportunity structure, social control, social support, and companionship, we investigated partner presence using data from the first wave of the German Family Panel (pairfam). Descriptive results revealed that an intimate partner was present in every seventh interview. Multivariate results using separate logistic regression models for the presence of the female (n = 3,272) and the male partner (n = 2,348) revealed that the opportunity structure, such as the couple’s living arrangements or their employment status, had the greatest influence on the presence of both female and male partners. Gender differences existed for social control, social support and companionship. The results suggest that partner presence could most easily be prevented by taking into account the opportunity structure.

  • Raab, Marcel 2017. Childhood Family Structure and Early Family Formation in East and West Germany. Journal of Marriage and Family 79: 110-130. DOI: 10.1111/jomf.12333

    pairfam Best Publication Award 2017

  • This study investigated the association between childhood living arrangements and early family formation in Germany. Drawing on persisting sociocultural differences between East and West Germany, the author examined whether the association of childhood family structure and the transition to adulthood varies in different societal contexts. Data from the German Family Panel showed that children from nontraditional family structures experience important demographic transitions faster than children who were raised by both biological parents. The study revealed considerable context-specific differences that point to the long-term consequences of the postwar separation of East and West Germany. Family structure was less predictive for early family formation in the postcommunist East. In addition, this study adds to a growing body of literature indicating that even seemingly similar family-structure effects might bear very different implications—for example, for status attainment and the reproduction of inequality—depending on the sociocultural context.

  • Richter, Nico. 2017. Fertilität und die Mechanismen sozialer Ansteckung. Wiesbaden: Springer VS. ISBN:  978-3-658-15810-1 (Print) 978-3-658-15811-8 (Online)
  • Das Buch beschäftigt sich mit der Frage, ob und inwiefern die Einbindung in soziale Netzwerke das individuelle Geburtenverhalten beeinflusst. Hauptaugenmerk liegt dabei ganz im Sinne der analytischen Soziologie auf der systematischen Aufarbeitung der Mechanismen, die hinter einer „sozialen Ansteckung“ fertilen Verhaltens in Interaktionsnetzwerken stehen. Nico Richter zeigt, dass hierbei – neben oftmals vermuteten Koinzidenzen – sozialer Druck, soziale Unterstützung und soziales Lernen die zentralen Prozesse einer Ausbreitung der Elternschaft in Freundschafts- und Familiennetzwerken darstellen und veranschaulicht, wie diese einer systematischen, quantitativ empirischen Prüfung zugeführt werden können.

  • Schmiedeberg, Claudia, Bernadette Huyer-May, Laura Castiglioni & Matthew D. Johnson. 2017. The More or the Better? How Sex Contributes to Life Satisfaction.Archives of Sexual Behavior 46: 465–473. DOI: 10.1007/s10508-016-0843-y
  • Much cross-sectional research documented associations between sexuality and life satisfaction, but very little longitudinal research on the topic has considered whether changes in sexuality and life satisfaction unfold together over time. Using data from 5582 individuals in partnerships surveyed across 5786 intimate relationships (providing 18,712 observations for analysis) during five waves of the German Family Panel (pairfam), this study examined whether intraindividual changes in sexual frequency and satisfaction were associated with corresponding intraindividual changes in life satisfaction. Fixed effects regression modeling results showed that individuals reported a greater increase (decrease) in life satisfaction when they also experienced a more substantial increase (decrease) in sexual frequency and satisfaction. This finding was consistent for men and women. This study contributes to the literature by documenting that naturally occurring increases in sexual frequency and satisfaction over time predicted corresponding increases in life satisfaction.

  • Schmiedeberg, Claudia & Jette Schröder. 2017. Leisure Activities and Life Satisfaction: an Analysis with German Panel Data. Applied Research in Quality of Life 12: 137-151. DOI: 10.1007/s11482-016-9458-7 
  • Given the nature of leisure as largely uncoerced and not necessary for survival it seems obvious at a first glance that leisure activities should contribute to happiness. Indeed, recent research has found positive effects of leisure activities on subjective well-being. In this article, we analyze the association between leisure activities and life satisfaction based on longitudinal data from Germany. By applying fixed-effects regression models we are able to rule out potential bias due to unobserved heterogeneity in time-constant variables. We use data from three waves of the German Family Panel (pairfam), a large, randomly sampled longitudinal study of adolescents and adults (aged 15–41 across the observation period), to test the effects of five leisure activities (sports; vacation; meeting with friends; internet use; and TV viewing) on respondents’ life satisfaction. Our results indicate that meeting with friends, doing sports, and going on vacation contributes positively to life satisfaction whereas internet use for personal purposes and TV consumption are negatively related to life satisfaction.

  • Tanskanen, Antti O. 2017. Intergenerational relations before and after offspring arrive: A within-person investigation. Social Science Resarch 67: 138-146. DOI: 10.1016/j.ssresearch.2017.08.001

    pairfam Best Publication Award 2019

  • The birth of a child may re-orientate the relations between adult children and their parents; however, the previous studies on the topic are both scarce and methodologically limited. The current study investigates whether younger adults' entry into parenthood (i.e., the birth of the first child) is associated with increased contact frequency, emotional closeness, intimacy and conflict with their own parents. The participants are from the German Panel Analysis of Intimate Relationships and Family Dynamics, which is a prospective survey of younger adults with six annual follow-up waves between 2009 and 2014 (n = 17,662 person-observations from 4821 persons). Within-person regression with a focus on each individual's variation over time was used to detect changes in intergenerational relations. The contact frequency between daughters and mothers increased after the arrival of their first child. In contrast, the emotional closeness and intimacy between sons and mothers decreased after the birth of their first child. The results are discussed with reference to gender-based differences in intergenerational relations.

  • Trappe, Heike. 2017. Assisted Reproductive Technologies in Germany: A Review of the Current Situation. In Childlessness in Europe: Contexts, Causes, and Consequences, edited by Kreyenfeld, Michaela & Dirk Konietzka, 269-288. Dodrecht: SpringerOpen. DOI: 10.1007/978-3-319-44667-7_13
  • In this chapter, I examine the increasing societal relevance of assisted reproduction. First, I outline the legal framework and the rules regarding the assumption of costs for assisted reproduction, with a particular focus on Germany. This is followed by an overview of the main assisted reproduction procedures, and a summary of which of these procedures are legally permitted or prohibited in Germany. I then show how the utilisation of assisted reproductive technologies (ART) has developed over time, and describe the available methods for measuring their success. I conclude the chapter with a discussion of the social and ethical implications of the increased use of ART for individuals in different living arrangements, and of the shifting meanings of motherhood, fatherhood, and kinship. A broad societal debate in which the opportunities and implications of ART are realistically evaluated is certainly warranted.

  • Vidal, Sergi, Johannes Huinink & Michael Feldhaus. 2017. Fertility Intentions and Residential Relocations. Demography 54: 1305-1330. DOI: 10.1007/s13524-017-0592-0
  • This research addresses the question of whether fertility intentions (before conception) are associated with residential relocations and the distance of the relocation. We empirically tested this using data from two birth cohorts (aged 24–28 and 34–38 in the first survey wave) of the German Family Panel (pairfam) and event history analysis. Bivariate analyses showed that coupled individuals relocated at a higher rate if they intended to have a(nother) child. We found substantial heterogeneity according to individuals’ age and parental status, particularly for outside-town relocations. Childless individuals of average age at family formation—a highly mobile group—relocated at a lower rate if they intended to have a child. In contrast, older individuals who already had children—the least-mobile group—relocated at a higher rate if they intended to have another child. Multivariate analyses show that these associations are largely due to adjustments in housing and other living conditions. Our results suggest that anticipatory relocations (before conception) to adapt to growing household size are importantly nuanced by the opportunities and rationales of couples to adjust their living conditions over the life course. Our research contributes to the understanding of residential mobility as a by-product of fertility decisions and, more broadly, evidences that intentions matter and need to be considered in the analysis of family life courses.


  • Feldhaus, Michael. 2016. Fortsetzungsfamilien in Deutschland: Theoretische Überlegungen und empirische Befunde. In Handbuch Bevölkerungssoziologie, edited by Niephaus, Yasemin, Michaela Kreyenfeld & Reinhold Sackmann, 347-366. Wiesbaden: Springer. ISBN: 978-3-658-01409-4 / 978-3-658-01410-0
  • In den letzten Jahrzehnten hat sich die strukturelle und distributive Vielfalt familialer Lebensformen in Deutschland erheblich verändert. Steigende Trennungs- und Scheidungsquoten sowie sich daran anschließende neue Partnerschaften und Wiederverheiratungen haben dazu geführt, dass das traditionelle Modell der Familie an Dominanz verloren hat und sich in vielfältiger Hinsicht Fortsetzungsfamilien gebildet haben. Der vorliegende Beitrag diskutiert zunächst die begrifflichen Schwierigkeiten, die im Kontext der Bezeichnung von Fortsetzungsfamilien auftreten, bevor daran anschließend die einzelnen spezifischen familialen Subtypen definiert werden. Im empirischen Abschnitt wird die Verbreitung von Fortsetzungsfamilien und die damit auftretende Komplexität ihrer Messbarkeit dargestellt. Ein Ausblick auf die bisherige Forschung zu Fortsetzungsfamilien und einige Anmerkungen zu weiteren offenen Forschungsfragen runden dieses Kapitel ab.

  • Fulda, Barbara E.. 2016. The diversity in longitudinal partnership trajectories during the transition to adulthood: How is it related to individual characteristics and regional living conditions?. Demographic Research 35: 1101–1134. DOI: 10.4054/DemRes.2016.35.37
  • Background: Previous research has concentrated on the quantum and timing of partnership statuses during the transition to adulthood, but it has however remained unclear how partnership trajectories unfold and how trajectories interdepend. It is furthermore unknown how individual characteristics and regional living conditions relate to the type of partnership trajectory an individual experiences.

    Objective: By studying longitudinal partnership trajectories in a sequence analysis, this article examines the types of partnership trajectories that are observable between the ages of 15 and 40. It furthermore asks how individual characteristics and regional living conditions relate to the sequencing, timing, and quantum of partnership transitions. It finally shows how the turbulence in partnership trajectories relates to these factors.

    Methods: I analyze the 1971-1973 birth cohort in the German Family Panel (pairfam).

    Results: Partnership trajectories split up into four patterns. Educational level, gender, and ethnic background significantly influence the probability of experiencing one of these partnership trajectories. Urban residents experience greater diversity in partnership statuses and are single for longer periods than rural residents. Twenty-six years after Germany’s unification, socialization in eastern or western Germany still matters: Eastern Germans are more likely than western Germans to remain in a cohabitation until they are 40.

    Contribution: This article presents novel evidence on the typical partnership trajectories of a recent cohort. It shows that partnership histories are closely linked to membership in a social group and socialization in an institutional setting. Only some social groups are prone to experiencing turbulent partnership histories.

  • Huinink, Johannes. 2016. Kinderwunsch und Geburtenentwicklung in der Bevölkerungssoziologie. In Handbuch Bevölkerungssoziologie, edited by Niephaus, Yasemin, Michaela Kreyenfeld & Reinhold Sackmann, 227-251. Wiesbaden: Springer. ISBN: 978-3-658-01409-4 / 978-3-658-01410-0
  • Kinderwunsch und Geburtenentwicklung sind zentrale Themen der Bevölkerungssoziologie. Es liegt nahe, die individuellen Motive für die Entscheidung zugunsten des „Ob“ und „Wann“ der Geburt von Kindern im Rahmen eines lebenslauftheoretischen Ansatzes zu untersuchen. Dieser Ansatz, der in seinen Grundzügen vorgestellt wird, dient als Basis eines theoretischen Erklärungsmodells zur Geburtenentwicklung, das einen gestuften Entscheidungsprozess zu(un)gunsten von Elternschaft vorsieht, der von dem allgemeinen Wunsch nach Kindern über die konkrete Intention ein Kind zu bekommen bis zu ihrer möglichen Umsetzung führt. Bezogen auf diese Etappen werden wichtige Definitionen und einige gängige Maße zur Empirie von Kinderwünschen, Fertilitätsintentionen und Geburtenentwicklung eingeführt und einige aktuelle Befunde dazu berichtet.

  • Johnson, Matthew D., Nancy L. Galambos & Jared R. Anderson. 2016. Skip the dishes? Not so fast! Sex and Housework Revisited. Journal of Family Psychology 30(2): 203-213. DOI: 10.1037/fam0000161
  • Using data from 1,338 couples who remained partnered over the first 5 waves of the German Panel Analysis of Intimate Relationships and Family Dynamics (pairfam) project, this study investigated longitudinal associations between male partner contributions to housework and couple sexual satisfaction and frequency. The effect of 2 housework variables was examined: male partners’ share of housework and perceived fairness of male partners’ housework contributions. Results from a series of autoregressive cross-lagged models revealed no direct or indirect longitudinal associations between male partner share of housework and sexual frequency or satisfaction. Rather, when male partners reported making a fair contribution to housework, the couple experienced more frequent sexual encounters, and each partner reported higher sexual satisfaction 1 year later. This study provides a robust counterpoint to recent findings suggesting that men’s participation in housework is harmful to a couple’s sex life.

  • Johnson, Matthew D. & Rebecca M. Horne. 2016. Temporal Ordering of Supportive Dyadic Coping, Commitment, and Willingness to Sacrifice. Family Relations 65(2): 314-326. DOI: 10.1111/fare.12187
  • Drawing from interdependence theory and focal participants (anchors) and their intimate partners who remained coupled at Waves 1, 3, and 5 of the German Family Panel (pairfam; N=1,543), the authors examined the temporal ordering between anchor and partner supportive dyadic coping with anchor commitment and willingness to sacrifice for an intimate partner. Autoregressive cross-lagged modeling analyses revealed that anchor and partner supportive dyadic coping predicted higher levels of commitment and willingness to sacrifice, and willingness to sacrifice predicted less supportive dyadic coping only for anchors. There were no longitudinal associations between commitment and willingness to sacrifice, and gender did not moderate associations among the variables.

  • Johnson, Matthew D., Rebecca M. Horne & Adam M. Galovan. 2016. The Developmental Course of Supportive Dyadic Coping in Couples. Developmental Psychology 52: 2031-2043. DOI: 10.1037/dev0000216
  • Drawing from a relational developmental systems (RDS) perspective (Lerner, Agans, DeSouza, & Gasca, 2013) and data from 1,427 continuously partnered young adult and midlife mixed-sex couples over the first 5 years of the German Panel Analysis of Intimate Relationships and Family Dynamics (pairfam), this study examined the developmental course of supportive dyadic coping, or the frequency with which one provides practical and emotional support when his or her partner encounters stress. Latent change score (LCS) modeling results revealed that supportive dyadic coping gradually declined for both male and female partners, but there was significant diversity underlying these trajectories. Higher levels of supportive dyadic coping were associated with a more gradual decline in support provided by a partner. Among young adults, a more rapid decline in male partner supportive dyadic coping predicted a slower rate of decline in support from female partners. Finally, we considered possible bidirectional relations between contextual stressors and supportive dyadic coping trajectories. Providing higher levels of support predicted a more gradual decline in self-rated health for male partners. Having more children and experiencing economic pressure predicted steeper declines in supportive dyadic coping over time for both male and female partners.

  • Kersting, Laura & Michael Feldhaus. 2016. Die Qualität von Geschwisterbeziehungen im jungen und mittleren Erwachsenenalter in Abhängigkeit des Verwandtschaftsstatus. Zeitschrift für Soziologie der Erziehung und Sozialisation 36(4): 382-401 DOI: 10.3262/ZSE1604382.
  • Angesichts einer zunehmenden Pluralisierung von Familienformen stellt sich die Frage, inwieweit Geschwisterbeziehungen in Abhängigkeit ihres Verwandtschaftsstatus eine Ressource in emotional unterstützender Hinsicht im frühen und mittleren Erwachsenenalter darstellen. Untersucht wurden 9441 leibliche, bzw. Halb- und Stiefgeschwisterbeziehungen, ob sie sich hinsichtlich der wahrgenommenen Intimität und in Bezug auf die Konflikthäufigkeit unterscheiden, und schließlich ob der Geschwisterstatus ein erklärender Faktor dafür ist, ob eine harmonische, feindselige, affektintensive oder uninvolvierte Beziehung vorliegt. Die Analysen mit Daten des deutschen Beziehungs- und Familienpanels bestätigen, dass Halb- und Stiefgeschwisterbeziehungen im Vergleich zu leiblichen Geschwistern eine geringere Intimität, aber auch eine geringere Konflikthäufigkeit aufweisen. Es zeigt sich ferner, dass Halb- und Stiefgeschwisterbeziehungen sich nicht durch feindseligere oder affektintensivere Beziehungen auszeichnen, sondern sie sind insbesondere gekennzeichnet durch eine größere Uninvolviertheit. Diese Ergebnisse werden abschließend diskutiert.

  • Kley, Stefanie. 2016. Trennungsrisiko Pendelmobilität. Welche Paarbeziehungen mobiler Frauen sind gefährdet? Eine Fuzzy-Set-Analyse. Zeitschrift für Familienforschung - Journal of Family Research 28: 305-327.
  • Ausgehend von dem Befund in der Literatur, dass Pendelmobilität von Frauen die Stabilität von Paarbeziehungen gefährden kann, untersucht der Beitrag Zusammenhänge von Pendelbelastung, Unzufriedenheit mit der Paarbeziehung und sozio- ökonomischen Merkmalen mittels Fuzzy-Set- Analyse. Als heuristischer Rahmen dient die Theorie der Sozialen Produktionsfunktionen, um die Auswirkungen weiter Pendelwege auf verschiedene Lebensbereiche zu verdeutlichen. Datengrundlage ist die 2008/9 erhobene erste Welle des deutschen Beziehungs- und Familienpanels (pairfam). Es werden N = 267 Berufspendlerinnen in Partnerschaft untersucht. Im Ergebnis zeigen sich fünf Konfigurationen von Fernpendlerinnen, von denen zwei unzufrieden mit ihrer Paarbeziehung sind. Dass diese tatsächlich als trennungsgefährdet gelten können, wird mittels Außenkriterien verifiziert. Ein konstituierendes Merkmal beider gefährdeten Partnerschaftskonfigurationen ist die Anwesenheit von kleinen Kindern.

  • Konietzka, Dirk & André Tatjes. 2016. Der Auszug aus dem Elternhaus. In Handbuch Bevölkerungssoziologie, edited by Niephaus, Yasemin, Michaela Kreyenfeld & Reinhold Sackmann, 201-226. Wiesbaden: Springer. ISBN: 978-3-658-01409-4 / 978-3-658-01410-0
  • Das Verlassen des Elternhauses stellt aus Sicht der Individuen einen von mehreren zentralen Schritten im Lebenslauf auf dem Weg in eine sozial und ökonomisch eigenständige Lebensführung dar. In diesem Sinne repräsentiert der Auszug aus dem Elternhaus einen bedeutsamen Teil des Übergangs in das Erwachsenenalter. Der Beitrag umreißt zunächst die konzeptuellen Grundlagen der Analyse des Auszugs aus dem Elternhaus und fasst im Anschluss wesentliche Ergebnisse bisheriger Forschung zu dem Timing, der zeitlichen Beziehung des Auszugs zu anderen Übergängen im Lebenslauf sowie Einflussfaktoren des Auszugsverhaltens zusammen. Weiterhin geht der Beitrag der Frage nach, ob die medial geführten Debatten über immer mehr ‚Nesthocker‘ im ‚Hotel Mama‘ auf empirisch tatsächlich nachweisbaren Entwicklungen beruhen. Auf der Grundlage verschiedener Datensätze (der deutschen Lebensverlaufsstudie, des Beziehungs- und Familienpanels (pairfam/DemoDiff), des Projektes Aufwachsen in Deutschland: Alltagswelten (AID:A) sowie des European Social Surveys) rekonstruieren wir den kohortenspezifischen Wandel des Auszugsalters in Deutschland im europäischen Vergleich. Es zeigt sich, dass die Ergebnisse der unterschiedlichen Studien bezüglich der langfristigen Entwicklung des Auszugsalters teilweise voneinander abweichen, sodass die Frage, ob junge Erwachsene, vor allem Männer, immer länger bei den Eltern wohnen, nicht eindeutig beantwortet werden kann.

  • Kreyenfeld, Michaela & Sonja Bastin. 2016. Reliability of Union Histories in Social Science Surveys: Blurred Memory, Deliberate Misreporting, or True Tales?. Advances in Life Course Research 27: 30-42. DOI: 10.1016/j.alcr.2015.11.001
  • This paper examines the reliability of biographical information gathered retrospectively. It draws on data from the German Family Panel (pairfam), which collected information on the partnership status at first birth using two different strategies. The first strategy was to collect partnership and fertility histories separately in an event history calendar. The second strategy was to ask the respondents directly about their partnership status at first childbirth. We find that in almost 20 percent of the cases, the information collected using the two different strategies did not correspond. The dissolution of a partnership and having a complex partnership biography are strong predictors for discrepancies in the information gathered through the two different strategies. We conclude by discussing the factors that lead to the different outcomes produced by each of the two methods, and the implications of these discrepancies for the study of partnership and fertility behavior in general.

  • Kreyenfeld, Michaela, Dirk Konietzka & Valerie Heintz-Martin. 2016. Private Lebensformen in Ost- und Westdeutschland. In Handbuch Bevölkerungssoziologie, edited by Niephaus, Yasemin, Michaela Kreyenfeld & Reinhold Sackmann, 303-325. Wiesbaden: Springer. ISBN: 978-3-658-01409-4 / 978-3-658-01410-0
  • Dieser Beitrag skizziert konzeptuelle Grundlagen der Analyse von Lebens- und Familienformen in der Familien- und Bevölkerungssoziologie sowie in der amtlichen Statistik und zeichnet auf der Grundlage von amtlichen und Befragungsdaten Grundzüge der Struktur und des Wandels der familialen und nichtfamilialen Lebensformen in Deutschland nach. Während der Wandel von Eltern- und Partnerschaftsbeziehungen auf der Basis von sozialwissenschaftlichen Befragungsdaten haushaltsübergreifend dargestellt werden kann, kann die amtliche Statistik neuere Entwicklungen in den privaten Lebensformen wie die Zunahme von LAT-Beziehungen nicht abbilden. Darüber hinaus werden in der amtlichen Statistik in einem Haushalt bestehende stieffamiliale Beziehungen nicht erhoben, was zu einer Überschätzung der „klassischen“ Kernfamilien führt. Ein großer Teil der vorliegenden Studien über Lebensformen hat einen deskriptiven Charakter und weist eine schwache theoretische Fundierung auf. Ein weiteres analytisches Defizit der empirischen Forschung über Lebensformen ist die mangelnde dynamische Orientierung und Einbettung von Lebens- und Familienformen in den Gesamtzusammenhang des Lebenslaufs.

  • Kuhnt, Anne-Kristin & Petra Buhr. 2016. Biographical risks and their impact on uncertainty in fertility expectations: A gender-specific study based on the German Family Panel. Duisburger Beiträge zur soziologischen Forschung 2016-03. DOI: 10.1016/j.alcr.2015.10.002
  • This paper studies uncertainty in fertility expectations from a life course perspective. Our research hypotheses are theoretically based on Life Course Theory and the Theory of Planned Behavior. We assume that biographical risks, inferred from separation from partner, unemployment or changes in parity, lead to uncertainty in women's and men's fertility expectations. We also assume gender-specific differences regarding the effect of these risks, because the life courses of women and men still differ substantially regarding paid and domestic work. Data come from waves 1-6 of the German Family Panel. We apply fixed effects multinomial logit models. Our findings confirm that uncertainty in fertility intentions is of relevant prevalence in our sample and is not stable over the life course. In accordance with our hypotheses, uncertainty is connected with changes in partnership status, employment status, and parity of children. Furthermore, gender-specific differences emerge. While separation is stronger associated with uncertainty for men than for women, unemployment is more strongly associated with uncertainty among women. However, our findings provide no support for gender-specific differences regarding an increase in uncertainty after the transition to first birth.

  • Kuhnt, Anne-Kristin & Heike Trappe. 2016. Channels of Social Influence on the Realization of Short-Term Fertility Intentions in Germany. Advances in Life Course Research 27: 16-29. DOI: 10.1016/j.alcr.2015.10.002
  • This paper studies the short-term fertility intentions of women and men and their subsequent behavior. Guided by the Theory of Planned Behavior, the intention-behavior link is analyzed using the first three waves of the German Family Panel (pairfam). The following research questions are addressed: To what extent do individuals realize their stated positive or negative fertility intentions over a period of two years, and what are the most important determinants that inhibit or enable the realization of short-term fertility intentions? Although women and men with a strong desire for a child, in particular parents, were most likely to have had a(nother) child, negative childbearing intentions were even more predictive. Social pressure exerted by parents or by friends appears to have had a stronger effect on the formation than on the realization of fertility intentions, while, surprisingly, expected social support did not have any noticeable effect. In addition, being in a stable relationship was by far the most important determinant of whether individuals had realized their positive fertility intentions.

  • Lois, Daniel. 2016. Types of Social Networks and the Transition to Parenthood. Demographic Research 34: 657-688. DOI: 10.4054/DemRes.2016.34.23 Replicating Material 

    A growing body of literature acknowledges the importance of social interaction and ideational factors for generative behavior. Building on this research, the present study identifies specific types of social network and gauges their value for predicting fertility behavior.


    Based on data from the German Family Panel (N = 3,104 respondents aged 20 to 42), four types of ego-centric social networks were identified using cluster analyses. Clusters were used to prospectively predict the transition to parenthood using a discrete-time event history analysis.


    In the event history analyses, the highest propensity to start a family was found for ‘family-centered’ social networks, which were characterized primarily by a high share of persons with young children, a high amount of network support in case of parenthood, and a high proportion of strong ties to members of the nuclear family. By contrast, respondents who were embedded in ‘family-remote’ networks had the lowest transition rate to parenthood. Family-remote networks were characterized by a high share of friends and acquaintances, a high proportion of weak ties, and a low amount of social support and social pressure. Regarding selection effects, a comparison of cluster affiliation over time does not consistently confirm that persons who start a family select themselves into ‘fertility-promoting’ network types. In sum, the results enhance our understanding of how mechanisms of social influence and structural features of ego-centric social networks are interlinked.

  • Lois, Daniel & Oliver Arránz Becker. 2016. Partnerschaftsgestaltung und Entwicklungspfade von Ost-West-Paaren: Einflüsse von Primärsozialisation und Lebenskontext. In Soziale Bedingungen privater Lebensführung, edited by Stauder, Johannes, Ingmar Rapp & Jan Eckhard, 41-72. Wiesbaden: Springer. ISBN: 978-3-658-10985-1 / 978-3-658-10986-8
  • Lux, Ulrike & Sabine Walper. 2016. Partnerschaftsbeziehungen nach einer Trennung: Vor- oder Nachteile gegenüber ersten Liebesbeziehungen? Psychotherapeut 61(1): 22-28. DOI: 10.1007/s00278-015-0071-2 
  • Background: Based on assumptions about attachment in partner relationships, influences of separation and divorce as well as conflict behavior, it was investigated whether previous partnership experiences have an influence on subsequent relationships.

    Objective: The study was carried out to attempt to predict emotional insecurity, partnership satisfaction, commitment and conflict behavior in current relationships on the basis of different separation experiences (e.g. long vs. short former relationship and interim separation from current partner).

    Material and methods: The data were obtained from two cohorts of the first wave of the German relationship and family panel pairfam and comprised computer-assisted interviews of 5722 young and middle-aged adults involved in a current partner relationship.

    Results: Whereas short and long-term former relationships had a predictive power for less emotional insecurity, less conflict tolerance and more dysfunctional conflict styles in the current partnership, there was no effect of earlier relationship experiences on partnership satisfaction and future orientation.

    Conclusion: These findings point to long-lasting burdens following separation from a previous partner as well as advantages of subsequent partner relationships compared to first partnership experiences.

  • Mund, Marcus & Franz J. Neyer. 2016. Rising High or Falling Deep? Pathways of Self-Esteem in a Representative German Sample.European Journal of Personality 30: 341-357. DOI: 10.1002/per.2063
  • In many longitudinal studies, self-esteem has been shown to increase up until around age 50 or 60 and todecrease thereafter. These studies have also found substantial inter-individual differences in the intra-individual development of self-esteem. In the current study, we examined whether this variation in change could be attributedto underlying latent classes of individuals following different trajectories of self-esteem development over time. Byapplying general growth mixture modelling to data from the representative German pairfam study (N = 12 377), fourlatent classes of self-esteem development across five years were extracted. Based on their mean levels, trajectories, and variability, individuals in the latent classes could be described as having (a) constant and stable high self-esteem (29.00% of the sample), (b) constant but variable moderate self-esteem (31.69%), (c) increasing andstabilizing self-esteem (15.13%), and (d) decreasing and variable self-esteem (24.18%). Furthermore, these  latent classes differed in accordance with findings of prior research on self-rated, partner-rated, and objective correlates of the domains of health and well-being, partner relationships, and occupational status. Thus, the current study showsthat inter-individual variation in intra-individual change in self-esteem is not random but reflects specific individual trajectories, or pathways, of self-esteem.

  • Nauck, Bernhard & Nadia Lois. 2016. Auszug aus dem Elternhaus in den Vereinigten Staaten, Taiwan und Deutschland. In Soziale Bedingungen privater Lebensführung, edited by Stauder, Johannes, Ingmar Rapp & Jan Eckhard, 145-169. Wiesbaden: Springer. ISBN: 978-3-658-10985-1 / 978-3-658-10986-8
  • Nitsche, Natalie & Daniela Grunow. 2016. Housework over the course of relationships: Gender ideology, resources, and the division of housework from a growth curve perspective. Advances in Life Course Research 29: 80-94. DOI: 10.1016/j.alcr.2016.02.001.
  • In the 21st century, the division of housework remains gendered, with women on average still spending more time doing chores than their male partners. While research has studied why this phenomenon is so persistent, few studies have yet been able to assess the effect of gender ideology and socio-economic resources at the same time, usually due to data restrictions. We use data from the pairfam, a new and innovative German panel study, in order to test the effect of absolute and relative resources as well as his and her gender ideology on the division of housework. We employ a life course perspective and analyze trajectories of couples’ housework division over time, using multi-level random effects growth curve models. We find that an egalitarian gender ideology of both him and her significantly predicts more egalitarian division-trajectories, while neither absolute nor relative resources appear to have an effect on the division of housework over time. Furthermore, our results expand the literature by investigating how these processes differ among childless couples and couples who experience the first birth.

  • Passet-Wittig, Jasmin, Norbert F. Schneider, Stephan Letzel, Bettina Schuhrke, Rudolph Seufert, Ulrike Zier & Eva Münster. 2016. Prävalenz von Infertilität und Nutzung der Reproduktionsmedizin in Deutschland.Journal für Reproduktionsmedizin und Endokrinologie 13 (3): 80-90.
  • Hintergrund: In Deutschland wissen wir im Vergleich zu anderen Ländern nur sehr wenig über die Verbreitung von Infertilität und die Inanspruchnahme der Reproduktionsmedizin bei Frauen und insbesondere bei Männern. Dabei sind aufgrund des anhaltenden Aufschubs von Geburten im Lebensverlauf immer mehr Personen betroffen und müssen sich mit dem Thema Infertilität und ihren Handlungsoptionen auseinandersetzen.

    Ziele: Der Beitrag verfolgt 3 Ziele: (1.) Berechnung von Punktprävalenzen von Infertilität; (2.) Analyse des Infertilitätsrisikos in soziodemographischen Gruppen; (3.) Untersuchung von Unterschieden zwischen der Grundgesamtheit von Infertilität Betroffener und Nutzern der Reproduktionsmedizin.

    Methoden: Die Punktprävalenzen und die Analyse des Infertilitätsrisikos basieren auf den repräsentativen Daten des deutschen Beziehungs- und Familienpanels (pairfam, Welle 5) für 2 demographisch relevante Geburtskohorten (1971–1973, n = 2293; 1981–1983, n = 2554). Für den Vergleich mit Personen am Anfang einer Kinderwunschbehandlung werden zudem die Daten einer Befragung von Paaren am Anfang einer Kinderwunschbehandlung (PinK-Studie, n = 565) verwendet. Als infertil sind Personen definiert, die zum Zeitpunkt der Befragung mehr als 12 Monate erfolglos versucht haben, ein Kind zu zeugen oder sich selbst und/oder ihren Partner als unfruchtbar einschätzen und einen Kinderwunsch haben. Die Infertilitätsprävalenz ist der Anteil Betroffener an allen Frauen und Männern.

    Ergebnisse: Die Infertilitätsprävalenzen unterscheiden sich nach Geschlecht nur geringfügig (Frauen: 7,5 %; Männer 6,5 %). Eltern sind seltener von Infertilität betroffen als Kinderlose; 1981–1983 Geborene mit hoher Bildung seltener als jene mit niedriger Bildung. Zudem sind junge verheiratete Frauen häufiger betroffen als Unverheiratete. Im Vergleich zur Population der von Infertilität Betroffenen finden sich 4 Personengruppen besonders häufig in Kinderwunschbehandlung: 1981–1983 Geborene, Kinderlose, Verheiratete sowie in Vollzeit erwerbstätige Frauen. Jene in Behandlung bewerten das Lebensziel Elternschaft höher als die Grundgesamtheit aller von Infertilität Betroffenen.

    Schlussfolgerung: Die Untersuchung liefert aktuelle Zahlen zur Punktprävalenz von Infertilität. Aus dem Vergleich der Population Infertiler mit den Personen in Kinderwunschbehandlung ergeben sich Hinweise auf soziale Selektion in die Behandlung. Es ist anzunehmen, dass Regelungen zur Kostenübernahme in der gesetzlichen Krankenkasse hierbei eine Rolle spielen.

  • Schmiedeberg, Claudia, Laura Castiglioni & Jette Schröder. 2016. Secondary Respondent Consent in the German Family Panel. Bulletin de Méthodologie Sociologique 131: 66-77. DOI: 10.1177/0759106316642707
  • To achieve high return among secondary respondents, primary respondents’ consent rates must be high. In the German Family Panel (pairfam), a large, randomly sampled panel study, primary respondents’ consent rates to surveying their parents were found to be low. Since we suspected that the underlying reason could be interviewer behavior, we tested in an experiment if placing the consent questions in the self-interview (CASI) part of the interview would increase consent rates. Results show that bypassing interviewers by asking respondents directly in the CASI section did not increase consent rates.

  • Schmiedeberg, Claudia & Jette Schröder. 2016. Does sexual satisfaction change with relationship duration? Archives of Sexual Behavior 45: 99-107. DOI: 10.1007/s10508-015-0587-0
  • Despite a large body of empirical literature on sexual satisfaction, its development over the course of a relationship is still unclear. Only a small number of studies, most of which have relied on cross-sectional data of convenience samples, have explicitly focused on relationship duration, and empirical evidence is mixed. We analyzed how sexual satisfaction changes over the course of a relationship using three waves of the German Family Panel study (pairfam). We concentrated our analyses on young and middle-aged heterosexual individuals in committed relationships (N = 2,814) and applied fixed effects regression models, which have the advantage of estimations based on changes within individuals over time. We found a positive development of sexual satisfaction in the first year of a relationship, followed by a steady decline. This pattern persisted even when controlling for the frequency of intercourse, although the effects were, in part, mediated by intercourse frequency. We explained the non-linear effect of relationship duration on sexual satisfaction with an initial learning effect regarding partner-specific sexual skills, which is then outweighed by a decline in passion at later stages of a relationship. Moreover, we found significant effects for the control variables of health status, intimacy in couple communication, and conflict style, as expected. In contrast to past research, however, cohabitation and marriage were not found to play a role for sexual satisfaction in our data. Further research is required to deepen the understanding of the reasons why sexual satisfaction changes with relationship duration.

  • Schröder, Jette, Claudia Schmiedeberg & Laura Castiglioni. 2016. The effect of interviewers' motivation and attitudes on respondents' consent to contact secondary respondents in a multi-actor design. Survey Methods: Insights from the Field. DOI: 10.13094/SMIF-2016-00005
  • In surveys using a multi-actor design, data is collected not only from sampled ‘primary’ respondents, but also from related persons such as partners, colleagues, or friends. For this purpose, primary respondents are asked for their consent to survey such ‘secondary’ respondents. The existence of interviewer effects on unit nonresponse of sampled respondents in surveys is well documented, and research increasingly focuses on interviewer attributes in the non-response process. However, research regarding interviewer effects on unit nonresponse of secondary respondents, more specifically, primary respondents’ consent to include secondary respondents into the survey, is sparse. We use the German Family Panel (pairfam) and an interviewer survey conducted during the fifth wave of the panel (2012) to investigate the effects of interviewer motivation and attitudes on respondents’ consent to a survey of their parents via a separate mail questionnaire. Using multi-level models, we find a substantial interviewer effect on consent rates when not controlling for interviewer characteristics. In a second step, we include variables which capture interviewers’ work motivation and attitudes. Our results show that being motivated for the job as an interviewer by interest in the work itself as well as attitudes towards persuading respondents are both associated with interviewers’ success in obtaining respondent consent to a parent survey. However, interviewer characteristics (including motivation and attitudes) are only able to explain a small part of the interviewer effect.

  • Thomas, Michael J. & Clara H. Mulder. 2016. Partnership patterns and homeownership: a cross-country comparison of Germany, the Netherlands and the United Kingdom. Housing Studies. DOI: 10.1080/02673037.2016.1164832
  • Using detailed micro-level survey data for three advanced European welfare-state economies (Germany, Netherlands and UK), our analyses suggest a fairly common hierarchy to homeownership, according to partnership status, exists. In all three countries, a variety of interrelated factors appear to encourage greater propensities for homeownership amongst co-residential households (married/cohabiting), as compared to single-person households. However, important macro-contextual differences do appear to play a significant role in mediating the magnitude of difference within this hierarchy. For instance, in Germany the importance of marriage as a predictor of homeownership is found to be particularly strong, with married couples having far higher propensities for homeownership, even when compared to non-married cohabiters. In the Netherlands and UK, where an emphasis on traditional family and marriage is less pronounced, and where homeownership is generally more popular and accessible, the differentiation between married/unmarried partners is greatly reduced. Furthermore, we find no evidence to suggest that living-apart-together partners are more/less likely to own their home than singles.

  • Trappe, Heike. 2016. Reproduktionsmedizin: Rechtliche Rahmenbedingungen, gesellschaftliche Relevanz und ethische Implikationen. In Handbuch Bevölkerungssoziologie, edited by Niephaus, Yasemin, Michaela Kreyenfeld & Reinhold Sackmann, 393-413. Wiesbaden: Springer. ISBN: 978-3-658-01409-4 / 978-3-658-01410-0
  • In diesem Beitrag wird zunächst die zunehmende gesellschaftliche Relevanz der assistierten Reproduktion skizziert. Dann wird auf die rechtlichen Rahmenbedingungen reproduktionsmedizinischer Behandlungen und die Regelungen zur Kostenübernahme mit besonderem Fokus auf Deutschland eingegangen. Daran schließt sich ein Überblick über in Deutschland zugelassene bzw. nicht zugelassene Verfahren an. Im Anschluss daran werden die quantitative Entwicklung assistierter Reproduktion und mögliche Erfolgsindikatoren dargestellt. Der Beitrag schließt mit einer Diskussion einiger sozialer und ethischer Implikationen der zunehmenden Nutzung reproduktionsmedizinischer Verfahren im Hinblick auf Lebensformen, Mutter- und Vaterschaft sowie Verwandtschaft. Plädiert wird für eine gesellschaftliche Debatte der realistischen Einschätzung der Möglichkeiten und Folgen der Reproduktionsmedizin.

  • Wendt, Eva-Verena. 2016. Paarbeziehungen Jugendlicher und junger Erwachsener: Fokus auf Unsicherheiten und Konflikte. Psychotherapeut 61(1): 10-15. DOI: 10.1007/s00278-015-0068-x
  • Background: Developmental psychology models of partnership development propose a number of age-related differences in the formation of partnerships of adolescents and young adults.

    Aim: Against the background of the assumption of an improvement of partnership competencies from adolescence to adulthood, the effects of age and relationship duration on emotional insecurity and conflicts were investigated in a representative population sample from Germany.

    Material and methods: The data came from the second wave of the German Family Panel pairfam. In the adolescent cohort (age 16–18 years) 33.4 % of the participants had a partner (n = 1186) at the point of the interview, and 68.8 % (n = 1803) in the young adult cohort (26–28 years).

    Results: Adolescents reported more emotional insecurity, verbal aggression and withdrawal in their partnership but also more self-disclosure to the partner compared to young adults. In longer lasting relationships more conflict, verbal aggression and withdrawal was reported. Young adults had less emotional insecurity but more conflict and less constructive conflict behavior in the case of long-term relationships.

    Conclusion: The results showed differences in the perceived partnership quality of adolescents and young adults with overall more problems for adolescents and important influences of relationship duration, especially for young adults.


  • Arránz Becker, Oliver. 2015. The impact of union dissolution and divorce on adolescents' and adults' relationships with their parents. Comparative Populations Studies 40(3): 313-334. DOI: 10.12765/CPoS-2015-09en
  • Using data of the German Family Panel pairfam, this article examines whether relationship-related transitions among adolescents and adults – separations with or without subsequent new relationships and transitions from being single to a relationship – impact different aspects of their relationship with their parents (contact frequency, intimacy, and conflict). Several competing hypotheses are tested. The resource hypothesis, following a supply-side argumentation, posits that relationships generate resources (i.e. social capital) that facilitate exchange with parents; relationship breakup implies resource deprivation and produces strain, which adversely affects the parent-child relationship (spillover hypothesis). According to the demand-based compensation hypothesis, horizontal relationships and vertical intergenerational relations are substitutively associated with each other; hence, exchanges between generations should be strongest when children are not involved in romantic relationships. The analyses yield evidence in line with both the compensation hypothesis (particularly among adolescents) and the spillover hypothesis (among adults). The effects are largely gender neutral.

  • Arránz Becker, Oliver & Daniel Lois. 2015. Quantitative Auswertungsverfahren in der Familiensoziologie. In Handbuch Familiensoziologie, Hrsg. Hill, Paul B. & Johannes Kopp, 269-318. Wiesbaden: Springer VS. ISBN: 978-3-658-02275-4
  • Das Kapitel gibt einen praxisorientierten Überblick über ausgewählte neuere Methodenentwicklungen in der Familienforschung, mit einem Fokus auf Ereignisanalysen und dyadischen Analyseverfahren. Im ersten Teil zur Ereignisdatenanalyse (EDA) liegt der Schwerpunkt auf zeitdiskreten Verfahren, welche für die Modellierung von Zustandswechseln anhand von Paneldaten geeignet sind. Nach der Erläuterung zentraler Grundbegriffe der EDA werden Datenformate und Möglichkeiten der Parametrisierung von Übergangsraten diskutiert. Anschließend werden anhand von Beispielen spezielle Fragestellungen wie die Differenzierung von Niveauund Timingeffekten sowie der Umgang mit konkurrierenden Zielzuständen erläutert. Schließlich werden die Implikationen einiger Besonderheiten von Paneldaten – insbesondere Linksstutzung und begrenzte Beobachtungszeiträume – geschildert. Der zweite Teil geht auf dyadische Analyseverfahren ein, die insbesondere in den vergangenen zehn Jahren entscheidend (weiter-)entwickelt worden sind. Liegen Angaben von mehr als einer Person pro Dyade oder Familie vor, sind diese Ansätze häufig angemessener als herkömmliche Regressionsverfahren. Gegenseitige soziale Einflussprozesse führen dazu, dass (1) in der Regel eine überzufällige (Un-)Ähnlichkeit von Merkmalen innerhalb von Familien und damit (2) soziale Interdependenz vorliegt, die in der Analyse sichtbar gemacht werden kann und sollte. Dyadische Analysen ermöglichen die simultane Modellierung von Merkmalszusammenhängen zwischen zwei oder mehreren zusammengehörigen Personen, wobei die Schätzung entweder durch Mehrebenenregression oder durch Strukturgleichungsmodelle erfolgen kann.

  • Arránz Becker, Oliver, Nadia Lois & Veronika Salzburger. 2015. Intergenerational contact between parents and adult (step)children: The role of biological descent and co-residence patterns. In Family Dynamics after Separation, Hrsg. Zartler, Ulrike, Valerie Heintz-Martin & Oliver Arránz Becker, 43-63. Opladen: Verlag Barbara Budrich (Sonderheft 10 der Zeitschrift für Familienforschung - Journal of Family Research). ISBN: 978-3-8474-0686-0
  • The present study examines contact frequency (face-to-face and media-based communication) of biological, stepparents, and adoptive parents with several adolescent and adult children. Data from the second wave of the German Family Panel (pairfam), which include reports from up to three parents per family on relations with multiple biological and social offspring, provide a unique opportunity to study this question. The analysis sample contains N=11,746 parent-child relationships assessed by N=4,957 parents from N=3,115 families. Multilevel analyses show that separated fathers tended to “swap families” in that their contact with biological children from a previous partnership was less close than to joint children with the current partner. In contrast, mothers generally had less contact with their stepchildren than with biological offspring. This gendered contact pattern is largely explainable by different interaction histories, co-residence arrangements, residential proximity, and intensity of affection. Socioeconomic and socio-cultural differences across family structures played only a minor role.

  • Bastin, Sonja. 2015. Partnerschaftsverläufe alleinerziehender Mütter in Deutschland. Eine quantitative Untersuchung auf Basis des Beziehungs- und Familienpanels. Wiesbaden: Springer VS. ISBN: 978-3-658-10685-0

    Allianz Nachwuchspreis für Demographie 2016 in Zusammenarbeit mit der Deutschen Gesellschaft für Demographie (DGD)

  • Buhr, Petra & Johannes Huinink. 2015. The German low fertility: How we got there and what we can expect for the future. European Sociological Review 31(2): 197-210. DOI: 10.1093/esr/jcv013
  • Trends in family formation in post-war Germany during the past 50 years are investigated for women in East and West Germany. The analysis explores to what extent they are the result of the changing composition of women’s educational attainment, labour force participation, and marital status, and to what extent it corresponds with altered fertility behaviour in different socio-structural groups. The German Life History Study provides an excellent database to answer this question covering the whole post-war period in East and West Germany during and after the ‘Golden Age of Marriage’. While in the former German Democratic Republic (GDR), increasing educational attainment and labour force participation of women did not inhibit early family formation, in West Germany, a non-linear trend in the age at family formation can be observed in the cohorts born after World War II. A growing segment of the female population suffered from high opportunity costs of being a mother, which led to a postponement of the first birth and a rise in childlessness. However, there is good reason to expect that the trend will come to an end and fertility will increase moderately in the future.
  • Eckhard, Jan. 2015. Abnehmende Bindungsquoten in Deutschland: Ausmaß und Bedeutung eines historischen Trends. Kölner Zeitschrift für Soziologie und Sozialpsychologie 67: 27-55. DOI: 10.1007/s11577-014-0296-z
  • Der Beitrag untersucht die Verbreitung von Paarbeziehungen in Deutschland anhand verschiedener sozialwissenschaftlicher Umfrageprogramme (Sozio-oekonomisches Panel, Beziehungs- und Familienpanel, Familiensurvey, Survey of Health, Ageing and Retirement in Europe). Er zeigt, dass die Frage nach der Entwicklung der Partnerbindung eine differenzierte Antwort erfordert: Die Verbreitung von stabileren Paarbeziehungen mit Mindestdauer von einem Jahr ist während der letzten Jahrzehnte zurückgegangen. Subsumiert man unter Partnerbindung aber auch sehr kurze Beziehungserfahrungen, dann kann man mit Blick auf die jüngeren Geburtsjahrgänge von einer weitgehenden Konstanz der Bindungsquoten sprechen. Darüber hinaus zeigen die Auswertungen Unterschiede zwischen den Geschlechtern, zwischen Ost- und Westdeutschland und zwischen verschiedenen Bildungsgruppen auf. Ein erheblicher Anstieg der Partnerlosigkeit ist vor allem bei Männern in Ostdeutschland zu beobachten.
  • Feldhaus, Michael. 2015. Familiale Einflussfaktoren auf das elterliche Schulinteresse aus der Sicht von Grundschulkindern. Zeitschrift für Familienforschung - Journal of Family Research 27(2): 135-151.
  • Der vorliegende Beitrag fokussiert das Verhältnis zwischen Elternhaus und Schule an einer entscheidenden Schnittstelle beider Kontexte, dem elterlichen Schulinteresse. Betrachtet werden Einflüsse auf das schulbezogene Interesse der Eltern, insbesondere im Übergang von der Grundschule zu den weiterführenden Schulen. Hierbei liegt der Schwerpunkt auf der Frage, inwieweit Veränderungen in der familialen Beziehungsdynamik mit Veränderungen des Schulinteresses korrespondieren. Das elterliche Schulinteresse wird aus der Perspektive der Kinder erfasst. Auf der Basis der Daten des Beziehungs- und Familienentwicklungspanels (pairfam) und der darin durchgeführten Kinderbefragung wurden Angaben der Kinder (N= 342) aus Welle 2 und 4 herangezogen. Die 2-Wellen-Panelregressionsanalysen bestätigen, dass das elterliche Interesse an schulischen Leistungen in der Grundschulphase ein sehr hohes Niveau hat, unabhängig vom Bildungsstand und den Bildungsaspirationen der Eltern, dass es sich aber in den Zeiten des Übergangs zwischen Grundschule und den weiterführenden Schulen bereits signifikant reduziert. Es zeigt sich ferner, dass ein Anstieg des kindlichen Problemverhaltens und eine Verschlechterung der Beziehungsqualität zu den Eltern mit einer Reduktion des Schulinteresses der Eltern korrespondiert.
  • Feldhaus, Michael & Andreas Timm. 2015. Der Einfluss der elterlichen Trennung im Jugendalter auf die Depressivität von Jugendlichen. Zeitschrift für Familienforschung - Journal of Family Research 27: 32-52. 
  • Der vorliegende Beitrag untersucht mit aktuell verfügbaren Längsschnittdaten den Zusammenhang zwischen elterlichen Trennungen und der Depressivität von Jugendlichen. Hierbei werden insbesondere die zugrundeliegenden Beziehungsdynamiken zwischen Eltern und ihren Kindern berücksichtigt. Ziel ist es, mit aktuellen, repräsentativen Daten, die überwiegend aus dem angloamerikanischen Raum stammenden Ergebnisse zum Zusammenhang zwischen elterlichen Trennungen und der Depressivität von Jugendlichen für Deutschland zu untersuchen. Für die empirischen Analysen wird die Jugendkohorte des Beziehungs-und Familienpanels (pairfam) und hierbei die Daten der ersten vier Wellen aufbereitet. Es werden erstmals für den deutschen Kontext sowohl fixed-effects-Modelle als auch sogenannte Hybrid-Modelle gerechnet, um stärker unverzerrte, intraindividuelle Veränderungen zu erfassen. Die Ergebnisse bestätigen den Befund, dass eine elterliche Trennung während des Jugendalters trotz der hohen Verbreitung und allgemeinen Akzeptanz von Trennungen und Scheidungen die Depressivität von Jugendlichen signifikant erhöht. Dieser Befund trifft jedoch vor allem für konflikthafte Familienbeziehungen zu, während Beziehungen, die auf Intimität und Geborgenheit ausgerichtet sind, den Effekt der Scheidung deutlich reduzieren und eine erfolgreichere Anpassung bewirken.
  • Feldhaus, Michael & Valerie Heintz-Martin. 2015. Long-term effects of parental separation: Impacts of parental separation during childhood on the timing and the risk of cohabitation, marriage, and divorce in adulthood. Advances in Life Course Research 26: 22-31. DOI: 10.1016/j.alcr.2015.07.003
  • This study investigates the long-term effects of parental separation during childhood on crucial partnership-related outcomes later in life, such as first cohabitation, first marriage, and first divorce, in Germany. To address this, we differentiate between a risk effect i.e. having a specific partnership-related event outcome later in life, and a timing effect i.e. having the event earlier or later. We also focus on age effects, analyzing the impact of parental separation at specific ages during childhood. We applied event history models to a sample of 2174 individuals taken from the second and third wave of the German pairfam data (Panel Analysis of Intimate Relationships and Family Dynamics).

    Our empirical results indicate that parental separation works as a strong ‘push effect’ particularly on the timing of leaving the parental home and moving-in together with a partner. However, this push effect on cohabitation does not apply to marriage. Here we find no effects of childhood transitions on marriage rate. With regard to the transition rate to divorce, our data confirm the well-known hypothesis of the intergenerational transmission of divorce. We find that those who experienced a parental separation have a lower probability of staying married. Looking at specific age effects, we find that experiencing a parental separation before age seven is an influencing factor in regard to timing of a first cohabitation as well as on the risk of having an own divorce later in life.

  • Feldhaus, Michael & Monika Schlegel. 2015. Living Apart Together and Living Together Apart: Impacts of Partnership-Related and Job-Related Circular Mobility on Partnership Quality. In Spatial Mobility, Migration, and Living Arrangements, Hrsg. Aybek, Can M., Johannes Huinink & Raya Muttarak, 115-137. Springer VS. ISBN: 978-3-319-10021-0
  • This article focuses on a better understanding of the influence of partnership and job mobility on the quality of partnerships. Different types of job-related mobility (short-time commuter, long-time commuter, non-mobiles) and three types for partnership-related mobility (overnighters, short-distance relationships, and long-distance relationships) are included for analyzing the impacts on partnership quality, using data from the first wave of the German Family Panel. Among men faced with more demanding job-related mobility we found a positive effect on partnership quality and a negative of living in a long distance relationship. Among women, both effects are negative, but not significant. Furthermore, we analyzed variables that have been emphasized in previous research as important mediating factors (such as sexual satisfaction, conflicts, relatedness, autonomy, and commitment). Looking at these mediating variables the results show that among individuals with partnership-related mobility, sexual satisfaction, conflicts, relatedness, and autonomy have positive indirect effects for men and women on partnership quality. With regard to job-related mobility, we find a positive indirect effect of reduced conflicts for long-distance commuting men, and a positive indirect effect among long-time commuting women with regard to relatedness and autonomy. The results support the interpretation that living apart together matters more than living together apart.

  • Finn, Christine, Kristin Mitte & Franz J. Neyer. 2015. Recent decreases in specific interpretation biases predict decreases in neuroticism: Evidence from a longitudinal study with young adult couples. Journal of Personality 83(3): 274–286. DOI: 10.1111/jopy.12102
  • Engaging in a romantic relationship represents one important life experience in young adulthood that has been shown to catalyze age-related decrease in neuroticism (Neyer & Lehnart, 2007).The current research builds directly on this finding by investigating one process that underlies the partnership effect.We focused on the relationship-specific interpretation bias (RIB; Finn, Mitte, & Neyer, 2013), which is the tendency to interpret ambiguous partner and relationship scenarios in a negative way. It was expected that the RIB decreases within relationships in young adulthood and that this decrease in turn predicts long-term declines in neuroticism. A sample of 245 young adult romantic couples was assessed four times across 9 months. Actor and partner effects of changes in the RIB on changes in neuroticism were analyzed using a dyadic dual change model. Recent time-to-time decreases in the RIB predicted one’s own (actor effect) decline in neuroticism across 9 months. Similarly, there was a trend for a partner effect. We conclude that changes in biased relationship-specific interpretations reflect one unique process that contributes to the understanding of romantic relationship effects on personality development.
  • Hank, Karsten & Johannes Huinink. 2015. Regional contexts and family formation: Evidence from the German Family Panel. Kölner Zeitschrift für Soziologie und Sozialpsychologie 67: 41-58. DOI: 10.1007/s11577-015-0322-9
  • Substantial regional variation in marriage and fertility patterns continues to exist in Germany. Following a multilevel approach, we exploit longitudinal data from the German Family Panel (pairfam), enhanced by an array of district-level variables, to investigate the extent to which spatial variations in men’s and women’s family formation behaviors result from differences in population composition or from ‘true’ contextual effects. Our multilevel analyses provide evidence for only small—if any—contextual effects on individuals’ family formation behaviors (except for a continuation of significant differences between East and West Germany). However, we still find indication that (1) regional economic circumstances matter in determining individuals’ fertility intentions as well as their transition to first marriage, (2) regional milieus are associated with individuals’ fertility, and that (3) selective family migration takes place. While it seems that social interaction rather than differences in local opportunity structures plays a role here, more research is needed to further substantiate this conclusion.
  • Hank, Karsten & Veronika Salzburger. 2015. Gay and lesbian adults' relationship with parents in Germany. Journal of Marriage and Family 77: 866-876. DOI: 10.1111/jomf.12205
  • Despite a rapid expansion of research on gay and lesbian family issues, a comprehensive account of intergenerational family relationships for a population-based sample of adult homosexual children is still lacking. Using more than 7,500 baseline interviews from the German Family Panel (pairfam), this study aimed to fill this gap. The authors analyzed nationally representative data for 2 cohorts (born i n 1971–1973 and 1981–1983, respectively) with regard to 5 outcome variables: (a) emotional closeness, (b) contacts, (c) geographic proximity, (d) conflicts, and (e) ambivalence. They found indications of modestly lower levels of emotional closeness to both parents as well as evidence for less frequent contacts of homosexual children with their fathers. Overall, however, the results suggest that adult gay and lesbian children’s relations to parents do not differ substantially from those observed among their heterosexual counterparts. The article concludes with a discussion of limitations and potentials for future research.
  • Hiekel, Nicole, Aart C. Liefbroer & Anne-Rigt Poortman. 2015. Marriage and separation risks among German cohabiters: Differences between types of cohabiter. Population Studies: A Journal of Demography, DOI: 10.1080/00324728.2015.1037334
  • We propose a typology of different meanings of cohabitation that combines cohabiters’ intentions to marry with a general attitude toward marriage, using competing risk analyses to examine whether some cohabiters are more prone than others to marry or to separate. Using data (N = 1,258) from four waves of the German Family Panel (PAIRFAM) and a supplementary study (DEMODIFF), we compared eastern and western German cohabiters of the birth cohorts 1971–73 and 1981–83. Western Germans more frequently view cohabitation as a step in the marriage process, whereas eastern Germans more often cohabit as an alternative to marriage. Taking into account marital attitudes reveals that cohabiters without marriage plans differ from those with plans in their relationship careers, and also shows that cohabiters who plan to marry despite holding a less favourable view of marriage are less likely to realize their plans than cohabiters whose intentions and attitudes are more congruent.
  • Johnson, Matthew D. & Jared R. Anderson. 2015. Temporal ordering of intimate relationship efficacy and conflict. Journal of Marriage and Family 77: 968–981. DOI: 10.1111/jomf.12198
  • Drawing from social cognitive theory (Bandura, 1986) and data from 1,640 couples who remained together over the first 4 waves of the German Panel Analysis of Intimate Relationships and Family Dynamics (Pairfam) project, the authors examined the temporal ordering between each partner's relationship efficacy and conflict (constructive behaviors and frequency of negative exchanges) assessed at the dyadic and individual levels. The results revealed that each partner's constructive conflict behaviors and negatively valenced conflict frequency at the couple level temporally preceded relationship efficacy for male and female partners. There was no support for the reverse order or bidirectional linkages over time. These results challenge the prevailing theoretical and empirical suppositions regarding associations between relationship efficacy and couple interactions. The discussion theorizes a more complex efficacy process in couple relations, whereas specific efficacy beliefs shape behaviors in that domain, which subsequently inform each partner's global relationship efficacy over time.
  • Kimmes, Jonathan G., Jared A. Durtschi, Charity E. Clifford, Darin J. Knapp & Frank D. Fincham. 2015. The role of pessimistic attributions in the association between anxious attachment and relationship satisfaction. Family Relations 64: 547-562. DOI: 10.1111/fare.12130
  • Attributions—the explanations spouses give to each other’s behavior—have been consistently linked to relationship satisfaction, but little is known about the origins of attributional tendencies. In this study, an actor–partner interdependence model was tested to examine the relationships among pessimistic attributions, anxious attachment, and relationship satisfaction, using married couples (N=767) from The German Family Panel Analysis of Intimate Relationships and Family Dynamics (pairfam; Huinink et al., 2011). For husbands and wives, higher levels of anxious attachment predicted more pessimistic attributions 2 years later. These pessimistic attributions, in turn, predicted their own later relationship satisfaction. Husbands’ pessimistic attributions also predicted lower wives’ relationship satisfaction. Pessimistic attributions fully mediated the relationship between anxious attachment and relationship satisfaction within spouses. It may be beneficial when intervening with couples to facilitate improvement in their attachment security and thereby promote more optimistic attributions and higher relationship satisfaction.
  • Kreyenfeld, Michaela & Valerie Heintz-Martin. 2015. Fertility after Separation: Second Births in Higher Order Unions in Germany. FamiliesAndSocieties. Working Paper Series: 28.
  • This paper uses recent data from the German family panel (pairfam) to examine the fertility behavior after separation. More specifically, we focus on the transition to the second child and compare the behavior of respondents in ongoing partnerships (couples who are still partnered with the mother/father of their first child) with those who have experienced family dissolution after the first birth. The investigation reveals strong gender differences in postseparation fertility behavior. We also find large regional differences. Eastern Germans had much lower second birth rates than western Germans. However, they were more prone than western Germans to have their second child with a parent who was not the father or the mother of their firstborn child. This result is in line with descriptive findings on the diversity of family structures in eastern Germany.
  • Kreyenfeld, Michaela & Dirk Konietzka. 2015. Sozialstruktur und Lebensform. In Handbuch Familiensoziologie, Hrsg. Hill, Paul Bernhard & Johannes Kopp, 345-373. Wiesbaden: Springer VS. ISBN: 978-3-658-02275-4
  • Kunze, Susann. 2015. Die Beziehungsqualität in Stieffamilien: Ein Vergleich von sozialen und leiblichen Eltern innerhalb von Stieffamilien. Familien-Prisma 7: 50-54. 
  • This study examines how stressors, positive behavior and perceptions of the partner influence the quality of relationship in stepfamilies. Possible differences between biological parents and step-parents within stepfamilies are elicited. 240 social and 309 biological parents from stepfamilies out of the Panel Analysis of Intimate Relationships and Family Dynamics (pairfam) constitute the object of this study. Results indicate differences in all investigated fields.
  • Kunze, Susann. 2015. Die Beziehungsqualität in Stiefvater- und Stiefmutterfamilien: Gemeinsamkeiten und Unterschiede der Ressourcennutzung. Zentralinstitut für Ehe und Familie in der Gesellschaft: Working Paper 03/2015
  • Verschiedene empirische Studien belegen eine besondere Anfälligkeit für Stressoren von Stiefmutter- gegenüber Stiefvaterfamilien. Worin liegen diese Unterschiede begründet? Liegt es daran, dass Stiefvaterfamilien über mehr psychologische Ressourcen verfügen? Oder nutzen Stiefvaterfamilien ihre Ressourcen konstruktiver als Stiefmutterfamilien? Zur Überprüfung dieser Fragestellungen wurden 430 Personen aus Stiefvaterfamilien und 188 Personen aus Stiefmutterfamilien der dritten Welle des Beziehungs- und Familienentwicklungspanels pairfam verwendet. Die Resultate zeigen auf, dass das Vorhandensein von Ressourcen unabhängig von der Familienform ist. Die Ressourcen unterstützen die Beziehungsqualität in den beiden Untersuchungsgruppen. Allerdings ist die destruktive Kraft der Konikthäugkeit bei Stiefmutterfamilien hartnäckiger als es bei Stiefvaterfamilien der Fall ist. So können die Ressourcen von Stiefvaterfamilien die Wirkung des Stressors reduzieren. Stiefmutterfamilien können seine Wirkung durch eine hohe Verfügbarkeit ihrer Ressourcen nur ausgleichen.
  • Langmeyer, Alexandra N.. 2015. Sorgerecht, Coparenting und Kindeswohl. Eltern Sein in nichtehelichen Lebensgemeinschaften. Wiesbaden: Springer VS. ISBN: 978-3-658-07475-3
  • Wünschen sich unverheiratete Eltern in Deutschland die gemeinsame elterliche Sorge, so müssen sie heiraten oder Sorgeerklärungen zur Erlangung der gemeinsamen Sorge abgeben. Dem rechtlichen Begriff der gemeinsamen Sorge stellt Alexandra N. Langmeyer in der vorliegenden Studie das psychologische Pendant der elterlichen Zusammenarbeit in der Erziehung gegenüber, die in den letzten Jahren zunehmend unter dem Begriff des elterlichen Coparenting in der Familienforschung berücksichtigt wird. Anhand von drei Teilstudien wird aus einer systemischen Perspektive die gemeinsame elterliche Sorge, die Bedeutung des elterlichen Coparenting und des Erziehungsverhaltens sowie deren Zusammenhang zum Kindeswohl beleuchtet.
  • Morosow, Kathrin & Heike Trappe. 2015. Intergenerational Transmission of Fertility Timing in Germany. Stockholm Research Reports in Demography 27. Stockholm: Stockholm University.
  • The transmission of behaviour across generations has been of key interest to social scientists for a long time. The objective of this study is to examine the transition to first birth considering factors that underlie continuity across generations, and contextual differences between eastern and western Germany. So far no research on intergenerational transmission of fertility timing has been conducted for Germany. Based on data of the German Family Panel (pairfam), the intergenerational transmission of fertility timing between mothers and daughters born between 1971-73 and 1981-83 is examined using event history analysis. Results show a positive effect of mothers’ age at their daughters’ birth on daughters’ transition to first birth for early childbearing. Regarding the underlying mechanisms, there is support for the socialization theory, not however for the social control theory. Mothers’ s socioeconomic characteristics seem to contribute little to a better understanding of their daughters’ transition to first birth as well. However, the results indicate a sequence of events for daughters: moving out of the parental household, cohabitation respectively marriage and first birth. This sequence seems to start earlier for daughters the younger their mothers. In addition to that, differences between eastern and western Germany are observed, pointing to a stronger intergenerational transmission in western than in eastern Germany due to standardized life courses suggesting that institutional transformation does not override established normative life course patterns.
  • Müller, Bettina & Laura Castiglioni. 2015. Attrition im Beziehungs- und Familienpanel pairfam. In Nonresponse Bias: Qualitätssicherung sozialwissenschaftlicher Umfragen, Hrsg. Schupp, Jürgen & Christof Wolf, 283-308. Springer VS. ISBN: 978-3-658-10459-7
  • Müller, Bettina & Laura Castiglioni. 2015. Stable Relationships, Stable Participation? The Effects of Partnership Dissolution and Changes in Relationship Stability on Attrition in a Relationship and Family Panel. Survey Research Methods 9(3): 205-219. DOI: 10.18148/srm/2016.v10i1.62078 Replicating Material
  • Underrepresentation of life changes is an important issue for panel studies, which are designed to describe such changes. Little is known, however, about the impact of changes that are related to the survey topic. This paper examines the effects of partnership dissolution and changes in subjective relationship stability on participation in a panel with a focus on relationship and family. We consider both living apart together (LAT) and cohabiting relationships. Using 2008-2014 data from the German Family Panel pairfam (panel analysis of intimate relationships and family dynamics), our analyses support previous findings. Reported separation negatively affects the next wave’s participation probability. Effects can be found at the contact as well as cooperation stage of the response process, whereas cooperation only appears to be affected among respondents in LAT relationships. Changes in subjective relationship instability are not strongly associated with participation in the pairfam study.

  • Mund, Marcus, Christine Finn, Birk Hagemeyer, Julia Zimmermann & Franz J. Neyer. 2015. The dynamics of Self-Esteem in Partner Relationships. European Journal of Personality 29: 235-249. DOI: 10.1002/per.1984
  • Previous research on the role of self-esteem in partner relationships indicates that it is both predictive of and predicted by variables such as relationship satisfaction. However, most of these studies were constrained to only relationship satisfaction, cross-sectional or individual data. In the present study, we examine the dynamic interplay between self-esteem and both broad (i.e. relationship satisfaction) and specific aspects of relationship quality (independence and connectedness) reflecting the fulfilment of agentic and communal needs in stable partner relationships from both an intrapersonal perspective and an interpersonal perspective. Study 1 assessed 186 individuals at three measurement occasions over 15 years and suggests a common developmental dynamic between self-esteem and relationship satisfaction, as indicated by initial correlations and correlated changes. In Study 2, actor and partner effects in stable couples (N=2124 dyads) were examined over a period of three years. It was found that self-esteem and all three aspects of relationship quality are dynamically intertwined in such a way that both previous levels and changes in one domain predict later changes in the other domain. Together, the findings indicate that self-esteem is consequential for the development of a variety of relationship aspects but likewise influenced by these very aspects.
  • Pforr, Klaus, Michael Blohm, Annelies G. Blom, Barbara Erdel, Barbara Felderer, Mathis Frässdorf, Kristin Hajek, Susanne Helmschrott, Corinna Kleinert, Achim Koch, Ulrich Krieger, Martin Kroh, Silke Martin, Denise Sassenroth, Claudia Schmiedeberg, Eva-Maria Trüdinger & Beatrice Rammstedt. 2015. Are incentive effects on response rates and nonresponse bias in large-scale, face-to-face surveys generalizable to Germany? Evidence from ten experiments. Public Opinion Quarterly 79(3): 740–768.DOI:10.1093/poq/nfv014 Replicating Material
  • In survey research, a consensus has grown regarding the effectiveness of incentives encouraging survey participation across different survey modes and target populations. Most of this research has been based on surveys from the United States, whereas few studies have provided evidence that these results can be generalized to other contexts. This paper is the first to present comprehensive information concerning the effects of incentives on response rates and nonresponse bias across large-scale surveys in Germany. The context could be viewed as a critical test for incentive effects because Germany’s population is among the most survey-critical in the world, with very low response rates. Our results suggest positive incentive effects on response rates and patterns of effects that are similar to those in previous research: The effect increased with the monetary value of the incentive; cash incentives affected response propensity more strongly than lottery tickets do; and prepaid incentives could be more cost effective than conditional incentives. We found mixed results for the effects of incentives on nonresponse bias. Regarding large-scale panel surveys, we could not unequivocally confirm that incentives increased response rates in later panel waves.
  • Rözer, Jesper J., Gerald Mollenhorst & Beate Volker. 2015. Romantic Relationship Formation, Maintenance and Changes in Personal Networks. Advances in Life Course Research 23: 86-97. DOI: 10.1016/j.alcr.2014.12.001
  • According to the social withdrawal hypothesis, a personal network becomes smaller when a person starts dating, cohabitates and marries. This phenomenon is widely established in the literature. However, these studies were usually done with cross-sectional data. As a consequence, it is still unclear whether or how personal networks actually change after the formation of a romantic relationship (i.e. dating), after starting cohabitation and after getting married. It is also unclear how long and to what extent social withdrawal continues. To overcome these shortcomings, we examine how the size and composition of personal networks change after relationship formation. We use two waves of the PAIRFAM dataset (2008 and 2011), which include information about 6640 Germans who were between 16 and 39 years of age at the time of the second interview in 2008. Results from fixed effects regression models underscore that the association between romantic relationships and changes in personal networks is more dynamic than previous studies suggested. For example, after the formation of a romantic relationship people show a decrease in non-kin contacts, while an increase in non-kin contacts is observed after two years of dating, as well as after two years of cohabitation. These network changes suggest that people adapt their social networks to the demands and constraints of each phase of a romantic relationship. Because the decline in network size after dating is not stable, there is no need to be afraid that those who have a romantic partner remain isolated from other relationships.
  • Salzburger, Veronika. 2015. Die Geburt des ersten Enkelkindes. Zur Adaption von Generationenbeziehungen. Wiesbaden: Springer VS. ISBN: 978-3-658-06925-4
  • Veronika Salzburger untersucht Veränderungen von Generationenbeziehungen nach der Geburt des ersten (Enkel-)Kindes. Welche Mechanismen beim Übergang in die Eltern- bzw. Großelternschaft zu einer Veränderung der Solidaritätsdimensionen führen können, wird theoretisch erläutert und anschließend anhand von Daten des Familienpanels (pairfam) empirisch überprüft. Zunächst wird der value-of-children Ansatz in die Theorie der sozialen Produktionsfunktion (TSPF) integriert. Anschließend werden auch die Austausch- und Bindungstheorie mit dem Modell der Generationensolidarität verknüpft. Mittels Difference-Score-Modellen zeigt sich, dass der generationale Übergang zu einer Intensivierung des Kontakts und der emotionalen Nähe sowie einer Reduktion der Konflikthäufigkeit zwischen den Generationen führt. Darüber hinaus wurden fünf Beziehungs-Typen mittels Clusteranalysen identifiziert, wobei die Geburt teilweise zu einer veränderten Typen-Zugehörigkeit über die Zeit beiträgt.
  • Schnor, Christine. 2015. Does waiting pay off for couples? Partnership duration prior to household formation and union stability. Demographic Research 33: 611-652. DOI: 10.4054/DemRes.2015.33.22 Replicating Material
  • BACKGROUND Most couples that live together began their relationship while having separate addresses. In contrast to the large body of literature on the role of premarital cohabitation in divorce, very little is known about how the partnership period before moving in together affects union stability. OBJECTIVE This article investigates: 1) the timing of household formation in a couple’s history, 2) the impact of such timing on dissolution behavior, and 3) how household formation and dissolution differ for first and higher-order partnerships. METHODS Using data based on 15,081 partnerships (of which 45% were coresidential unions) from the German Family Panel, cumulative incidence curves reveal the dynamic of the non-coresidential partnership episode. For the sample of coresidential unions (N=6,741), piecewise constant survival models with a person-specific frailty term are estimated in order to assess the influence of household formation timing on union stability. RESULTS Partnership arrangements with partners living in separate households are transitory in nature and may result in either household formation or separation. First partnerships transform in to coresidential unions less often and later than higher-order partnerships. Union stability is positively related to the duration of the preceding non-coresidential period. Especially among unions with a non-coresidential period of 7 to 24 months, first partnerships have lower dissolution risks than higher-order partnerships. CONCLUSION The results suggest that the non-coresidential period is a significant phase in the partnership, as it enables couples to acquire information about the quality of their partnership.
  • Schröder, Jette & Claudia Schmiedeberg. 2015. Effects of Relationship Duration, Cohabitation, and Marriage on the Frequency of Intercourse in Couples: Findings from German Panel Data. Social Science Research 52: 72-82. DOI: 10.1016/j.ssresearch.2015.01.009
  • Research into the changes in the frequency of sexual intercourse is (with few exceptions) limited to cross-sectional analyses of marital duration. We investigate the frequency of intercourse while taking into account relationship duration as well as the duration of cohabitation and marriage, effects of parenthood, and relationship quality. For the analysis we apply fixed effects regression models using data from the German Family Panel (pairfam), a nationwide randomly sampled German panel survey. Our findings imply that the drop in sex frequency occurs early in the relationship, whereas neither cohabitation nor marriage affects the frequency of intercourse to a significant extent. Sex frequency is reduced during pregnancy and as long as the couple has small children, but becomes revived later on. Relationship quality is found to play a role as well. These results are contrary to the honeymoon effect found in earlier research, but indicate that in times of postponed marriage an analogous effect may be at work in the initial period of the relationship.
  • Walper, Sabine, Carolin Thönnissen & Philipp Alt. 2015. Einflüsse von akademischer Sozialisation und der Verbundenheit mit den Eltern auf die schulischen Leistungen von Kindern und Jugendlichen. Zeitschrift für Familienforschung - Journal of Family Research 27(2): 152-172.
  • Mit Blick auf die Bildungsbedeutung der Familie untersucht diese Studie längsschnittliche Einflüsse des elterlichen Schulengagements und der Verbundenheit mit den Eltern auf die schulische Leistungsentwicklung im 2-Jahres-Zeitraum. Im Mittelpunkt stehen zwei Aspekte akademischer Sozialisation: die Bildungsorientierung der Eltern und deren Interesse an schulischen Belangen der Kinder. Die Daten für 469 Kinder im Alter zwischen 8 und 16 Jahren stammen aus dem Deutschen Beziehungs- und Familienpanel pairfam. In multiplen Regressionen, die zahlreiche Hintergrundfaktoren, den früheren Leistungsstand sowie das Problemverhalten der Kinder kontrollieren, erweist sich lediglich die Bildungsorientierung der Eltern als relevant. Während das Alter der Kinder keinen moderierenden Einfluss auf die Bedeutung akademischer Sozialisation und die Verbundenheit mit den Eltern hat, trägt die Bildungsorientierung nur bei hoher Verbundenheit der Kinder mit den Eltern zu besseren schulischen Leistungen bei. Die Befunde unterstreichen die Bedeutung elterlicher  Bildungsaspirationen, vor allem im Kontext einer positiven Eltern-Kind-Beziehung.

  • Walper, Sabine, Carolin Thönnissen & Philipp Alt. 2015. Effects of Family Structure and the experience of parental separation: A focus on adolenscents' well-being. Comparative Populations Studies 40(3). DOI: 10.12765/CPoS-2015-12en
  • Large numbers of studies, mostly from the U.S., have addressed the effects of parental separation and divorce, pointing to disadvantages of children and adolescents growing up in separated families. However, evidence on this topic varies across countries and is limited for Germany. Using longitudinal data from waves 1 and 3 of the German Family Panel pairfam, we investigated differences in adolescents’ well-being by comparing stable nuclear families (n = 1968), single mother families (n = 360), and stepfather families (n = 214), as well as an additional smaller group of adolescents whose parents separated between waves 1 and 3 (“prospective separators”; n = 76). Adolescents’ satisfaction with different domains of life (family, education/work, and their general life satisfaction) as well as their self-esteem were used as indicators of well-being. A series of multiple regression analyses tested the effects of family structure on well-being at T1 and changes in well-being over time, controlling for various background factors. Furthermore, likely mediation effects of infrequent contact to the non-resident father and economic strain were tested. The findings show (relatively minor) effects of parental separation, namely lower well-being among youth1 in single mother families compared to nuclear families. Disadvantages of youth in single mother families could only be partly explained by the higher financial strain generally experienced in these families. Youth in stepfather families reported a similar overall well-being as adolescents in nuclear families, but indicated a greater decrease in family satisfaction over time. Pre-separation disadvantages among prospective separators were limited to greater dissatisfaction with school. Infrequent contact with the non-resident father did not affect adolescents’ well-being. Effects of family structure did not differ between boys and girls, but maternal education moderated the effects of family structure on adolescents’ life satisfaction. Overall, the findings are in line with other evidence from Germany, which points towards only limited disadvantages of youth in separated or divorced families.
  • Walper, Sabine & Eva-Verena Wendt. 2015. Adolescents' relationships with mother and father and their links to the quality of romantic relationships: A classification approach. European Journal of Developmental Psychology 12(5): 516-532. DOI: 10.1080/17405629.2015.1065727
  • Adolescents' relationships with parents are considered to be a major learning source and emotional base for developing expectations and styles of behaviour in close relationships. Using a longitudinal sample of late adolescents from nuclear families drawn from the German Family Panel pairfam (N = 720; mean age: 18.6 years), we investigated how adolescents' relationships with both parents influenced their romantic relationship quality one year later. Bagged (Averaged) Binary Recursive Partitioning was used to compare features of adolescents' relationships with mother and father (relatedness, negative conflict, emotional insecurity, and parental dominance) in respect of their importance in predicting similar aspects of romantic relationship quality. Overall, our findings suggest some degree of domain-specific continuities in adolescents' relationships with parents and partner, particularly for negative conflict, as well as more global effects for most features of the parent–adolescent relationship. Emotional insecurity with mother was most broadly linked to all features of adolescents' romantic relationship. Overall, adolescents' relationship with mother was found to be more influential than their relationship with father. The findings are discussed with reference to a behavioural systems perspective and attachment theory.

  • Wendt, Eva-Verena & Sabine Walper. 2015. Prädiktoren konsequenter Verhütung bei Jugendlichen: Individuelle, familien- und partnerschaftsbezogene Risikolagen. Zeitschrift für Soziologie der Erziehung und Sozialisation 3: 252-267. DOI: 10.3262/ZSE1503252 
  • Obwohl Studien der letzten Jahre für die meisten Jugendlichen einen überwiegend zuverlässigen Umgang mit Verhütung nachweisen konnten, gibt es nach wie vor Hinweise auf Risikogruppen von Jugendlichen, welche nur inkonsequent oder gar nicht verhüten. Dieser Beitrag überprüft persönlichkeits-, familien- und partnerschaftsbezogene Prädiktoren eines konsequenten Verhütungsverhaltens in einer Stichprobe von 1.127 sexuell aktiven, heterosexuellen 16- bis 18-Jährigen aus dem Beziehungs- und Familienpanel pairfam. Insgesamt verhüteten 72,4 % der sexuell aktiven Jugendlichen eigenen Angaben zufolge "sehr konsequent", 27,4 % verhüteten mittel bis "gar nicht konsequent" oder gar nicht. In logistischen Regressionen wird die Konsequenz im Verhütungsverhalten am besten durch den aktuellen Partnerschaftsstatus vorhergesagt mit konsequenterer Verhütung für Jugendliche in fester Partnerschaft, bei männlichen Jugendlichen zusätzlich durch einen frühen ersten Geschlechtsverkehr, das Bildungsniveau und die Gewissenhaftigkeit als Persönlichkeitsmerkmal. Die partnerschaftsbezogenen Prädiktoren Beziehungsdauer und Verbundenheit zum Partner erweisen sich als nicht relevant, ebenso eine Reihe familialer Faktoren wie ökonomische Deprivation, Nicht-Kernfamilie oder Migrationsstatus.

  • Wilhelm, Barbara. 2015. Kompetenz- und Autonomieerleben in der Elternrolle. Elterliche Bedürfnisse im Kontext der Erziehung. Berlin: Dr. Köster Verlag. ISBN: 978-3-895-74889-9

    Systemischer Forschungspreis 2017 von DGSF (Deutsche Gesellschaft für Systemische Therapie, Beratung und Familientherapie e.V.) und SG (Systemische Gesellschaft)

  • Eltern eines Kindes zu sein ist eine bereichernde Erfahrung, aber zugleich eine herausfordernde Lebensaufgabe. Während aus Wissenschaft und Praxis nunmehr seit langem grundlegende Erkenntnisse zur bestmöglichen Förderung einer gesunden kindlichen Entwicklung vorliegen, ist vergleichsweise wenig darüber bekannt, wie es um das Wohl der Eltern steht und wie Mütter und Väter ihre Elternrolle erleben. Das vorliegende Buch nimmt sich dieser Forschungslücke an und befasst sich auf Basis einer umfassenden theoretischen und wissenschaftlichen Bestandsaufnahme mit dem Erleben der Mutter- und Vaterrolle unter den besonderen Herausforderungen der heutigen Elterngeneration. Ein differenzierter Blick wird dabei auf das Erleben von Kompetenz und Autonomie als grundlegende psychologische Bedürfnisse von Menschen gerichtet. Anhand einer dyadischen Elternstichprobe des Beziehungs- und Familienpanels pairfam werden in drei Teilstudien demographische und psychosoziale Einflussfaktoren innerhalb der Familie empirisch untersucht und die Folgen elterlicher Bedürfniserfüllung für das Wohlbefinden und das Erziehungsverhalten der Eltern analysiert. Ausgehend von einer familiensystemischen Perspektive wird dabei nicht nur auf die Individualebene fokussiert, sondern werden auch wechselseitige Beeinflussungsprozesse auf Paar- und Eltern-Kind-Ebene berücksichtigt. Auf Basis der quer- und längsschnittlichen Ergebnisse werden bedeutsame Ansatzpunkte zur Förderung elterlichen Wohlergehens sichtbar und Möglichkeiten familientherapeutischer Interventionen diskutiert.


  • Auer, Wolfgang & Natalia Danzer. 2014. Fixed-Term Employment and Fertility: Evidence from German Micro Data. IZA Discussion Paper No. 8612.
  • We study the short- to medium-run effects of starting a career on a fixed-term contract on subsequent fertility outcomes. We focus on the career start since we expect that temporary contracts and their inherent economic uncertainty imply a path dependency which might have spill-over effects on other domains of life. Our empirical analysis is based on rich data from the German Socio-Economic Panel which provides comprehensive information about individuals’ labour market history as well as fertility behaviour. Our main results are: Women (i) tend to postpone their first birth due to fixed-term employment at labour market entry and (ii) reduce the number of children in the first 10 years after graduation. These associations are strongest in the subsample of native women with at least vocational training. (iii) In contrast, we find no significant correlations for men. We argue that these findings are robust to potential endogeneity threats.
  • Bauer, Gerrit & Thorsten Kneip. 2014. Dyadic Fertility Decisions in a Life Course Perspective. Advances in Life Course Research 21: 87-100. DOI: 10.1016/j.alcr.2013.11.003
  • This paper focuses on how couples arrive at joint decisions with regard to fertility behaviour. We build upon previous work on decision rules that couples might apply as heuristics in order to arrive at joint action in cases in which partners’ fertility preferences differ. Previous research found either stronger effects of women's desires or symmetrical effects of both spouses’ desire sand net benefits associated with (further) children on proceptive behaviour. The latter finding is in line with the notion of household utility maximization, in which both partners’ preferences enter into a joint utility function with equal weight. On the other hand, some evidence indicates that one partner can exercise a ‘veto’ if he or she anticipates individual utility losses from a further child (due to opportunity costs arising in other life domains). We now enhance previous research by applying a life-course perspective. Our analysis makes use of variation in initial conditions due to previous births: Couples decide on fertility in different situations as they find themselves in different life course stages and have had certain experiences. Parity-specific differences affect not only fertility outcomes but also the decision-making process itself. Our findings show that the decision to have a first child is made jointly, and each partner may exercise a veto. On the other hand, women appear to dominate decisions on higher parity births, not per se, but because they are (still) the ones more affected by the concomitant housework.
  • Dechant, Anna, Harald Rost & Florian Schulz. 2014. Die Veränderung der Hausarbeitsteilung in Paarbeziehungen. Ein Überblick über die Längsschnittforschung und neue empirische Befunde auf Basis der pairfam-Daten. Zeitschrift für Familienforschung - Journal of Family Research 26: 144-168. 
  • Der Beitrag untersucht die Veränderung der Hausarbeitsteilung im Partnerschaftsverlauf und gibt hierfür zunächst einen ausführlichen und umfassenden Überblick über den aktuellen Stand der Längsschnittforschung. Eigene Panelregressionsmodelle mit fixen Effekten auf Basis der pairfam-Daten bestätigen die bisher bekannten Befunde, dass in Deutschland eine weitgehend geschlechtsspezifische Arbeitsteilung in Paaren vorliegt: Haushaltsroutinen wie Kochen, Putzen und Wäsche machen liegen überwiegend im Zuständigkeitsbereich der Frauen. Der Übergang zur Elternschaft verstärkt diese Hausarbeitsteilung deutlich. Darüber hinaus konnten Effekte des Bildungsniveaus im Paar und der Erwerbstätigkeit der Frau gezeigt werden, die im Einklang mit den gängigen Theorien stehen. Wir schließen mit der These, dass dieser Erkenntnisstand vor allem durch qualitative Längsschnittstudien erweitert werden kann, weil dadurch neue inhaltliche Dimensionen wie beispielsweise Einstellungen zu den Geschlechterrollen, Sozialisationserfahrungen oder Aushandlungsprozesse in Paaren detailliert abgebildet werden können.
  • Eckhard, Jan, Johannes Stauder & Daniel Wiese. 2014. Die makrostrukturellen Rahmenbedingungen des Partnermarkts im Längsschnitt. Dokumentation zu Konzeption, methodischen Vorstudien und der Erstellung der Partnermarktindikatoren. Methodenbericht. Universität Heidelberg. Max-Weber-Institut für Soziologie.

  • Hardie, Jessica Halliday, Claudia Geist & Amy Lucas. 2014. His and Hers: Economic Factors and Relationship Quality in Germany. Journal of Marriage and Family 76, 728-743. DOI: 10.1111/jomf.1212. 
  • Research has linked economic factors to relationship quality in the United States, primarily using cross-sectional data. In the current study, 2 waves of the Panel Analysis of Intimate Relationships and Family Dynamics data (n = 2,937) were used to test the gendered association between economic factors and relationship satisfaction among young German couples. In contrast to U.S.-based studies, the findings showed striking gender differences in the association between economic factors and relationship satisfaction for Germans. In cross-sectional models, women's relationship satisfaction was positively associated with receiving government economic support, and men's satisfaction was positively associated with poverty status and negatively associated with being a breadwinner. Longitudinal models revealed that changes in poverty status are associated with women's satisfaction, but men's satisfaction remains tied to their role as family provider. These unexpected results suggest that men's satisfaction is positively associated with a more equal division of labor market activity between partners.
  • Huinink, Johannes. 2014. Alter der Mütter bei Geburt des ersten und der nachfolgenden Kinder - europäischer Vergleich. In Wenn Kinder - wann Kinder?, Hrsg. Deutsche Familienstiftung, 13-26. Fulda: Parzellers Buchverlag (Dokumentationsband zum Symposium der Deutschen Familienstiftung gemeinsam mit der Hessenstiftung: Familie hat Zukunft und dem Frankfurter Zukunftsrat). ISBN: 978-3-7900-0490-8
  • Konietzka, Dirk & André Tatjes. 2014. Two steps of union formation: first intimate relationships and first coresidential unions in the life courses of the German Cohorts 1971–1973 and 1981–1983. Journal of Youth Studies 17: 1077-1096. DOI: 10.1080/13676261.2014.888405
  • The article explores the timing and spacing of two separate life course transitions constituting union formation. We explore the processes of entering the first intimate relationship and the first coresidential union in the life courses of two cohorts in Eastern and Western Germany. Referring to the common notion of postponement in the transition to adulthood, we address the question as to whether the cohort 1981–1983 started an intimate relationship and established a joint household later in life than the cohort 1971–1973. We additionally ask if such trends apply to both Eastern and Western German juveniles. Our analyses are based on the first wave of the German Family Panel (pairfam) and its supplemental project ‘Demographic Differences in Life Course Dynamics in Eastern and Western Germany’ (DemoDiff). The empirical results do not point at a prevalent trend of postponing the life course transitions under consideration. While both women and men born during 1981–1983 moved in together later than those born during 1971–1973, the male cohort 1981–1983 started the first intimate relationship earlier in both parts of the country. Multivariate analyses finally show that, for young men in both East and West, the propensity to enter a coresidential union has decreased over the cohorts.
  • Krapf, Sandra. 2014. Public Childcare Provision and Fertility Behavior - A comparison of Germany and Sweden. Opladen: Budrich Uni Press. ISBN: 978-3-86388-059-0
  • The author analyzes the relationship between the availability of public childcare for children under age three and the decision to have a first child. One would expect that providing women with the option of returning to work soon after childbirth would reduce the anticipated negative effects of having a child on a woman s career. However, existing research results on this relationship are inconsistent.
  • Lois, Daniel & Oliver Arránz Becker. 2014. Is Fertility Contagious? Using Panel Data to Disentangle Mechanisms of Social Network Influences on Fertility Decisions. Advances in Life Course Research 21: 123-134. DOI: 10.1016/j.alcr.2013.10.001
  • Using panel data (N = 1.679 married and cohabiting couples), this paper investigates the presence and causal mechanisms of social contagion processes regarding first births. Results confirmed the hypothesized positive association between the number of network members (friends, acquaintances, siblings) with young children and the respondents’ transition rate into parenthood, particularly among younger couples. Several potential intervening mechanisms underlying this social contagion effect were tested. First, evidence was found for observational learning processes in which Ego obtained information on the joys and challenges of parenthood from network members with children. Second, childless respondents tended to feel pressured from couples with children in the network to start a family. Third, results supported the notion of social opportunity costs in that the anticipated loss of social ties after becoming a parent was more likely the fewer parents there were in the network. All three mechanisms exerted a positive impact on both fertility intentions and behavior. Panel regression models relying on intraindividual change scores showed that social learning was the most robust mechanism. An additional indirect test for causality suggested that the findings were unlikely to merely reflect parental status homophily (i.e., selection effects).
  • Lois, Nadia. 2014. Einflüsse der Herkunftsfamilie auf den frühzeitigen Auszug aus dem Elternhaus und die Kohabitation - Ein Test vermittelnder Mechanismen. Zeitschrift für Soziologie der Erziehung und Sozialisation 34: 71-88. DOI: 11201401071
  • Mit Daten des Beziehungs- und Familienpanels (n = 3.523 Jugendliche zwischen 15 und 19 Jahren) werden Faktoren untersucht, die den frühzeitigen Auszug aus dem Elternhaus beziehungsweise den Übergang in die Kohabitation begünstigen. Jugendliche, die in Ein-Eltern- oder Stieffamilien leben, ziehen schneller aus dem Elternhaus aus und kohabitieren früher als Vergleichspersonen aus Kernfamilien. Die Ablösung der Jugendlichen ist bei alleinerziehenden Eltern vor allem auf eine ökonomische Deprivation und ein verringertes Ausmaß sozialer Kontrolle durch die Eltern zurückzuführen. Darüber hinaus ergeben sich Hinweise auf einen Transmissionsmechanismus: Jugendliche, deren Mütter ihr Elternhaus früh verlassen haben, neigen selbst verstärkt zum Übergang in die Kohabitation. Wiederholte Wechsel der familialen Verhältnisse in der Kindheit des Jugendlichen und damit verbundener Stress führen dazu, dass dieser häufig durch Verlassen des Elternhauses und den Zusammenzug mit einem Partner bewältigt wird.
  • Maeder, Miriam. 2014. Earnings-related parental leave benefits and subjective well-being of young mothers: evidence from a German parental leave reform. BGPE Discussion Paper 148.
  • This study investigates the causal effect of earnings-related parental leave benefits (Elterngeld) on subjective well-being of young mothers. The new subsidy was introduced in 2007, and replaced a former means-tested benefit (Erziehungsgeld). The reform changed the total amount of benefits as well as the duration of pay. By construction of the reform, the change in benefits differs across population subgroups, depending on their eligibility for the former means-tested benefit. The reform also introduced incentives for paternal leave taking. Income effects, fathers’ involvement, and social norms constitute potential channels through which the reform affects well-being. Using a regression discontinuity design, I find remarkable heterogeneities in the response to the reform. While subjective well-being of West German mothers increases, East German mothers experience decreasing life satisfaction.
  • Schmiedeberg, Claudia & Jette Schröder. 2014. Does Weather Really Influence the Measurement of Life Satisfaction? Social Indicators Research 117(2): 387-399. DOI: 10.1007/s11205-013-0350-7
  • Since the beginning of the nineties, a number of studies indicate that weather conditions at interview day can have an effect on measurement, in particular regarding life satisfaction. In their seminal paper, Schwarz and Clore (J Pers Soc Psychol 45(3):513–523, 1983) show higher reported life satisfaction for sunny days, a finding which is replicated recently by Kämpfer and Mutz (Soc Indic Res 110(2):579–595, 2013). However, both studies are based on relatively small samples (from a few dozen up to 200 cases). We use data of the German Family Panel (pairfam) and local weather data for every respondent to investigate if weather effects on satisfaction measurement can be replicated with a large sample (about 7,000 respondents). In addition to cross-sectional analyses in which we follow closely the approach of Kämpfer and Mutz, we estimate fixed effects regressions to model the effect of weather on individual changes in satisfaction over time. We do neither find an effect of nice weather on the day of the interview on the respondents’ ratings of general life satisfaction nor a consistent effect on any of the other satisfaction measures. These results show that at least with simple weather measures as they have been used as yet a relationship between weather conditions at interview day and answering behavior regarding life satisfaction cannot be found.
  • Schmitz, Andreas. 2014. Online-Dating als Partnermarkt. In Der Partnermarkt und die Gelegenheiten des Kennenlernens. Der Partnermarksurvey, Hrsg. Häring, Armando, Thomas Klein, Johannes Stauder & Kristian Stoye, 111-136. Wiesbaden: Springer VS. ISBN: 978-3-658-02794-0
  • Schnor, Christine. 2014. The Effect of Union Status at First Childbirth on Union Stability: Evidence from Eastern and Western Germany. European Journal of Population 30: 129-160. DOI: 10.1007/s10680-013-9304-7
  • It is often assumed that cohabitation is much less stable than marriage. If cohabitation becomes more common among parents, children may be increasingly exposed to separation. However, little is known about how the proportion of cohabiting parents relates to their separation behavior. Higher shares of childbearing within cohabitation might reduce the proportion of negatively selected couples among cohabiting parents, which could in turn improve their union stability. This study focuses on parents who were cohabiting when they had their first child. It compares their union stability within a context in which they represent the majority or the minority. The German case is well-suited to this research goal because non-marital childbearing is common in eastern Germany (60 %) but not in western Germany (27 %). The data came from the German Family Panel (pairfam), and include 1,844 married and cohabiting mothers born in 1971–1973 and 1981–1983. The empirical results suggest that the union stability of cohabiting mothers is positively related to their prevalence: survival curves showed that eastern German cohabiting mothers had a greater degree of union stability than their western German counterparts. This difference increased in the event-history model, which accounted for the particular composition of eastern German society, including the relatively low level of religious affiliation among the population. Controlling for unobserved heterogeneity did not change this result. In sum, these findings indicate that context plays an important role in the union stability of cohabiting parents.
  • Stein, Petra, Sebastian Willen & Monika Pavetic. 2014. Couples' fertility decision-making. Demographic Research 30: 1697-1732. DOI: 10.4054/DemRes.2014.30.63
  • BACKGROUND The decision about whether to start a family within a partnership can be viewed as a result of an interaction process. The influence of each of the partners in a couple differs depending on their individual preferences and intentions towards having children. Both of the partners additionally influence each other’s fertility intentions and preferences. OBJECTIVE We specify, estimate, and test a model that examines the decision about whether to have a child as a choice that is made jointly by the two partners. The transition to the birth of a (further) child is investigated with the explicit consideration of both the female partner and the male partner in the partnership context. METHODS An approach for modelling the interactive influences of the two actors in the decision-making process was proposed. A trivariate distribution consisting of both the female and the male partners’ fertility intentions, as well as the joint generative decision, was modelled. A multivariate non-linear probit model was chosen and the problem of identification in estimating the relative effects of the actors was resolved. These parameters were used to assess the relative importance of each of the partners’ intentions in the decision. We carried out the analysis with MPLUS. Data from the panel of intimate relationships and family dynamics (pairfam) was used to estimate the model. RESULTS The biographical context of each of the partners in relation to their own as well as to their partner’s fertility intentions was found to be of considerable importance. Of the significant individual and partner effects, the male partner was shown to have the greater influence. But the female partner was found to have stronger parameters overall and she ultimately has a veto power in the couple’s final decision.
  • Steinbach, Anja, Marina Hennig & Oliver Arránz Becker. 2014. Familie im Fokus der Wissenschaft. Wiesbaden: Springer VS. ISBN: 978-3-658-02895-4
  • Der erste Band der Reihe ‚Familienforschung‘ bildet den Facettenreichtum des Gegenstandes und der Themen der Familienforschung ab. Hierzu haben weithin anerkannte Familienforscher und Familienforscherinnen die Gelegenheit erhalten, ihre jeweils unterschiedlichen Perspektiven auf die Familie und die Familienforschung zu erläutern und damit auch die folgenden Fragen zu beantworten: Was ist Familie? Was bedeutet Familienforschung aus der jeweiligen Forschungsperspektive? Eine Grundannahme des Readers besteht darin, dass ‚Familie‘ nicht mit einer einzigen, allgemeingültigen Definition beschrieben werden kann. Vielmehr handelt es sich um einen Prozess, der nur im Rahmen von historischen, kulturellen und sozialen Bedingungen zu fassen ist. Als theoretischer Rahmen, der dieser vielschichtigen Dynamik von Familie gerecht wird, dient die Lebensverlaufsperspektive. Darin wird Familie als zeitveränderlicher sozialer Prozess verstanden, durch den der familiale Zusammenhang mittels aktiver Selektionen, Konstruktionen und Interaktionen hergestellt und reproduziert wird. Da sich die normative Regelung ‚typischer‘ Lebensverläufe stets in einem spezifischen räumlich-zeitlichen Kontext vollzieht, variieren Strukturen und Funktionen von Familien beträchtlich. Der vorliegende Band thematisiert solche zeitlichen und regionalen Variationen, indem familiale Handlungslogiken in ihrer Abhängigkeit von sozialem und institutionellem Wandel nachgezeichnet werden.
  • Trappe, Heike & Katja Köppen. 2014. Familienkulturen in Ost- und Westdeutschland: Zum Gerechtigkeitsempfinden der Arbeitsteilung innerhalb der Partnerschaft. In Familie im Fokus der Wissenschaft, Hrsg. Steinbach, Anja, Marina Hennig & Oliver Arránz Becker, 257-297. Wiesbaden: Springer Fachmedien. ISBN: 978-3-658-02895-4
  • Wendt, Eva-Verena & Sabine Walper. 2014. Verhütungsverhalten Jugendlicher in Deutschland. Aktuelle Zahlen und Risikogruppen. Zeitschrift für Gesundheitspsychologie 22: 142-150. DOI: 10.1026/0943-8149/a000122
  • Obwohl das Verhütungsverhalten Jugendlicher in Deutschland insgesamt als relativ gut zu bewerten ist, gibt es nach wie vor Risikogruppen, welchen ein konsequentes Verhütungsverhalten misslingt. Dieser Beitrag stellt erste Befunde aus dem Beziehungs-und Familienpanel pairfam zum Verhütungsverhalten sexuell aktiver, heterosexueller Jugendlicher anhand einer Stichprobe von 1137 16- bis 18-Jährigen vor, von welchen 95.2 % in den vergangenen 3 Monaten Empfängnisverhütung betrieben haben. Die Daten zeigen, dass Jugendliche mit frühem ersten GV, sexueller Aktivität ohne Partnerschaft und einer Bildung auf maximal Hauptschulniveau zu einem geringeren Anteil verhüteten. Nur 63.4 % der sexuell aktiven Jugendlichen verhüteten eigenen Angaben nach „sehr konsequent“, wobei Jugendliche mit aktuell bestehender Partnerschaft gewissenhafter verhüteten als Jugendliche ohne Partnerschaft. 98.2 % der Jugendlichen verhüteten mit Kondom und/oder Pille. Jugendliche ohne feste Partnerschaft und Jugendliche mit einer Bildung auf maximal Hauptschulniveau nutzten häufiger Kondome, Jugendliche mit aktuell bestehender Partnerschaft häufiger die Pille. Die Ergebnisse bestätigen insgesamt die bisherige Befundlage zu den besonderen Risikolagen früh sexuell aktiver und bildungsbezogen benachteiligter Jugendlicher sowie Jugendlicher mit sexueller Aktivität außerhalb fester Partnerschaften, und werfen abermals die Frage nach zielgruppenorientierten Präventionsprogrammen auf.


  • Arránz Becker, Oliver, Veronika Salzburger, Nadia Lois & Bernhard Nauck. 2013. What Narrows the Stepgap? Closeness Between Parents and Adult (Step)children in Germany. Journal of Marriage and Family 75(5): 1130-1148. DOI: 10.1111/jomf.12052
  • Using data from the German Family Panel (pairfam) from N = 11,746 intergenerational family relationships, the present study examined differences in parental closeness across relations with multiple, coresidential, and non-coresidential adolescent and adult children. Replicating previous research in a multilevel analysis across families, we found a strong positive effect of biological descent on closeness in comparison to adoptive and steprelations; this parental favoritism towards biological offspring was partly explained by selection via parental resources and attitudes. Supplemental within-parent, fixed effect analyses suggested that the relative disadvantage of stepchildren was offset by longer duration of the stepparent-stepchild relationship, lower household income, fewer children in the household, and high parental affirmation of familialism.
  • Boehnke, Mandy. 2013. Hochschulbildung und Kinderlosigkeit. Deutsch-deutsche Unterschiede. In Ein Leben ohne Kinder. Ausmaß, Strukturen und Ursachen von Kinderlosigkeit. 2th edition, Hrsg. Konietzka, Dirk & Michaela Kreyenfeld, 81-100. Wiesbaden: Springer VS. ISBN: 978-3-531-94149-3
  • Brüderl, Josef, Bernadette Huyer-May & Claudia Schmiedeberg. 2013. Interviewer Behavior and the Quality of Social Network Data. In Interviewers' Deviations in Surveys. Impact, Reasons, Detection and Prevention, Hrsg. Peter Winker, Rolf Porst & Natalja Menold, 147-160. Frankfurt: Peter Lang. ISBN: 978-3-631-63715-9
  • Interviewer effects are a typical - although often neglected- phenomenon of social network data collected in personal interviews. We analyze the ego-centered network data provided by the German Family Panel and find large interviewer effects which cannot be explained by interviewer or respondent characteristics. These interviewer effects are caused to a large degree by two groups of interviewers, i.e. those who elicit less network persons than the average ("fraudulent" interviewers) and those who generate particularly large networks ("diligent" interviewers). We suggest a method to identify these groups of interviewers.
  • Dorbritz, Jürgen & Robert Naderi. 2013. Getrennt leben und eine intime Beziehung führen. Bilokale Paarbeziehungen in Deutschland. beziehungsweise 11: 1-4.
  • Wenn über Paare mit einer getrennten Haushaltsführung gesprochen oder geforscht wird, trifft man oft auf den Begriff des „Living Apart Together“ (LAT). Der Begriff für diese Art des Zusammen-Getrennt-Lebens ist 1973 in einem niederländischen Film mit dem Titel „Frank & Eva. Living Apart Together“ geprägt worden. Die ersten wissenschaftlichen Arbeiten zu dem Thema sind in den 1980er Jahren entstanden. Darin sind auch die definitorischen Grundlagen des LAT als Beziehungsform mit einer getrennten Haushaltsführung geschaffen worden. Ohne den LAT-Begriff aufzugeben, ist es dennoch sinnvoll, eine andere Bezeichnung zu wählen. Nach einem Vorschlag von Johannes Huinink und Dirk Konietzka (2007: 31) wird der Oberbegriff „bilokale Paarbeziehung“(BP) verwendet. Das ist darin begründet, dass der Begriff Living Apart Together zwar für einen Großteil der bilokalen Paarbeziehungen, aber nicht für alle charakteristisch ist. Als LAT werden nachfolgend nur noch die Paare bezeichnet, die eine Nahbeziehung führen, den Haushalt des Partners relativ schnell erreichen können und häufig Face-to-Face-Kontakte haben. Die Betonung liegt in diesem Fall auf dem „Together“. Davon zu unterscheiden sind die Paare, deren Haushalte weiter voneinander entfernt sind und die seltener Face-to-Face-Kontakte haben. Für diese Gruppe wurde der Begriff „Long Distance Relationship“ (LDR) gewählt. Hier steht nicht mehr nur das „Together“ im Vordergrund, da die Paare sowohl als Paar als auch als Single agieren. Beide Lebensformen besitzen einen eigenständigen Charakter und sollten daher auch analytisch getrennt behandelt werden. Das Unterscheidungsmerkmal ist die Zeit, die üblicherweise gebraucht wird, um zum Haushalt des Partners zu gelangen. Wird dafür weniger als 2 Stunden benötigt, hat man es mit einer LAT zu tun, wer länger braucht, wird dem LDR zugerechnet.
  • Feldhaus, Michael & Monika Schlegel. 2013. Berufsbezogene zirkuläre Mobilität und Partnerschaftszufriedenheit. [Job-Related Circular Mobility and the Quality of Intimate Relationships.] Comparative Population Studies 38: 315-340. DOI: 10.4232/10.CPoS-2013-07de
  • Obwohl sich bereits einige Studien mit der Frage nach dem Einfluss verschiedener beruflicher Mobilitätsanforderungen auf die Partnerschaftsqualität beschäftigt haben, bleiben die bisherigen Ergebnisse widersprüchlich. Im Rahmen des Artikels wird der Versuch unternommen, dass Ausmaß direkter und indirekter Effekte von berufsbezogener Mobilität auf die Partnerschaftsqualität zu analysieren. Räumliche Mobilität könnte Auswirkungen auf zentrale Dimensionen der Partnerschaftsdynamik haben, die sich indirekt auf die Partnerschaftszufriedenheit auswirken könnten. Die diesbezüglich in die Analyse einbezogenen Mediatorvariablen sind Verbundenheit, Autonomie, Konflikte und die wahrgenommene Fairness im Hinblick auf die Arbeitsteilung. Die Daten unterstützen die Stresshypothese, die annimmt, dass berufsbezogene Mobilität einen negativen Effekt auf die Partnerschaftsqualität hat – jedoch lediglich für Frauen und Mütter. Bei den Männern ergeben sich demgegenüber sogar positive Effekte. In Bezug auf die indirekten Effekte zeigen die Ergebnisse, dass räumliche Mobilität weder einen signifikant negativen Einfluss auf die Verbundenheit innerhalb der Partnerschaft hat, noch dass sich die partnerschaftlichen Konflikte erhöhen. Es scheinen sich sogar gegenteilige Effekte zu zeigen: Insbesondere bei den Frauen wirken sich hohe Mobilitätsanforderungen positiv auf das Autonomieempfinden in der Partnerschaft aus. Weiterhin wird die Verbundenheit positiv durch Mobilitätsanforderungen beeinflusst und es werden weniger Konflikte wahrgenommen, was wiederum positive Auswirkungen auf die Partnerschaftsqualität hat.
  • Fuß, Daniel. 2013. Von Singles, Paaren und Familien. forschung - Mitteilungen der DFG 38: 12-16. DOI: 10.1002/fors.201390020
  • Hutteman, Roos, Wiebke Bleidorn, Lars Penke & Jaap J. A. Denissen. 2013. It Takes Two: A Longitudinal Dyadic Study on Predictors of Fertility Outcomes. Journal of Personality 81(5): 487-498. DOI: 10.1111/jopy.12006

    pairfam Best Publication Award 2015

  • Objective: Although previous studies have found personality traits to be associated with reproductive behavior, it remains unclear whether there are dyadic associations between partners' personality and couples' decisional process to have children. The aim of the present study was to investigate the associations between partners' personality, parenthood expectations and intentions, and the couple's fertility outcomes one year later. Method: We used dyadic longitudinal data from 2,482 couples with a mean age of 32.7 years (SD = 5.9) participating in the Panel Analysis of Intimate Relationships and Family Dynamics (PAIRFAM). Results: Self-esteem, shyness, and aggressiveness of both partners were related to one's own and one's partner's expectations about parenthood. These expectations were associated with one's own and one's partner's intentions to become a parent, which in turn predicted the couple's actual fertility outcomes. Personality traits of both partners were directly associated with the fertility outcome, with self-esteem of both partners and male aggressiveness predicting the couple's decision to have their first child. The effect of self-esteem on the decision to become a parent was mediated by the partner's intention. Conclusions: In sum, our findings stress the importance of psychological factors in fertility outcomes and emphasize the role of dyadic processes.
  • Keller, Sabine & Bernhard Nauck. 2013. The German Family Panel (pairfam). Research Potential and First Results of a Multi-Disciplinary Longitudinal Study on Partnership and Family Dynamics in Germany. Analyse & Kritik 2: 321-339.
  • The German Family Panel pairfam is a multidisciplinary, multi-actor, longitudinal study of partnership and family dynamics in Germany. The present paper illustrates the wide analytical potential inherent in the annually growing pairfam dataset by summarizing published analyses of pairfam data on the topics of partnership, parenthood, and intergenerational relationships. Since the panel is uniquely rich due to its longitudinal and multi-actor design, this selection of publications also provides a concise review of current developments in the sociology of family and partnership.
  • Kuhnt, Anne-Kristin. 2013. Ja, nein, vielleicht? Der Einfluss der Partnerschaftsqualität auf die Übereinstimmung der Elternschaftsabsichten von Paaren. Zeitschrift für Familienforschung - Journal of Family Research 25(3): 365-388.
  • In diesem Beitrag stehen die Elternschaftsabsichten von Paaren im Mittelpunkt. Es wird geprüft, ob in Partnerschaften übereinstimmende oder divergierende Elternschaftsabsichten vorliegen. Darüber hinaus wird analysiert, ob ein Zusammenhang zwischen der Partnerschaftsqualität und übereinstimmend positiven Kinderwünschen beider Partner besteht. Ausgangspunkt ist die Annahme, dass eine hohe Partnerschaftsqualität einen positiven Einfluss auf übereinstimmend positive Elternschaftsabsichten hat und eine geringe Partnerschaftsqualität diesen entgegenwirkt. Die Ergebnisse zeigen, dass Paare überwiegend übereinstimmende Intentionen aufweisen. Dennoch äußern 14 Prozent aller untersuchten Paare divergierende Elternschaftsabsichten. Zudem kann erwartungsgemäß ein Zusammenhang zwischen der Partnerschaftsqualität und übereinstimmend positiven Elternschaftsabsichten beobachtet werden.
  • Kuhnt, Anne-Kristin. 2013. Kinderwünsche im Lebensverlauf - Analysen auf Basis des Beziehungs- und Familienpanels (pairfam). Dissertation. Universität Rostock.
  • Lutz, Katharina, Mandy Boehnke, Johannes Huinink & Silke Tophoven. 2013. Female employment, reconciliation policies, and childbearing intentions in East and West Germany. In Childbearing, women's employment and work-life balance policies in contemporary Europe, Hrsg. Livia Sz. Oláh & Ewa Fratczak, 97-134. Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan. ISBN: 978-0-230-32088-8
  • Lutz, Katharina, Petra Buhr & Mandy Boehnke. 2013. Die Bedeutung der Erfahrungen mit dem ersten Kind für die Intention zur Familienerweiterung. Zeitschrift für Soziologie der Erziehung und Sozialisation 33: 167-184.
  • Ziel unseres Beitrags ist die Untersuchung der Faktoren, die die Intention zum zweiten Kind beeinflussen. Die Geburt des ersten Kindes verändert die Paarbeziehung und die Alltagsorganisation, z. 8. die Arbeitsteilung im Haushalt. Wir prüfen, welche Rolle diese Erfahrungen mit dem ersten Kind für die Intention zur Familienerweiterung spielen. Positive Erfahrungen sollten die Intention für ein zweites Kind erhöhen, negative dagegen verringern. Datenbasis sind die ersten beiden Wellen des neuen deutschen Beziehungs- und Familienpanels (pairfam). Die Ergebnisse zeigen, dass der Einfluss der Erfahrungen mit dem ersten Kind auf die Intention zum zweiten geschlechtsspezifisch variiert. Während Mütter z. 8. kein zweites Kind beabsichtigen, wenn es häufig Streit über Erziehungsfragen gibt, fanden wir keine erfahrungsspezifischen Hinderungsgründe für Väter. Darüber hinaus spielt die Sozialisationsfunktion von Geschwistern bei der Intention zum zweiten Kind eine wichtige Rolle.
  • Pollmann-Schult, Matthias. 2013. Elternschaft und Lebenszufriedenheit in Deutschland.  Comparative Population Studies 38: 59-84. DOI: 10.4232/10.CPoS-2013-05de
  • Der vorliegende Beitrag untersucht den Zusammenhang zwischen Elternschaft und Lebenszufriedenheit. Im Zentrum des Interesses steht die Frage, inwiefern die elterliche Lebenszufriedenheit durch individuelle und familiale Kontextfaktoren beeinflusst wird. Grundlage der empirischen Untersuchung sind die Daten der ersten Welle des Beziehungs- und Familienpanels (pairfam). Insgesamt zeigen die durchgeführten Querschnittsanalysen, dass Eltern zwar eine verringerte Zufriedenheit mit ihrer Freizeit, ihren sozialen Kontakten und ihrer Partnerschaft verzeichnen, jedoch mit ihrem Leben allgemein zufriedener sind als kinderlose Personen. Eine erhöhte Lebenszufriedenheit wird insbesondere in den ersten Jahren nach der Geburt eines Kindes beobachtet. Die Zufriedenheit der Eltern ist jedoch von verschiedenen Kontextfaktoren abhängig. Eine vergleichsweise hohe Lebenszufriedenheit berichten Eltern in den mittleren und höheren Einkommenslagen, wohingegen bei einkommensschwachen Personen ein nur geringer Zusammenhang zwischen der Elternschaft und der Lebenszufriedenheit beobachtet wird. Ferner variiert die Lebenszufriedenheit von Müttern, aber nicht die der Väter mit ihrem Erwerbsstatus. So berichten lediglich nichterwerbstätige und teilzeitbeschäftigte Mütter eine höhere Lebenszufriedenheit als kinderlose Frauen. Schließlich verzeichnen Väter, bei denen die Familiengründung vermutlich ungeplant erfolgte, kein höheres Zufriedenheitsniveau als Männer ohne Kinder.
  • Rammstedt, Beatrice & Frank M. Spinath. 2013. Öffentliche Datensätze und ihr Mehrwert für die psychologische Forschung. Psychologische Rundschau 64(2): 101-102. DOI: 10.1026/0033-3042/a000156
  • In den Sozialwissenschaften ist es seit langem verbreitet, umfangreiche (large-scale) und zumeist bevölkerungsrepräsentative Datensätze zu erheben und diese der Profession in Form von Scientific oder Public Use Files zur Verfügung zu stellen. In den letzten Jahren wurden in diesen Umfragen vermehrt auch psychologische Merkmale erhoben, was die Attraktivität dieser Datensätze auch für die psychologische Forschung deutlich steigert. Leider sind im Gegenzug diese Datensätze und ihre Verfügbarkeit in der psychologischen Profession noch weitgehend unbekannt. Ziel dieses Berichts ist es, aktuelle nationale wie auch internationale Umfragen (ohne den Anspruch auf Vollständigkeit), die psychologisch relevante Merkmale erfassen, vorzustellen und somit ihre Nutzung in der psychologischen Forschung anzuregen. Die Studien sind nach ihren zentralen Fragestellungen geegliedert in (1) soziologische und sozio-oekonomische Studien, (2) Bildungsstudien und (3) Gesundheits- und Familienstudien. Aus Kapazitätsgründen erfolgt die Darstellung der Studien hier überblicksartig. Detaillierte Informationen finden sich in dem zusätzlichen Online Supplement (
  • Schimmel, Antje. 2013. Fördern Partnerschaft und Kinder das Lebensglück? Eine Paneldatenanalyse über den Zusammenhang zwischen Partnerschafts- und Lebenszufriedenheit nach Geburt eines Kindes. Saarbrücken: AV Akademikerverlag. ISBN: 978-3-639-46889-2
  • Bisher ist noch nicht genau geklärt, welche Variablen die Lebenszufriedenheit von Individuen beeinflussen. In vergangenen Untersuchungen erfuhren auch partnerschaftliche Merkmale nur wenig Beachtung. Der Zusammenhang zwischen Partnerschafts- und Lebenszufriedenheit steht im Fokus dieses Buches. Dabei wird auch eine mögliche Veränderung dieses Zusammenhangs nach einer Erstgeburt eines Kindes untersucht. Als Datengrundlage dienen die ersten drei Wellen des Partnerschafts- und Familienpanels pairfam. Diese wurden zwischen 2008 und 2011 erhoben und bieten einen umfassenden Überblick über Veränderungen im Partnerschaftskontext.
  • Wendt, Eva-Verena & Sabine Walper. 2013. Sexualentwicklung und Partnerschaften Jugendlicher: Ergebnisse einer repräsentativen Befragung von 15- bis 17-Jährigen. Zeitschrift für Soziologie der Erziehung und Sozialisation 33(1): 62-81.
  • Der folgende Beitrag berichtet Befunde zur sexuellen und romantischen Entwicklung anhand repräsentativer Daten von 15- bis 17-jährigen Jugendlichen (N = 4.185) aus dem 'Beziehungs- und Familienpanel' pairfam. Weniger als die Hälfte der 15-bis 17-Jährigen ist überhaupt sexuell aktiv und nur 34,4% sind geschlechtsverkehrserfahren. Erwartungsgemäß steigt der Anteil von sexuell erfahrenen Jugendlichen mit dem Alter an, während sich keine Geschlechtsunterschiede abzeichnen. Der geschätzte Median für das Übergangsalter beim ersten Geschlechtsverkehr beträgt 17,1 Jahre. Im Lichte früherer Studien sprechen diese Befunde gegen eine Vorverlagerung des Einstiegs in sexuelle Aktivitäten und für eine Angleichung der Sexualentwicklung von Jungen und Mädchen. Die Befunde zur Verbreitung fester Partnerschaften (25,6%) sowie zur Beziehungsdauer (durchschnittlich 8,5 Monate) sind vergleichbar mit Ergebnissen anderer Studien. Jugendliche mit aktuell bestehender Partnerschaft machen frühere sexuelle Erfahrungen. Hauptschülerinnen erleben den ersten Geschlechtsverkehr früher, Gymnasiastinnen später. Diese Befunde weisen auf einen schnelleren Vollzug von Entwicklungsaufgaben bei niedriger gebildeten Jugendlichen hin.
  • Winker, Peter, Natalja Menold & Rolf Porst. 2013. Interviewers' Deviations in Surveys. Impact, Reasons, Detection and Prevention. Frankfurt am Main [u.a.]: Lang (Schriften zur empirischen Wirtschaftsforschung 22). ISBN: 978-3-631-63715-9
  • Survey data are used in many disciplines including Social Sciences, Economics and Psychology. Interviewers' behaviour might affect the quality of such data. This book presents the results of new research on interviewers' motivation and behaviour. A substantial number of contributions address deviant behaviour, methods for assessing the impact of such behaviour on data quality and tools for detecting faked interviews. Further chapters discuss methods for preventing undesirable interviewer effects. Apart from specific methodological contributions, the chapters of the book also provide a unique collection of examples of deviant behaviour and its detection - a topic not overly present in literature despite its substantial prevalence in survey field work. The volume includes 13 peer reviewed papers presented at an international workshop in Rauischholzhausen in October 2011.


  • Arránz Becker, Oliver. 2012. Effects of similarity of life goals, values, and personality on relationship satisfaction and stability: Findings from a two-wave panel study. Personal Relationships 20(3): 443–461. DOI: 10.1111/j.1475-6811.2012.01417.x
  • Using data from the German Family Panel (pairfam; n = 3,674 heterosexual couples), this study examines the impact of partners’ individual levels and dyadic similarity concerning life goals, values, and personality traits on relationship satisfaction and union dissolution. Controlling for partners’ individual characteristics and for relationship duration, it was found that similarity on specific dimensions and stereotype-adjusted profile correlations exerted significant yet small positive effects on both partners’ relationship satisfaction. These effects largely translated into beneficial indirect effects on union dissolution 1 year later (Wave 2, n = 2,820). Moderator analyses indicated the existence of some effect heterogeneity across relationship duration and types. Generally, partners’ respective individual characteristics appeared to predict relationship outcomes better than dyadic similarity measures.
  • Arránz Becker, Oliver & Anja Steinbach. 2012. Beziehungen zwischen Großeltern und Enkelkindern im Kontext des familialen Beziehungssystems. Comparative Population Studies 37: 517-542. DOI: 10.4232/10.CPoS-2012-06de
  • Der demografische Wandel hat in den vergangenen Jahrzehnten, insbesondere durch die stark gestiegene Lebenserwartung, zu einer deutlichen Ausdehnung der Zeitspanne von intergenerationalen Beziehungen geführt. Trotz des Anstiegs des mittleren Geburtenalters begleiten sich die Mitglieder verschiedener Generationen heute für einen in der Geschichte der Menschheit beispiellos langen Zeitraum. Insbesondere hat der medizinisch-technische Fortschritt dazu geführt, dass Großeltern auch im hohen Alter zunehmend gesundheitlich und kognitiv in der Lage sind, ihre Kinder und Enkelkinder aktiv und auf vielfältige Weise zu unterstützen. Der Beitrag widmet sich der Frage, in welchem Ausmaß die so geschaffenen Beziehungspotentiale – nicht zuletzt vor dem Hintergrund gesellschaftlicher Modernisierungsprozesse (z.B. steigende Mobilitätsanforderungen, Vereinbarkeitsprobleme von Familie und Beruf) – in tatsächliche Unterstützungsleistungen der Großeltern- für die Enkelgeneration transformiert werden. Im Mittelpunkt der Betrachtungen stehen die Eltern der Ankerpersonen des Beziehungs- und Familienpanels (pairfam, 2. Welle 2009/2010, Elternbefragung) mit einem Enkelkind im Alter zwischen 8 und 15 Jahren. Dabei wird die Bedeutung verschiedener Einfl ussfaktoren auf die Stärke der Beziehungen zwischen Großeltern und ihren Enkelkindern empirisch überprüft. Dazu werden erstens sozialstrukturelle Merkmale und familienbezogene Einstellungen der Angehörigen der verschiedenen Generationen in den Blick genommen. Zweitens werden die personalen und sozialen Ressourcen der verschiedenen Akteure berücksichtigt. Insgesamt zeigt sich, dass Großeltern-Enkel- Beziehungen in geringerem Maße von personalen Ressourcen wie Erwerbsstatus, sondern vielmehr von sozialen Ressourcen, also von der Beziehungsgestaltung der Großeltern- und Elterngeneration sowie vom Partnerschaftsstatus, abhängig sind. Schließlich zeigen sich deutliche regionale Unterschiede (stärkere Großeltern- Enkel-Beziehungen in Ostdeutschland) sowie ein positiver Effekt des Familialismus.
  • Bastin, Sonja. 2012. Dynamik alleinerziehender Mutterschaft. Partnerschaftsverläufe in der frühen Elternbiografie. In Familie und Partnerschaft in Ost- und Westdeutschland: Ähnlich und doch immer noch anders, Hrsg. Johannes Huinink, Michaela Kreyenfeld & Heike Trappe, 201-228. Leverkusen: Verlag Barbara Budrich (Sonderheft 9 der Zeitschrift für Familienforschung - Journal of Family Research). ISBN: 978-3-8474-0041-7
  • Gegenstandsbereich dieses Beitrags sind die Partnerschaftsverläufe von Frauen in Ost- und Westdeutschland, die bei der Geburt ihres ersten Kindes alleine lebten. Insbesondere Alleinerziehende mit kleinen Kindern sind im Vergleich zu Paarhaushalten einem erhöhten Armutsrisiko ausgesetzt. Daher steht die Frage im Mittelpunkt, ob und wann die betreffenden Frauen einen Haushalt mit einem Partner gründen. Darüber hinaus interessiert wie sich Partnerschaften vor und nach dieser Haushaltsgründung entwickeln. Die Analysen beruhen auf Daten des Beziehungs- und Familienpanels (pairfam) und zeigen, dass die Hälfte der bei Geburt alleinlebenden Frauen spätestens nach fünf Jahren mit einem Partner zusammengezogen ist. Es wird deutlich, dass unterschieden werden muss, ob zum Zeitpunkt der Geburt eine Partnerschaft bestand oder nicht. Frauen mit Partner bei Geburt ziehen schneller und häufiger mit dem Vater des Kindes zusammen als zu diesem Zeitpunkt partnerlose Frauen. Andererseits erleben sie auch häufiger bewegte Partnerschaftsverläufe. Zudem wirkt das Bildungsniveau unterschiedlich auf die Partnerschaftsentwicklung, je nachdem ob bei Geburt des Kindes eine Partnerschaft vorlag oder nicht.
  • Bastin, Sonja, Michaela Kreyenfeld & Christine Schnor. 2012. Diversität von Familienformen in Ost- und Westdeutschland. In Familie(n) heute - Entwicklungen, Kontroversen, Prognosen, Hrsg. Dorothea Krüger, Holger Herma & Anja Schierbaum, 126-145. Wiesbaden: Juventa. ISBN: 978-3-7799-2835-5
  • In diesem Beitrag wird die Diversität der Lebensformen in Deutschland mit den Daten der ersten Welle des Beziehungs- und Familienpanels (pairfam) aus den Jahren 2008/09 dargestellt. Die Analysen wurden auf die Kohorten 1971-1973 beschränkt. Diese Jahrgänge haben im wiedervereinten Deutschland das Erwachsenenalter erreicht und wesentliche familiale Übergänge, wie die Geburt des ersten Kindes, mittlerweile vollzogen. Der Schwerpunkt der Analysen liegt auf der Dynamik, die Lebensformen nach der Familiengründung erfahren. Es zeigen sich große Ost-West-Unterschiede in den Familienbildungsmustern. Ostdeutsche Befragte sind häufiger unverheiratet bei der Geburt ihres ersten Kindes und heiraten zudem seltener nach der Familiengründung als westdeutsche Befragte. Ostdeutsche Frauen trennen sich insbesondere im ersten Lebensjahr ihres Kindes häufiger als westdeutsche Mütter. Zudem ist mit mehr als zehn Prozent der Anteil an Personen, die bereits bei der Geburt des ersten Kindes keinen Partner (mehr) haben, in Ostdeutschland auffällig hoch. Betrachtet man Trennungsrisiken nach der Lebensform zum Zeitpunkt der Geburt des ersten Kindes zeigt sich, dass nichteheliche Lebensgemeinschaften ein höheres Trennungsrisiko aufweisen als eheliche Lebensgemeinschaften. Im Ost-West-Vergleich sind ostdeutsche Ehen instabiler. Nichteheliche Lebensgemeinschaften weisen in Ostdeutschland hingegen eine niedrigere Trennungswahrscheinlichkeit auf als in Westdeutschland.
  • Bauer, Gerrit & Thorsten Kneip. 2012. Fertility from a Couple Perspective: A Test of Competing Decision Rules on Proceptive Behaviour. European Sociological Review 29(3): 535-548. DOI: 10.1093/esr/jcr095

    pairfam Best Publication Award 2013 

  • Fertility decisions typically involve two persons. This raises the question of how individual desires or preferences for further children transform into joint action. Previous research has proposed different approaches to this question, emphasizing gender, joint utility, consensus, or bargaining power. We use data from the German Family Panel (pairfam) to test competing hypotheses found in the literature. Our results show symmetrical effects of both partners’ desires and expected utilities for children on proceptive behaviour, indicating that neither women nor men dominate fertility decisions per se. Instead, it is joint utility that matters. One partner will exercise a ‘veto’ only if the expected loss of utility from a further child is very high. When partners have opposed desires, bargaining power due to advantageous partner market conditions can play a pivotal role for imposing one's will on the partner.
  • Buhr, Petra & Anne-Kristin Kuhnt. 2012. Die kurzfristige Stabilität des Kinderwunsches von Kinderlosen in Ost- und Westdeutschland: eine Analyse mit den ersten beiden Wellen des deutschen Beziehungs- und Familienpanels. In Familie und Partnerschaft in Ost- und Westdeutschland: Ähnlich und doch immer noch anders, Hrsg. Johannes Huinink, Michaela Kreyenfeld & Heike Trappe, 275-297. Leverkusen: Verlag Barbara Budrich (Sonderheft 9 der Zeitschrift für Familienforschung - Journal of Family Research). ISBN: 978-3-8474-0041-7
  • Im Fokus dieses Beitrags steht die Frage nach der kurzfristigen Stabilität des Kinderwunsches von Kinderlosen über den Zeitraum von einem Jahr. Wir prüfen insbesondere, ob Lebensereignisse wie der Verlust eines Arbeitsplatzes oder die Auflösung einer Partnerschaft einen Einfluss auf die Stabilität des Kinderwunsches haben. Die Datenbasis für die Analysen sind die ersten beiden Wellen des deutschen Beziehungs- und Familienpanels (pairfam). Als Methode werden binäre und multinomiale logistische Regressionsmodelle verwendet, um die Determinanten der Stabilität, Erhöhung oder Reduzierung des Kinderwunsches von kinderlosen Personen in Ost- und Westdeutschland zu ermitteln. Unsere Ergebnisse zeigen, dass vor allem Änderungen im Partnerschaftsstatus einen Einfluss auf die Stabilität des Kinderwunsches ausüben. Es zeigt sich zudem, dass der Kinderwunsch von Westdeutschen stabiler ist als der von Ostdeutschen. Vor dem Hintergrund der Unterschiede im Geburtenverhalten fallen die Ost-West-Unterschiede in der Stabilität des Kinderwunsches jedoch gering aus.
  • Buhr, Petra & Johannes Huinink. 2012. Die Bedeutung familienpolitischer Maßnahmen für die Entscheidung zum Kind. Zeitschrift für Sozialreform 58: 315-341.
  • In diesem Beitrag untersuchen wir, welche Bedeutung familienpolitische Maßnahmen für die Entscheidung zur Familiengründung und -erweiterung haben. Datenbasis ist die zweite Welle des deutschen Beziehungs- und Familienpanels (pairfam). Unsere Analysen zeigen, dass je nach Lebenslage unterschiedliche Typen von Maßnahmen entscheidungsrelevant sind: Für Kinderlose und höher Gebildete sind ökologische Maßnahmen, die auf die Vereinbarkeit von Lebensbereichen zielen, besonders attraktiv. Finanzielle Maßnahmen, insbesondere eine Erhöhung des Kindergeldes, werden dagegen von Personen mit Kindern und niedrigem Einkommen präferiert. Eine Erhöhung des Elterngeldes dagegen hat insgesamt wenig Einfluss auf die Bereitschaft zu einem (weiteren) Kind.
  • Bundesministerium für Familie, Senioren, Frauen und Jugend (BMFSFJ). 2012. Familienreport 2011. Leistungen, Wirkungen, Trends. Berlin: Eigenverlag.
  • Der Monitor Familienleben 2011, der im September vergangenen Jahres von Bundesministerin Kristina Schröder und der Geschäftsführerin des Instituts für Demoskopie Allensbach, Prof. Renate Köcher, vorgestellt wurde, hat erneut belegt, dass Familienthemen und Familienpolitik in der Bevölkerung eine große Bedeutung haben. In einer repräsentativen Befragung wird jährlich untersucht, wie Familien in Deutschland ihren Alltag leben, welche Bedürfnisse für Mütter und Väter an erster Stelle stehen und welche Aufgaben die Familienpolitik aus Sicht der Bevölkerung zu bewältigen hat.
  • Dorbritz, Jürgen & Astrid Manthe. 2012. Zum Einfluss der Lebensform und des sozialen Umfelds auf den Kinderwunsch. Bevölkerungsforschung Aktuell 33: 8-15.
  • Die besondere Fertilitätssituation in Deutschland lässt sich auch aus der spezifischen Verknüpfung zwischen Lebensformen und Fertilitätsmustern erklären. Dabei gilt, dass Verheiratete mehr Kinder haben als Nichtverheiratete, dass Menschen, die in einer Partnerschaft leben mehr Kinder haben als Partnerlose und dass mit der zunehmenden Institutionalisierung der Partnerschaft die Kinderzahl ansteigt. Für die Analysen wird angenommen, dass die Entscheidung für oder gegen die Erfüllung des Kinderwunsches durch die Haltung des sozialen Umfelds spezifisch nach Lebensformen verstärkt oder abgeschwächt wird. Die Ergebnisse zeigen, dass der Wunsch, innerhalb der nächsten zwei Jahre ein Kind zu bekommen, stark von der Lebensform, dem Alter und der Akzeptanz durch die Familie bzw. Freunde abhängt. Die vermuteten Zusammenhänge zwischen der Lebensform und der Institutionalisierung der Partnerschaft konnten bei Ausnahmen bestätigt werden. Überraschend waren das häufige Vorkommen aktueller Kinderwünsche bei Singles und bilokalen Paarbeziehungen ohne Kinder in der Altersgruppe 35-37 Jahre.
  • Dorbritz, Jürgen & Robert Naderi. 2012. Stabilität bilokaler Paarbeziehungen − Rahmenbedingungen und Entwicklungspfade: Eine Analyse der ersten und zweiten Welle von pairfam. Comparative Population Studies 37(3-4): 393-428. DOI: 10.4232/10.CPoS-2012-08de
  • Bilokale Paarbeziehungen haben ihren Status als exklusive Lebensform verloren, kommen fast so häufig vor wie nichteheliche Lebensgemeinschaften und sind in nahezu allen sozialen Gruppierungen anzutreffen. Dennoch sind sie durch eine Reihe ganz besonderer Merkmale gekennzeichnet. Ihre Entstehungsursachen sind einerseits im Kontext von Individualisierungstendenzen, hier dem Bedürfnis nach einer höheren individuellen Autonomie, und andererseits in steigenden Anforderungen an die berufsbedingte Mobilität zu sehen, denen oftmals nur durch das Leben in getrennten Haushalten entsprochen werden kann. Als eines der prägenden Merkmale der bilokalen Paarbeziehungen wird ihre vergleichsweise geringe Dauerhaftigkeit vermutet, sie werden häufig als Übergangslebensform oder Notlösung gesehen. Ziel des Beitrages ist es, anhand der ersten und zweiten Welle des Surveys pairfam die Rahmenbedingungen bestehender bilokaler Paarbeziehungen und deren Einfluss auf ihre zukünftige Stabilität zu untersuchen. Gefragt wird, welche Bedingungen zum Fortbestehen bzw. zur Auflösung einer bilokalen Paarbeziehung oder zum Zusammenzug führen. Im Vergleich von der ersten zur zweiten Welle (also innerhalb von einem Jahr) haben sich hinsichtlich der Stabilität bzw. Aufl ösung bereits gravierende Veränderungen eingestellt. Von den in der ersten Welle gefundenen bilokalen Paarbeziehungen bestanden in der zweiten Welle in den untersuchten Jahrgängen noch mehr als die Hälfte in dieser Form. Der kleinere Teil der Befragten hat die Bilokalität durch Trennung beendet (knapp über 10 %). Die übrigen bilokalen Paarbeziehungen haben ihren Institutionalisierungsgrad erhöht und sind zu einer nichtehelichen Lebensgemeinschaft oder zu einem Ehepaar geworden. Ergebnisse der multivariaten Analyse zeigen, dass die Rahmenbedingungen für ältere Befragte anders zu beurteilen sind als für jüngere, was die Entwicklung von Welle 1 zu Welle 2 betrifft. Die Erwerbskonstellation zwischen beiden Partnern, räumliche Nähe, Bildungshomogamie, vorhergehende Kohabitationserfahrung und Absichten bezüglich Trennung und Zusammenzug sind erklärende Faktoren für die Fortführung einer bilokalen Beziehung, den Zusammenzug oder die Trennung.
  • Hillmann, Julika. 2012. Wann wollen zwei das Gleiche? Eine Analyse der Elternschaftsabsichten von Paaren auf Grundlage der 1. Welle des Beziehungs- und Familienentwicklungspanels (pairfam). DGD-Online-Publikation 1/2012: 116-121. 
  • Der Rückgang der Geburtenraten in Deutschland ist zunehmend durch Kinderlosigkeit bedingt. Untersuchungen des Kinderwunsches bei lediglich einem Individuum sind nicht hinreichend. Aus dem Grund werden in diesem Beitrag Elternschaftspläne von 2793 Paaren, die im Rahmen des "Panel Analysis of Intimate Relationships and Family Dynamics"" (pairfam) zu ihren Fertilitätsabsichten befragt wurden, untersucht. Besondere Berücksichtigung findet dabei der Einfluss der subjektiv wahrgenommenen Partnerschaftsqualität auf die Kinderwünsche. Die Ergebnisse zeigen, dass Paare mehrheitlich übereinstimmende Elternschaftsabsichten haben. Unterschiede werden jedoch zwischen Eltern und kinderlosen Paaren deutlich; kinderlose Paare haben seltener übereinstimmende Kinderwünsche. Desweiteren machen die Autoren deutlich, dass Paare mit Kindern eine geringere Partnerschaftsqualität angeben als kinderlose Paare. Kinder haben folglich einen negativen Einfluss auf die subjektive Beziehungsgüte der Eltern, tatsächlich konnte dieser Befund auch durch eine logistische Regressionsanalyse nachgewiesen werden. Die Analysen zeigen außerdem, dass eine hohe Beziehungsqualität von Paaren mit Kindern die Wahrscheinlichkeit erhöht, dass sich beide Partner in den nächsten zwei Jahren ein Kind wünschen. Trennungsabsichten und häufig auftretende negative Interaktionen senken die Wahrscheinlichkeit eines Kinderwunsches.
  • Huinink, Johannes. 2012. New Patterns or No Patterns? Changing Family Development and Family Life in Europe. In Family Transitions and Families in Transition, Hrsg. Eugenia Scabini & Giovanna Rossi, 49-70. Mailand: Vita e Pensiero. ISBN: 978-8834321584
  • Mostly it is agreed on the fact that family development undergoes considerable change Europe and the model of modern conjugal family with married parents is diminishing. However, is the deterioration of modern family patterns heralding the end of noteworthy patterns in family dynamics, the dawn of ‘anything goes’?
  • Huinink, Johannes. 2012. Editorial zum Themenheft „Empirische Analysen mit dem Deutschen Beziehungs- und Familienpanel (pairfam)". Comparative Population Studies 37(3-4): 299-312. DOI: 10.4232/10.CPoS-2012-09de
  • In den Beiträgen dieses Themenhefts werden empirische Analysen vorgestellt, die mit Daten des Deutschen Beziehungs- und Familienpanels (pairfam) durchgeführt worden sind. Hinter dem Akronym „pairfam“ verbirgt sich der englische Titel „Panel Analysis of Intimate Relationships and Family Dynamics“. Die Artikel geben einen exemplarischen Einblick in die Möglichkeiten empirischer Analysen mit den Daten der ersten Erhebungswellen von pairfam. Sie stellen also keine Übersichtsartikel dar, sondern befassen sich mit spezifi schen Forschungsfragen. Diese beziehen sich auf drei von insgesamt vier Themenschwerpunkten des pairfam-Panels, die für die demografi sche Forschung von besonderem Interesse sind: Paarbeziehungen, Fertilität und intergenerationale Beziehungen. Zudem wird in einem methodischen Beitrag eine für das Design der Befragung wichtige Analyse zu den Bestimmungsfaktoren der Teilnahmebereitschaft Dritter – in diesem Fall der Partner und der Eltern der Ankerpersonen – vorgestellt. Die Beiträge sind im Kontext unterschiedlicher Disziplinen, der Demografi e, der Psychologie und der Soziologie entstanden.
  • Huinink, Johannes & Michael Feldhaus. 2012. Fertilität und Pendelmobilität in Deutschland. Comparative Population Studies 37(3-4): 463-490. DOI: 10.4232/10.CPoS-2012-05de
  • Fertilitätsverhalten ist eng mit den anderen Dimensionen des Lebenslaufs verbunden, die wiederum untereinander in einer starken Wechselwirkung stehen. Ein Einflussfaktor aus dem Erwerbsbereich ist das berufsbedingte Mobilitätsverhalten. Studien zeigen, dass zeitaufwändiges Pendeln vor allem bei Frauen eher mit Kinderlosigkeit einhergeht. Bis jetzt fehlen jedoch Untersuchungen, die in diesem Zusammenhang schon die Intention, ein Kind zu bekommen, berücksichtigen. Darüber hinaus fehlen Längsschnittanalysen. In diesem Beitrag untersuchen wir Effekte des Pendelverhaltens von Frauen und Männern sowohl auf die Intention, innerhalb von zwei Jahren ein Kind zu haben, als auch auf die Wahrscheinlichkeit ihrer Realisierung. Wir nehmen an, dass nach Kontrolle weiterer relevanter Faktoren (Erwerbsstatus, Bildung, Partnerschaftsstatus, Kinderzahl, residenzielle Mobilität) das Mitteldistanz- und Fernpendeln negativ mit der Intention und mit deren Realisierung korreliert. Bei den Männern sollten keine oder nur schwach positive Effekte zu finden sein. Zur Prüfung der Hypothesen verwenden wir Daten der ersten drei Wellen des Deutschen Familienpanels (pairfam). Zunächst wird eine multivariate Probit-Regression (mit korrelierten Fehlern) auf die Intention, auf die gegenwärtige Kinderlosigkeit und auf das Mittel- und Fernpendeln im Querschnitt geschätzt. Es ergeben sich keine signifikanten Zusammenhänge zwischen dem Berufspendeln und der Fertilitätsintention, wohl aber zwischen dem Berufspendeln und der Wahrscheinlichkeit noch kinderlos zu sein. Zum zweiten wird ein Zwei-Wellen Panelmodell (Differenzenmodell) auf Veränderungen der Fertilitätsintention zwischen Welle 1 und Welle 3 geschätzt. Hier zeigen sich für Frauen, wie erwartet, positive Effekte auf die Aufnahme einer Intention, ein Kind in den nächsten zwei Jahren zu bekommen, für den Fall, dass das Mittel- und Fernpendeln beendet oder - zu unserer Überraschung – zwischen den Wellen kontinuierlich aufrecht erhalten wird. Schließlich wird für diejenigen, die in der ersten Welle angegeben haben, ein Kind haben zu wollen, eine Probit-Regression (mit Heckman-Korrektur) auf die Wahrscheinlichkeit der Realisierung einer Schwangerschaft zwischen Welle 1 und Welle 3 berechnet. Die Ergebnisse weisen hier wie erwartet negative Effekte von aufwändigem Berufspendeln auf das Auftreten einer Schwangerschaft aus. Insgesamt bestätigen die Ergebnisse die Annahme, dass das Berufspendeln eine unterschiedliche Bedeutung im Entscheidungsprozess der Familiengründung und -erweiterung hat.
  • Huinink, Johannes, Michaela Kreyenfeld & Heike Trappe. 2012. Familie und Partnerschaft in Ost- und Westdeutschland: Eine Bilanz. In Familie und Partnerschaft in Ost- und Westdeutschland: Ähnlich und doch immer noch anders, Hrsg. Johannes Huinink, Michaela Kreyenfeld & Heike Trappe, 9-28. Leverkusen: Verlag Barbara Budrich (Sonderheft 9 der Zeitschrift für Familienforschung - Journal of Family Research). ISBN: 978-3-8474-0041-7
  • Der einführende Beitrag des Sonderheftes 9 der Zeitschrift für Familienforschung gibt einen Überblick über die Unterschiede und die Gemeinsamkeiten von Familie und Partnerschaft in Ost- und Westdeutschland. Eine regelmäßige Beobachtung von familialen Verhaltensweisen bietet eine einzigartige Chance, den mittel- und langfristigen sozialen Wandel zu erforschen. Ein Ost-West-Vergleich erlaubt diesbezüglich allgemeinere Einsichten in die Dynamiken des sozialen Wandels unter den Gegebenheiten eines natürlichen Experiments. Beziehungs- und Familienentwicklung stellt dabei ein besonderes Forschungsfeld dar, weil hier der Teil des sozialen Geschehens behandelt wird, an dem fast alle funktional differenzierten Gesellschaften in direkter oder indirekter Weise beteiligt sind. Darüber hinaus bildet die Familienforschung den Bereich ab, in dem Lebensentscheidungen besonders eng mit subjektiven Einstellungen und Werten verbunden sind. In diesem Beitrag wird auf die Kohorten des Wandels eingegangen und auf die Mechanismen sozialen Wandels Bezug genommen. Ebenso werden strukturelle Veränderungen und der familiale Wandel im Ost-West-Vergleich betrachtet, wobei Familiengründungs- und Familienerweiterungsprozesse, Eheschließungen und Müttererwerbstätigkeit genauer beleuchtet werden.
  • Klaus, Daniela, Bernhard Nauck & Anja Steinbach. 2012. Relationships to stepfathers and biological fathers in adulthood: Complementary, substitutional, or neglected? Advances in Life Course Research 17: 156-167. DOI: 10.1016/j.alcr.2012.01.006
  • Most studies of stepchildren deal either with the relationship to the “absent” biological father or to the “coresident” stepfather, and almost all concentrate on stepchildren's late childhood and early adolescence. This paper aims at extending current knowledge in several respects. Using data from the German Family Panel (pairfam), we were able to draw a sample of adolescents and young adults who have two father relationships (N = 739). We study the variables that influence the relationships linking children to fathers and stepfathers. Emotional closeness and the strength of the relationship (a multiple indicator measure based on joint activities, material transfers, and emotional support) are considered as outcome variables that indicate whether the relationships to the two fathers are mutually complementary (i.e., the child has good relations with both fathers), substitutional (i.e., one father replaces the other), or neglected (i.e., no relationship to either father is maintained). A series of multinominal logit models provides evidence that the residence pattern, the event of leaving the parental home, the duration of the step relationship, mother's marital status, and the quality of the relationship to the mother are predictive for the pattern of father–child–stepfather relations. The longer the stepfather relationship lasts and the closer the child's relationship to its mother is, the closer is the child's relationship to the stepfather and the higher the activity and support level. The same applies if the mother is married to the stepfather. Stepchildren show lowered emotional closeness to the stepfather after leaving the parental home, but stepfathers remain important in supporting stepchildren during early adulthood.
  • Konietzka, Dirk & André Tatjes. 2012. Werden junge Menschen immer später erwachsen? Der Auszug aus dem Elternhaus, die erste Paarbeziehung und die erste Lebensgemeinschaft in Ost- und Westdeutschenland. In Familie und Partnerschaft in Ost- und Westdeutschland: Ähnlich und doch immer noch anders, Hrsg. Johannes Huinink, Michaela Kreyenfeld & Heike Trappe, 173-200. Leverkusen: Verlag Barbara Budrich (Sonderheft 9 der Zeitschrift für Familienforschung - Journal of Family Research). ISBN: 978-3-8474-0041-7
  • In diesem Beitrag wird das Timing und Spacing der ersten Paarbeziehung, des Auszugs aus dem Elternhaus und der ersten Lebensgemeinschaft im Lebenslauf junger Erwachsener der Kohorten 1971-73 und 1981-83 in Ost- und Westdeutschland untersucht. Im Zentrum des Interesses steht die Lebensphase zwischen dem Auszug aus dem Elternhaus und dem Beginn der ersten Lebensgemeinschaft. Basis der Analysen sind die Daten der ersten Welle des Beziehungs- und Familienpanels (pairfam) sowie der ersten Welle des Projekts "Demographie Differences in Life Course Dynamics in Eastern and Western Germany" (DemoDiff). Die empirischen Analysen verweisen auf einen späteren Auszug der jüngeren Geburtskohorte, aber nicht auf einen insgesamt verzögerten Übergang in das Erwachsenenalter. Vor allem die westdeutschen Frauen und Männer aus der Kohorte 1981-83 haben schneller nach dem Auszug aus dem Elternhaus eine Lebensgemeinschaft gegründet. Die Periode des Alleinlebens hat sich demnach im Leben junger Menschen verkürzt.
  • Kreyenfeld, Michaela & Dirk Konietzka. 2012. Stieffamilien und die spätmoderne Vielfalt der Familie. In Die notwendige Vielfalt von Familie und Partnerschaft, Hrsg. Petra Buhr & Michael Feldhaus, 233-253. Würzburg: Ergon Verlag. ISBN: 978-3-8991-3923-5
  • Kreyenfeld, Michaela, Johannes Huinink, Heike Trappe & Rainer Walke. 2012. DemoDiff: A Dataset for the Study of Family Change in Eastern (and Western) Germany. Schmollers Jahrbuch 132: 653-660. Berlin: Duncker & Humblot. DOI: 10.3790/schm.132.4.653
  • The project DemoDiff (Demographic Differences in Life Course Dynamics in Eastern and Western Germany), which was initiated by the Max Planck Institute for Demographic Research, tries to fill part of this research gap by supplementing the German family panel (pairfam) with an eastern German subsample. With this subsample, the sampel size of eastern Germans of the cohorts 1971-73 and 1981-83 increases substantially. While there are only 1,562 eastern Germans in wave 1 of the German family panel (pairfam), there are 3,051 respondents if we combine pairfam and DemoDiff. This means that DemoDiff doubles the number of eastern German respondents available for study, making it possible for researchers to conduct separate analyses of behavior in the two parts of the country. Adapted from the source document.
  • Lois, Daniel & Nadia Lois. 2012. "Living apart together" - eine dauerhafte Alternative? Zur Bedeutung von beruflichen Lagen und Partnerschaftsbildern für das Leben in getrennten Haushalten. Soziale Welt 63: 117-140.
  • Die Studie befasst sich auf der Basis von Daten des Beziehungs- und Familienpanels (pairfam) mit der Frage, für welche Personengruppen die Partnerschaft mit getrennten Haushalten (LAT) ein relativ dauerhaftes Arrangement darstellt. Grundlage ist eine Stichprobe von n= 1118 Personen im Alter von 25 bis 39 Jahren. Clusteranalysen zu beruflichen Lagen und Partnerschaftsbildern sowie eine daran anschließende Längsschnittanalyse der Beziehungsentwicklung führen zu dem Ergebnis, dass Personen mit einem auf Autonomie und Ungebundenheit aufbauenden Partnerschaftsbild eine relativ lange Verweildauer in LAT-Partnerschaften aufweisen. Berufsbedingte Fernbeziehungen weisen dagegen eine unerwartet hohe Übergangsrate in die Kohabitation und ein vergleichsweise niedriges Trennungsrisiko auf. Die Stabilität und Verfestigung von LAT-Partnerschaften scheint insgesamt weniger durch eine berufsbedingte Mobilität gehemmt zu werden, als durch eine prekäre erwerbsbiografische Situation, die durch Arbeitslosigkeit und ein niedriges Einkommensniveau gekennzeichnet ist.
  • Lois, Nadia. 2012. 'Living apart together': Sechs Typen einer heterogenen Lebensform. Zeitschrift für Familienforschung - Journal of Family Research 3: 247-268.
  • In dieser Studie wird mit Daten des Beziehungs- und Familienpanels (pairfam) (Befragte zwischen 15 und 37 Jahre) überprüft, in welchen Erscheinungsformen Partnerschaften mit getrennten Haushalten („living apart together“, LAT) auftreten. Die heuristische Einteilung in die Typen Vorstufe, berufsbedingte Fernbeziehung und Beziehungsideal erweist sich dabei teilweise als fruchtbar, muss jedoch nach den Ergebnissen einer Clusteranalyse weiter differenziert werden. Der vor allem bei Jugendlichen anzutreffende Vorstufen-Typ spaltet sich in zwei Unterformen, eine unverbindliche und eine stärker verfestigte Form, auf. Berufsbedingte LAT-Partnerschaften zeichnen sich erwartungsgemäß durch einen hohen Anteil von Doppelverdienerpaaren und eine überdurchschnittliche Wohnortentfernung aus, sind aber in ihrer Partnerschaftsqualität weniger eingeschränkt als erwartet. Während darüber hinaus ein Cluster von stark konfliktbehafteten LAT-Partnerschaften identifiziert werden kann, finden sich keine eindeutigen Hinweise auf die Existenz der LAT als Beziehungsideal. Im Anschluss an die Clusteranalyse wird im Längsschnitt überprüft, inwieweit sich die Wahrscheinlichkeit einer Trennung bzw. einer Haushaltsgründung zwischen den sechs LAT-Typen innerhalb von 12 Monaten unterscheidet.
  • Mühling, Tanja & Jessica Schreyer. 2012. Beziehungsverläufe in West- und Ostdeutschland – Stabilität und Übergänge. ifb-Materialien 4/2012: 1-77.
  • In den letzten Jahrzehnten sind Beziehungsverläufe bekanntlich vielfältiger geworden, die Heiratsneigung ist gesunken, der Übergang zur Elternschaft vollzieht sich später und seltener und die Stabilität von Partnerschaften hat abgenommen. Diese Entwicklungen haben insgesamt zu einer wachsenden Pluralität von Lebensformen und einer stärkeren Ausdifferenzierung von Beziehungs- und Familienbiographien geführt. Ungeachtet dessen sind Übergänge in Beziehungsverläufen durch konkrete Ereignisse in der Paarbeziehung bestimmt. Zu diesen Ereignissen gehören insbesondere das Zusammenziehen in einen gemeinsamen Haushalt, die Geburt gemeinsamer Kinder, die Heirat, das Ausziehen der erwachsenen Kinder aus dem Elternhaus und die Auflösung der Partnerschaft durch Trennung bzw. Scheidung oder den Tod eines Partners. Die genannten Ereignisse initiieren und beenden jeweils Phasen im Beziehungsverlauf. Das geplante Forschungsprojekt zielt darauf ab, die Verbreitung verschiedener Beziehungsverläufe zu quantifizieren und fragt nach regionalen und Kohortenunterschieden, dem Lebensalter bei Phasenbeginn und -ende, der Dauer der Phase und ihrer Verortung in der Biographie. Der Fokus liegt dabei auf der Institutionalisierung von Partnerschaften, d.h. es wird nach den Determinanten gefragt, die die Wahrscheinlichkeit des Zusammenziehens und der Eheschließung beeinflussen.
  • Nauck, Bernhard & Oliver Arránz Becker. 2012. Pairfam: Panel analysis of intimate relationships and family dynamics. International Journal of Psychology 47: 671.
  • The German Family Panel (pairfam) is a multidisciplinary research project within the field of partnership and family dynamics. The main survey topics are: initiation, maintenance, and stability dynamics of intimate relationships, sexuality and fertility, intergenerational exchange and parenting, and child development; furthermore, extensive biographic information on respondents’ sociodemographic backgrounds is gathered and updated annually. The complex multi-actor design, comprising interviews not only with the primary (“anchor”) respondents, but also with additional family members (anchors’ partners, parents, and children), facilitates explicit consideration of mutual perceptions and interactive processes within the family system. The panel design with repeated measurements of both family-related attitudes and behaviour creates a unique dataset for analysing path dependencies and reciprocity of life course transitions in multiple domains (e.g., work/family). The first wave of data was gathered in 2008/09 with a nationwide random sample of more than 12,000 anchor persons from three birth cohorts (1991-93, 1981-83, and 1971- 73); in wave three (2010/11), 7,901 of these respondents could be reinterviewed. Pairfam is funded within the long-term programme of the German Research Foundation (DFG) and is scheduled to run for a period of 14 waves through 2022/23. As an infrastructure project, pairfam is intended to provide a cost-free dataset for cutting-edge research to the international scientific community. Currently, data from three waves are delivered to the users in standard file formats, and with both English and German labels.
  • Nauck, Bernhard & Rokuro Tabuchi. 2012. One or two pathways to individual modernity? The effects of education on family formation among women in Japan and Germany. In Vienna Yearbook of Population Research 2012, Hrsg. Wiener Institut für Demographie der Österreichischen Akademie der Wissenschaften, 49-76. Wien: Verlag der Österreichischen Akademie der Wissenschaften. DOI: 10.1553/populationyearbook2012s049
  • Two prominent theses on social change concur with regard to the on-going development of family systems in the process of general social change: the model of the “second demographic transition”, suggested by the demographers van de Kaa and Lesthaeghe; and the model of “family change”, proposed by the cross cultural psychologist Kağıtçıbaşı. This paper presents an empirical test based on an analysis of family change in Japan, a collectivistic, yet modernised society; and in Germany, a society characterised by ‘Western’ individualism. Our empirical test is based on 12 cumulated, representative surveys from these two societies, which together cover the family formation processes of 49,983 women born between 1915 and 1985. For both Germany and Japan, we examine the influence of educational inequality on family formation, and explore how it has changed over a period of 60 years, by means of multivariate Cox regression analyses. The two models emphasise different aspects of the change in the family formation process: although the changes point in the direction predicted by the second demographic transition model, the differences between the two societies have remained stable or have even widened, in line with the family change model.
  • Perelli-Harris, Brienna, Michaela Kreyenfeld, Wendy Sigle-Rushton, Renske Keizer, Trude Lappegård, Aiva Jasilioniene, Caroline Berghammer & Paola Di Giulio. 2012. Changes in union status during the transition to parenthood in eleven European countries, 1970s to early 2000s. Population Studies: A Journal of Demography 66: 167-182. DOI: 10.1080/00324728.2012.673004
  • Couples who have children are increasingly likely to have lived together without being married at some point in their relationship. Some couples begin their unions with cohabitation and marry before first conception, some marry during pregnancy or directly after the first birth, while others remain unmarried 3 years after the first birth. Using union and fertility histories since the 1970s for eleven countries, we examine whether women who have children in unions marry, and if so, at what stage in family formation. We also examine whether women who conceive when cohabiting are more likely to marry or separate. We find that patterns of union formation and childbearing develop along different trajectories across countries. In all countries, however, less than 40 per cent of women remained in cohabitation up to 3 years after the first birth, suggesting that marriage remains the predominant institution for raising children.
  • Rainer, Helmut & Ian Smith. 2012. Education, Communication and Wellbeing: An Application to Sexual Satisfaction. Kyklos - International Review for Social Sciences 65: 581–598. DOI: 10.1111/kykl.12007
  • Standard theories of household decision making assume that family members have complete information about preferences and are able to reach efficient outcomes. However, partners in intimate relationships may often need to coordinate their choices in the face of incomplete information. To reduce uncertainty there is an incentive for partners to acquire information through communication. In this study we investigate empirically the determinants of communication between partners and its consequences in the specific context of sexual satisfaction. In particular we show the importance of schooling for information acquisition effort. Although education indirectly improves sexual satisfaction through the communication mechanism, we also find direct adverse effects of schooling on sexual wellbeing. This is interpreted in terms of opportunity cost effect arising from the market returns to schooling that make it more difficult to coordinate work and love lives. The econometric estimates show that the positive communication effects of education vanish at longer relationship durations as couples learn about their preferences. While sexual satisfaction is positively correlated with life satisfaction, it is only when controlling for sexual wellbeing that schooling has a statistically signification association with overall life satisfaction.
  • Richter, Nico, Daniel Lois, Oliver Arránz Becker & Johannes Kopp. 2012. Mechanismen des Netzwerkeinflusses auf Fertilitätsentscheidungen in Ost- und Westdeutschland. In Familie und Partnerschaft in Ost- und Westdeutschland: Ähnlich und doch immer noch anders, Hrsg. Johannes Huinink, Michaela Kreyenfeld & Heike Trappe, 95-118. Leverkusen: Verlag Barbara Budrich (Sonderheft 9 der Zeitschrift für Familienforschung - Journal of Family Research). ISBN: 978-3-8474-0041-7
  • Der Beitrag untersucht drei Mechanismen sozialer Beeinflussung von Fertilitätsentscheidungen durch Netzwerke in Ost- und Westdeutschland: Erstens die Wahrnehmung sozialen Drucks seitens wichtiger Bezugspersonen im Netzwerk (z.B. der Eltern), zweitens antizipierte Unterstützung bei der Kinderbetreuung durch andere Personen, und drittens soziale Ansteckungsprozesse als Folge der Beobachtung von befreundeten Paaren mit kleinen Kindern. Paritätenspezifische Analysen an den ersten drei Wellen des deutschen Beziehungs- und Familienpanels (pairfam) zeigen, dass alle drei genannten Mechanismen vor allem bei Familienerweiterungen nachzuweisen sind. Daneben lässt sich ein Teil der höheren Familienerweiterungsrate in Westdeutschland auf die stärkere Wahrnehmung sozialen Drucks in der westdeutschen Teilstichprobe zurückführen. Schließlich finden sich Belege dafür, dass Ansteckungsprozesse im Netzwerk in Ostdeutschland tendenziell bedeutsamer sind als in Westdeutschland. Die Analysen demonstrieren insgesamt, dass Einflüsse des sozialen Nahumfelds auf Fertilitätsentscheidungen in zukünftigen Untersuchungen zu Determinanten des Geburtenverhaltens stärker berücksichtigt werden sollten.
  • Schaer, Markus. 2012. Das Früher im Heute: Liebespaare und ihre Herkunftsfamilien. Kröning: Asanger Verlag. ISBN: 978-3-8933-4570-0

    Deutscher Forschungspreis 2012 der Deutschen Gesellschaft für Systemische Therapie, Beratung und Familientherapie (DGSF)

  • Ob und wie partnerschaftsrelevante Verhaltensweisen von einer Generation zur nächsten weitergegeben werden, untersuchte Markus Schaer für seine Dissertation „Das Früher im Heute: Liebespaare und ihre Herkunftsfamilien“. Schaers Forschungsarbeit an der Universität München ist jetzt mit dem Forschungspreis der Deutschen Gesellschaft für Systemische Therapie, Beratung und Familientherapie (DGSF) ausgezeichnet worden. Schaers Arbeit beschreibt die intergenerationale Transmission von Paarkonfliktstilen und Kompetenzen zur Stressbewältigung. Der Autor interviewte junge erwachsene Paare und deren Eltern, insgesamt nahmen mehr als 650 Personen an seiner Studie teil. Durch die Befragung ganzer Familiensysteme und mit systemischen Analyseverfahren konnte er ein differenziertes Bild der Transmission erarbeiten, das auch geschlechtstypische Unterschiede aufzeigt. Frauen zeigen danach eine ausgeprägte Verhaltenskonsistenz in der Herkunftsfamilie und in der Liebesbeziehung, Männer zeigen hingegen ein solches Transmissionsmuster nur bei der Stressbewältigung. Die Ergebnisse von Schaers Forschungsarbeit machen auch nachvollziehbar, wie familiäre Verhaltenstraditionen mit der „sozialen Vererbung“ des Scheidungsrisikos zusammenhängen. Seine Analyse mehrgenerationaler Dynamiken und Muster von negativem und konstruktivem Konfliktverhalten liefert Erkenntnisse für die präventive und therapeutische Arbeit mit Paaren und Familien.
  • Schmahl, Franziska. 2012. Verbundenheit und Autonomie in Paarbeziehungen. Bedingungen und Folgen partnerschaftlicher Bedürfniserfüllung. Berlin: Verlag Dr. Köster. ISBN: 978-3-8957-4797-7
  • Verbundenheit und Autonomie sind grundlegende Bedürfnisse in Paarbeziehungen, deren Erfüllung sich positiv auf das Wohlbefinden der Partner und das Funktionieren von Paarbeziehungen auswirkt. Weitgehend unklar ist bisher jedoch, welche Faktoren einen Einfluss auf das Erleben von Verbundenheit und Autonomie in Paarbeziehungen nehmen. Das vorliegende Buch greift diese Forschungslücke auf und beschäftigt sich nicht nur mit den Folgen partnerschaftlicher Bedürfniserfüllung für das Wohlbefinden der Partner, die Partnerschaftsqualität und -entwicklung, sondern wirft auch einen differenzierten Blick auf die Bedingungen partnerschaftlicher Verbundenheit und Autonomie. Neben dem Einfluss von Persönlichkeitsmerkmalen der Partner wird auch der Einfluss des jeweiligen Lebens- und Partnerschaftskontexts auf die erlebte Verbundenheit und Autonomie in Paarbeziehungen empirisch untersucht. Dabei wird auf eine Stichprobe von 1.914 Paaren zurückgegriffen, welche an den ersten beiden Erhebungswellen des Beziehungs- und Familienpanels (pairfam, „Panel Analysis of Intimate Relationships and Family Dynamics“) teilnahmen. Auf Basis der Ergebnisse dyadischer Analysen werden schließlich Ansatzpunkte für paartherapeutische Interventionen zur Förderung partnerschaftlicher Bedürfniserfüllung aufgezeigt.
  • Schmahl, Franziska & Sabine Walper. 2012. Nur die Verbundenheit zählt? Die Bedeutung partnerschaftlicher Bedürfniserfüllung für die Qualität und fortschreitende Institutionalisierung von Paarbeziehungen. Comparative Population Studies 37: 327-360. DOI: 10.4232/10.CPoS-2012-01de
  • Dieser Beitrag befasst sich mit der Bedeutung von Autonomie und Verbundenheit als zentrale Bedürfnisse in Paarbeziehungen und untersucht Einflüsse der Bedürfniserfüllung auf die Partnerschaftsqualität und fortschreitende Institutionalisierung von Paarbeziehungen. Anhand einer Stichprobe von 1914 Paaren und einem längsschnittlichen, dyadischen Design werden Akteur- und Partnereffekte partnerschaftlicher Autonomie und Verbundenheit auf die Partnerschaftsqualität und den partnerschaftlichen Institutionalisierungsprozess ermittelt. Eine Clusteranalyse erbrachte vier Typen der partnerschaftlichen Bedürfniserfüllung, die sich durch hohe Werte in beiden Bereichen, hohe Werte in jeweils nur einem Bereich oder geringe Bedürfniserfüllung in beiden Bereichen auszeichnen. Eine balancierte Erfüllung von Autonomie und Verbundenheit sagt die vergleichsweise höchsten Werte an Partnerschaftszufriedenheit und Zukunftsorientierung vorher. Darüber hinaus reduziert eine geringe Bedürfniserfüllung in Partnerschaften das Fortschreiten des partnerschaftlichen Institutionalisierungsprozesses (Zusammenziehen, Heirat, Geburt eines Kindes). Für Frauen sind stärkere Akteur- und Partnereffekte der partnerschaftlichen Bedürfniserfüllung nachzuweisen als für Männer.
  • Schnor, Christine. 2012. Trennungsrisiko von Paaren mit Kindern: Der Einfluss der Religion in West- und Ostdeutschland. In Familie und Partnerschaft in Ost- und Westdeutschland: Ähnlich und doch immer noch anders, Hrsg. Johannes Huinink, Michaela Kreyenfeld & Heike Trappe, 229-256. Leverkusen: Verlag Barbara Budrich (Sonderheft 9 der Zeitschrift für Familienforschung - Journal of Family Research). ISBN: 978-3-8474-0041-7
  • In Westdeutschland gehören 70% der Bevölkerung einer christlichen Gemeinschaft an, in Ostdeutschland sind es 24%. Bisherige Studien belegen ein höheres Trennungsrisiko von Konfessionslosen. Wie beeinflusst der höhere Anteil an Konfessionslosen in Ostdeutschland die Stabilität von Beziehungen mit Kindern? Der Beitrag analysiert das Trennungsverhalten von Müttern mit dem Beziehungs- und Familienpanel (pairfam) und seiner ostdeutschen Ergänzungsstichprobe DemoDiff. Die Ergebnisse zeigen, dass konfessionslose Frauen ein höheres Trennungsrisiko als konfessionell gebundene Frauen haben. Die Beziehungsstabilität von west- und ostdeutschen Müttern unterscheidet sich jedoch nicht signifikant. Dies ist auf die hohe Partnerschaftstabilität von ostdeutschen Konfessionsangehörigen und den insignifikanten Einfluss der Konfessionszugehörigkeit in Westdeutschland zurückzuführen.
  • Schröder, Jette, Laura Castiglioni, Josef Brüderl & Ulrich Krieger. 2012. Der Einfluss der Beziehungsqualität auf die Teilnahme sekundärer Respondenten: Ergebnisse mit dem Beziehungs- und Familienpanel. Comparative Population Studies 37: 567-590. DOI: 10.4232/10.CPoS-2012-07de
  • Die pairfam-Studie bietet die seltene Möglichkeit, dyadische Analysen von Partner- sowie Eltern-Kind-Beziehungen durchzuführen. Es werden im Rahmen der Studie nämlich nicht nur die zufällig gezogenen Ankerpersonen befragt, sondern – mit Zustimmung der Ankerpersonen – auch deren Partner, Eltern und Kinder. Allerdings stellt sich die Frage, ob bzw. inwieweit die Teilnahme der sekundären Respondenten selektiv ist, also die dyadischen Daten durch einen Nonresponse-Bias verzerrt sind. Dieser Beitrag analysiert, welche Faktoren die Teilnahme der Partner und Eltern der Ankerperson am Beziehungs- und Familienpanel pairfam beeinfl ussen. Im Mittelpunkt steht dabei die Frage, ob die Qualität der Beziehung zwischen Anker und Partner bzw. Anker und Elternteil einen Einfluss auf die Teilnahme hat. Bei den Eltern zeigt sich sowohl ein Einfluss der Beziehungsqualität im engeren Sinne als auch ein Einfl uss der Dichte der Beziehung im Hinblick auf Kontakt und gegenseitige Unterstützung. Für die Teilnahme der Partner scheint die Beziehungsqualität hingegen eine geringere Bedeutung zu haben, einen großen Einfluss hat aber der Institutionalisierungsgrad der Beziehung. Der Beitrag möchte pairfam-Nutzer für die Möglichkeit eines Nonresponse-Bias bei dyadischen Analysen sensibilisieren und gibt Hinweise zum angemessenen Umgang mit den Daten.
  • Smith, Ian. 2012. Reinterpreting the economics of extramarital affairs. Review of Economics of the Household 10: 319-343. DOI: 10.1007/s11150-012-9146-9
  • The empirical results for the economic variables presented by Fair (J Political Econ 86(1):45–61, 1978 ) in his seminal study of extramarital affairs are puzzling within his household allocation of time framework. In particular, the theory is unable to accommodate readily the opposite signs for occupation (positive) and education (negative), assuming the wage rate is directly correlated with both variables. This paper provides a new interpretation of Fair’s estimates that accounts for the unexpected education result in terms of the association between schooling and the discount factor applied to expected future sanctions for sexual cheating. Three data sets from the United States, Germany and the United Kingdom are investigated to check the robustness of the partial correlations between infidelity and economic incentives. Taken together, the results across different countries and infidelity measures are substantially in agreement, especially for men. In a novel contribution, this study distinguishes between one off encounters, and irregular and regular forms of infidelity and finds that these are differentially related to occupation and education, consistent with theoretical predictions.
  • Walper, Sabine & Franziska Schmahl. 2012. Psychologische Verortung des Gesetzes der notwendigen Vielfalt: Ein Blick auf die Vielfalt von Erwartungen an Partnerschaften. In Die notwendige Vielfalt von Familie und Partnerschaft, Hrsg. Petra Buhr & Michael Feldhaus, 61-90. Würzburg: Ergon Verlag. ISBN: 978-3-8991-3923-5
  • Wendt, Eva-Verena. 2012. Liebe und Sexualität im Jugendalter: Zwischen neuer Keuschheit und Extremen. Akademie Aktuell 1: 62-63.

    Preis der Peregrinus-Stiftung 2011 der Bayerischen Akademie der Wissenschaften

  • Jugendliche stehen in ihrer Beziehungsentwicklung vor großen Herausforderungen, die die Mehrheit gut bewältigt – aber eben nicht alle. Die entwicklungspsychologische Jugendforschung bietet hierzu aktuelle Zahlen und betrachtet in qualitativen Studien das Liebesleben Jugendlicher „von innen“.


  • Bauer, Gerrit & Thorsten Kneip. 2011. Familiengründung und -erweiterung als partnerschaftliche Entscheidung. Ein Test konkurrierender Entscheidungsregeln. In Partnerschaft, Fertilität und intergenerationale Beziehungen. Ergebnisse der ersten Welle des Beziehungs- und Familienpanels, Hrsg. Josef Brüderl, Laura Castiglioni & Nina Schumann, 227-255. Würzburg: Ergon Verlag. ISBN: 978-3-89913-800-9
  • Zahlreiche Untersuchungen konzentrieren sich bei der Analyse fertilen Verhaltens auf Merkmale der Frau, deutlich weniger auf Merkmale des Mannes. Die meisten Kinder werden jedoch in bestehenden Paarbeziehungen gezeugt und geboren. Im vorliegenden Beitrag nehmen wir daher eine Paarperspektive ein und modellieren die Familiengründung als partnerschaftliche Entscheidung. Wir untersuchen hierbei vor allem die Bedeutung des je eigenen Bildungsniveaus in Abhängigkeit von dem des Partners und den Einfluss unterschiedlicher Bildungskonstellationen in Partnerschaften.
  • Baykara-Krumme, Helen, Daniela Klaus & Anja Steinbach. 2011. Generationenbeziehungen in Deutschland. Ein Vergleich der Beziehungsqualität in einheimischen deutschen Familien, Familien mit türkischem Migrationshintergrund und Aussiedlerfamilien. In Partnerschaft, Fertilität und intergenerationale Beziehungen. Ergebnisse der ersten Welle des Beziehungs- und Familienpanels, Hrsg. Josef Brüderl, Laura Castiglioni & Nina Schumann, 259-286. Würzburg: Ergon Verlag. ISBN: 978-3-89913-800-9
  • Im Mittelpunkt des Forschungsinteresses steht die Beziehungsqualität zwischen jungen Erwachsenen mit und ohne Migrationshintergrund und ihren Eltern. Einleitend werden die theoretischen Konzeptualisierungen sowie die vorliegenden Forschungsergebnisse zur Beziehungsqualität als Dimension intergenerationaler Solidarität im Kontext von Migrationserfahrung und kultureller Herkunft der beiden Migrantengruppen vorgestellt. Dabei wird insbesondere auf die zwei gegensätzlichen Thesen - die Solidaritätsthese und die Konfliktthese - eingegangen. Es werden Implikationen für die eigene Studie abgeleitet. Es folgt eine Beschreibung der Datenbasis, der ausgewählten Analyseeinheiten sowie der Operationalisierung der Variablen. Anschließend werden vergleichende deskriptive Ergebnisse zum Ausmaß von emotionaler Verbundenheit und Konflikt präsentiert, die um multivariate Modelle zur Erklärung der Beziehungsqualität ergänzt werden. Der Beitrag schließt mit einer zusammenfassenden Diskussion der wichtigsten Befunde.
  • Baykara-Krumme, Helen, Daniela Klaus & Anja Steinbach. 2011. Eltern-Kind-Beziehungen in Einwandererfamilien aus der Türkei. APuZ - Aus Politik und Zeitgeschichte 43: 42-49.
  • Der Beitrag befasst sich mit den Generationenbeziehungen in türkeistämmigen Familien in Deutschland. Sie werden vor dem Hintergrund der Solidaritäts- und Konfliktthese zur Bedeutung des Migrationshintergrunds diskutiert.
  • Becker, Katharina S.. 2011. Der Kinderwunsch kinderloser Männer im für die Familiengründung relevanten Alter. Bevölkerungsforschung Aktuell 04/2011: 2-6.
  • In der Diskussion um die Geburtenentwicklung in Deutschland ist ein zentraler Befund der in den letzten Jahrzehnten gestiegene Anteil dauerhaft kinderlos bleibender Menschen. Obwohl die Kennzahlen auf Schätzungen beruhen und genaue Angaben zu dauerhafter Kinderlosigkeit gerade in der amtlichen Statistik noch nicht in erschöpfendem Maße vorliegen, wie auch Dorbritz und Ruckdeschel (2007) konstatieren, herrscht Einigkeit darüber, dass Kinderlosigkeit in den vergangenen Jahrzehnten zugenommen hat und mit hoher Wahrscheinlichkeit weiter zunehmen wird.
  • Brüderl, Josef, Volker Ludwig, Klaus Pforr & Nina Schumann. 2011. Praktische Anwendungsbeispiele zum Umgang mit den pairfam-Daten (Welle 1). In Partnerschaft, Fertilität und intergenerationale Beziehungen. Ergebnisse der ersten Welle des Beziehungs- und Familienpanels, Hrsg. Josef Brüderl, Laura Castiglioni & Nina Schumann, 27-45. Würzburg: Ergon Verlag. ISBN: 978-3-89913-800-9
  • Jedes Datenerhebungsprojekt wird letztlich an den Analysen gemessen, die mit den resultierenden Daten tatsächlich realisiert werden. Dies gilt auch für das Beziehungs- und Familienpanel. Der vorliegende Beitrag verfolgt in diesem Zusammenhang vor allem drei Ziele. Erstens soll pairfam-Nutzern der Einstieg in die Datenanalyse erleichtert werden, indem einige Anwendungsbeispiele vorgestellt werden, die in die wesentlichen Eigenschaften der Daten einführen. Zweitens sollen Analysestandards gesetzt werden, indem Lösungen für typische Probleme bei der Datenanalyse aufgezeigt werden. Schließlich soll das Analysepotential der Daten aufgezeigt werden.
  • Buhr, Petra & Johannes Huinink. 2011. Armut im Kontext von Partnerschaft und Familie. In Reproduktion von Ungleichheit durch Arbeit und Familie, Hrsg. Peter A. Berger, Karsten Hank & Angelika Tölke, 201-233. Wiesbaden: VS-Verlag für Sozialwissenschaften. ISBN: 978-3-5311-7638-3
  • Die Verfasser geben zunächst einen Überblick über den Stand der Forschung zur Armutsbetroffenheit von Familien sowie zum Zusammenhang von materieller und nicht-materieller Armut und Familienentwicklung. Sie stellen dann die Datenbasis und die einbezogenen Variablen dar, die der ersten Welle des Beziehungs- und Familienpanels 'pairfam' entstammen. Die Verfasser präsentieren dann die Ergebnisse der empirischen Untersuchung. Sie zeigen den Zusammenhang von sozialer Ungleichheit und Lebensform auf, indem sie typische Syndrome benachteiligter Lebenslagen in bestimmten Familienformen und Phasen der Familienentwicklung identifizieren und sie belegen die Relevanz spezifischer Beziehungstypen in familialen Lebensformen für Aspekte der individuellen Wohlfahrt. Im Hinblick auf den Zusammenhang von Lebenslage und Lebensform bestätigen die Ergebnisse im Großen und Ganzen die bisherigen Forschungsergebnisse.
  • Buhr, Petra, Johannes Huinink, Mandy Boehnke & Katharina Maul. 2011. Kinder oder keine? Institutionelle Rahmenbedingungen und biographische Voraussetzungen für die Familiengründung und -erweiterung in Ost- und Westdeutschland. In Partnerschaft, Fertilität und intergenerationale Beziehungen. Ergebnisse der ersten Welle des Beziehungs- und Familienpanels, Hrsg. Josef Brüderl, Laura Castiglioni & Nina Schumann, 175-201. Würzburg: Ergon Verlag. ISBN: 978-3-89913-800-9
  • Die Verfasser untersuchen die Muster der Familienentwicklung in Ost- und Westdeutschland und fragen nach möglichen Ursachen für unterschiedliche Entwicklungen. Hierzu vergleichen sie die Bedeutung dreier verschiedener biografischer Voraussetzungen (finanzielle Stabilität, Verfügbarkeit von flexibler Kinderbetreuung, Vereinbarkeit mit beruflicher Situation) für die Absicht, innerhalb der nächsten zwei Jahre ein erstes oder zweites Kind zu bekommen. Sie gehen davon aus, dass sich in diesen Voraussetzungen der Einfluss wirtschaftlicher und institutioneller Rahmenbedingungen für Fertilitätsentscheidungen widerspiegelt. Datengrundlage des Beitrags ist die erste Welle der pairfam-Studie, die Ende 2008/Anfang 2009 erhoben worden ist. Vor dem Hintergrund einer Zusammenfassung des Forschungsstands zu Ost-West-Unterschieden und der Voraussetzungen für Fertilitätsentscheidungen werden der theoretische Ansatz und die forschungsleitenden Hypothesen vorgestellt. Anschließend werden die Datenbasis, die Operationalisierung der verwendeten Variablen und die eingesetzten Methoden beschrieben. Bei der Präsentation der Ergebnisse der Analyse gehen die Autoren in vier Schritten vor: Erstens geben sie einen deskriptiven Überblick über Kinderzahl und Kinderwunsch in Ost- und Westdeutschland. Zweitens vergleichen sie die Voraussetzungen für den Übergang zum ersten Kind in Ost- und Westdeutschland. Drittens erfolgt der Vergleich für den Übergang zum zweiten Kind. Im vierten Schritt schließlich prüfen sie, ob sich die Bedeutung von Voraussetzungen zwischen dem ersten und zweiten Kind unterscheidet. Im letzten Abschnitt ziehen sie ein Fazit.
  • Diener, Katharina & Michael Feldhaus. 2011. 'Hartz' oder Herz? Hartz IV und die Intention zum Zusammenziehen in Partnerschaften. Zeitschrift für Sozialreform 57: 199-220.
  • Der vorliegende Beitrag untersucht, ob die Vermutung, dass Arbeitslosengeld-II-Beziehende aufgrund der Anrechnung von Partnereinkommen eher nicht mit einem Partner oder einer Partnerin zusammenziehen, tatsächlich zutrifft oder nicht, und welche weiteren Faktoren hierbei mit in die Analysen einbezogen werden sollten. Anhand der Daten des Beziehungs- und Familienpanels (pairfam) findet sich ein negativer signifikanter Zusammenhang zwischen dem Bezug von Arbeitslosengeld II und der Intention zum Zusammenzug mit dem Partner/der Partnerin. Allerdings zeigt sich auch, dass diese Effekte an Bedeutung verlieren, wenn weitere partnerschaftliche Indikatoren (Bildung, Partnerschaftsdauer, Partnerschaftszufriedenheit, Unabhängigkeit, traditionelle Werteinstellungen, Commitment, Intimität und Vertrautheit) berücksichtigt werden.
  • Feldhaus, Michael & Johannes Huinink. 2011. Multiple Elternschaften in Deutschland - eine Analyse zur Vielfalt von Elternschaft in Folgepartnerschaften. In Pluralisierung von Elternschaft und Kindschaft, Hrsg. Dieter Schwab & Laszlo A. Vaskovics, 77-104. Leverkusen: Verlag Barbara Budrich (Sonderheft 8 der Zeitschrift für Familienforschung). ISBN: 978-3-8664-9410-7
  • Ausgehend von der Lebensverlaufsperspektive untersucht der Beitrag Elternschaftskonstellationen in Folgepartnerschaften eines oder beider Elternteile. Es wird ein Überblick über die Häufigkeit gegeben, mit der unterschiedliche Konstellationen (biologische Zwei-Elternfamilie, verheiratet und nichtverheiratet; Alleinerziehende, Stieffamilien, Patchworkfamilien) bei Eltern aus verschiedenen Altersgruppen auftreten. Dafür werden die Daten der ersten Welle des Beziehungs- und Familienpanels (pairfam) genutzt, die auch haushaltsübergreifende Elternschaftskonstellationen berücksichtigen und daher einen hohen Differenzierungsgrad der Darstellung erlauben. Mit Hilfe einer Sequenzmusteranalyse und anschließender Clusteranalyse werden typische Familienverläufe identifiziert und analysiert. Die Ergebnisse zeigen, dass die biologische Zwei-Elternfamilie zwar weiterhin der dominierende Typus ist, dass aber andere Formen wie Alleinerziehende, Stieffamilien und vor allem Patchworkfamilien bedeutsame Familienformen sind. Dabei gibt es charakteristische Unterschiede nach sozialstrukturellen Merkmalen der Befragten (Bildungsniveau, Alter bei Familiengründung, Region).
  • Feldhaus, Michael & Monika Schlegel. 2011. Einflüsse der Partnerschaftsdynamik auf den Übergang zur Kohabitation und zur Heirat. In Partnerschaft, Fertilität und intergenerationale Beziehungen. Ergebnisse der ersten Welle des Beziehungs- und Familienpanels, Hrsg. Josef Brüderl, Laura Castiglioni & Nina Schumann, 73-103. Würzburg: Ergon Verlag. ISBN: 978-3-89913-800-9
  • Während sich repräsentative Stichproben im Hinblick auf Analysen zur Institutionalisierung von Partnerschaften stark auf strukturelle Einflussfaktoren von Statuspassagen konzentrierten, blieben Interaktions- und Kommunikationsprozesse sowie die Einbeziehung von Persönlichkeitsmerkmalen, Einstellungen und Ansprüche an die Partnerschaft eher unberücksichtigt oder auf Studien mit geringen Samplegrößen beschränkt. Vor dem Hintergrund einer starken Betonung struktureller Einflussfaktoren werden in der Studie stärker partnerschaftliche Prozessparameter, die auf die Erfassung der zugrundeliegenden Paardynamik abzielen, einbezogen. Die Verfasser konzentrieren sich hierbei auf zwei zentrale partnerschaftsrelevante Statuspassagen: der Übergang zur Kohabitation und der Übergang zur Heirat. Mittels der pairfam-Daten werden mit der ersten Welle nicht nur relevante strukturelle Variablen einbezogen, sondern auch weichere Indikatoren der Paardynamik und der Persönlichkeit. Darüber hinaus sind Informationen enthalten, die stärker den 'schleichenden Prozess von Institutionalisierungen abbilden und als 'Vorboten' zukünftiger Statuspassagen gelten könnten.
  • Häring, Armando, Thomas Klein, Johannes Stauder & Anke Woll. 2011. Partnermarkt und Suchverhalten von Singles in Deutschland. In Partnerschaft, Fertilität und intergenerationale Beziehungen. Ergebnisse der ersten Welle des Beziehungs- und Familienpanels, Hrsg. Josef Brüderl, Laura Castiglioni & Nina Schumann, 49-72. Würzburg: Ergon Verlag. ISBN: 978-3-89913-800-9
  • Der Beitrag beschäftigt sich mit der Frage, inwiefern Singles mit Partnerwunsch bei ungünstigen Chancen auf dem Partnermarkt auf verschiedene Formen der bewussten extensiven und intensiven Partnersuche zurückgreifen. Die Analysen basieren zum einen auf der Überlegung, dass Individuen bei unzureichendem Angebot potenzieller Partner in ihrer alltäglichen sozialen Umgebung die extensive Suche bewusst auf solche Handlungskontexte ausdehnen, in denen eine effizientere Partnersuche für möglich gehalten wird. Zum anderen geht der Beitrag der Frage nach, ob Partnersuchende bei ungünstigen Chancen auf dem Partnermarkt wegen der erhöhten Kosten der extensiven Suche eine schlechtere Passung in Kauf nehmen, zu größeren Zugeständnissen hinsichtlich der Eigenschaften eines möglichen Partners bereit sind und daher weniger in intensive Suchstrategien zur Überprüfung der Passung investieren. Einleitend werden die Daten und Indikatoren der 1. Welle des pairfam-Panel und des Partnermarktsurvey 2009 dargestellt. Anschließend werden sozialstrukturelle Unterschiede des Partnermarkts und des Suchverhaltens von Singles in Deutschland beschrieben. Dann wird untersucht, inwiefern Unterschiede bei der extensiven und der intensiven Partnersuche auf soziale Unterschiede auf dem Partnermarkt zurückzuführen sind. Abschließend werden diese Befunde diskutiert.
  • Hubert, Sandra. 2011. Die Effekte von Religion auf die Kinderzahl. In Partnerschaft, Fertilität und intergenerationale Beziehungen. Ergebnisse der ersten Welle des Beziehungs- und Familienpanels, Hrsg. Josef Brüderl, Laura Castiglioni & Nina Schumann, 203-226. Würzburg: Ergon Verlag. ISBN: 978-3-89913-800-9
  • Im Beitrag werden der (positive) Einfluss von Religionszugehörigkeit, religiöser Praxis und kirchlicher Eheschließung auf Kinderlosigkeit und Kinderreichtum in Deutschland anhand von Regressionsschätzungen untersucht. Einbezogen worden sind Christen, Muslime und teilweise auch Konfessionslose der 3. Kohorte des pairfam-Datensatzes. Die deskriptiven Ergebnisse ergeben, dass intensive religiöse Praktiker mehr Kinder als Personen bekommen, die selten oder nie an religiösen Veranstaltungen teilnehmen. Mitglieder von Religionsgemeinschaften lassen mehr Kinder als Konfessionslose erwarten. Katholiken und Protestanten unterscheiden sich unter Kontrolle der religiösen Praxis nicht (mehr) signifikant voneinander. Muslime sind am häufigsten kinderreich und am seltensten kinderlos und bekommen auch insgesamt die meisten Kinder. Eine religiöse Trauungszeremonie sagt keine höhere Kinderzahl im Vergleich mit einer ausschließlich standesamtlich geschlossenen Ehe voraus. Eine Eheschließung an sich ist allerdings, verglichen mit unverheiratet zusammenlebenden Paaren, mit einer höheren Kinderzahl verbunden. Es wird zusammenfassend argumentiert, dass Religion als Einflussfaktor auf die Fertilität nicht unterschätzt werden sollte.
  • Huinink, Johannes. 2011. Family Development Processes and Dynamics in Europe. An overview. In Family Diversity. Collection of the 3rd Congress of Family Science, Hrsg. Olaf Kapella, Christiane Rille-Pfeffer, Marina Rupp & Norbert F. Schneider, 299-316. Opladen: Barbara Budrich Publishers. ISBN: 978-3-8664-9299-8
  • Like the change towards modern family, the "new" change produces institutionalised patterns of family life instead of ending in an "anything goes more and more". Adjustments to ensure a successful family life are made not only by families but also by other sectors of society. The analysis of the first transformation towards modern family already showed that we cannot expect a uniform development in Europe, except perhaps on a very superficial level of observation. So far, the changes in family types in the European countries have been far from uniform or concurrent. Beyond the global trends, future societal adjustments will also vary a lot in detail. Depending on the cultural and structural context, we can observe big differences in the conditions of family life as well as path dependencies.
  • Huinink, Johannes, Josef Brüderl, Bernhard Nauck, Sabine Walper, Laura Castiglioni & Michael Feldhaus. 2011. Panel Analysis of Intimate Relationships and Family Dynamics (pairfam): Conceptual framework and design. Zeitschrift für Familienforschung 23: 77-101.
  • Dieser Beitrag stellt das deutsche Beziehungs- und Familienpanel (pairfam) vor, das eine empirische Basis für Fortschritte in der Beziehungs- und Familienforschung bieten soll. Vor dem Hintergrund zentraler Herausforderungen in der Partnerschafts- und Familienforschung werden Themenschwerpunkte, der konzeptuelle Rahmen und das Design des pairfam-Projekts vorgestellt. Inhaltlich fokussiert werden Fragen der Aufnahme, Gestaltung und Beendigung von Partnerschaftsbeziehungen, Elternschaftsentscheidungen bei Familiengründung und -erweiterung, Erziehung und Eltern-Kind-Beziehungen sowie Intergenerationenbeziehungen. Befragungsteilnehmer waren in der ersten Erhebungswelle je rund 4.000 Jugendliche (geboren 1991-93), junge Erwachsene (geboren 1981-83) und Erwachsene im mittleren Lebensalter (geboren 1971-73) sowie nach Möglichkeit auch deren Partner/in. Ab der zweiten Erhebungswelle werden auch Eltern und Kinder einbezogen. Am Ende des Beitrages werden einige Angaben zur Distribution der Daten als scientific use file gemacht.
  • Huinink, Johannes, Josef Brüderl, Bernhard Nauck, Sabine Walper, Laura Castiglioni & Michael Feldhaus. 2011. Die erste Welle des Beziehungs- und Familienpanels. In Partnerschaft, Fertilität und intergenerationale Beziehungen. Ergebnisse der ersten Welle des Beziehungs- und Familienpanels, Hrsg. Josef Brüderl, Laura Castiglioni & Nina Schumann, 11-26. Würzburg: Ergon Verlag. ISBN: 978-3-89913-800-9
  • Dieser Beitrag stellt das deutsche Beziehungs- und Familienpanel (pairfam) vor, das eine empirische Basis für Fortschritte in der Beziehungs- und Familienforschung bieten soll. Vor dem Hintergrund zentraler Herausforderungen in der Partnerschafts- und Familienforschung werden Themenschwerpunkte, der konzeptuelle Rahmen und das Design des pairfam-Projekts vorgestellt. Inhaltlich fokussiert werden Fragen der Aufnahme, Gestaltung und Beendigung von Partnerschaftsbeziehungen, Elternschaftsentscheidungen bei Familiengründung und -erweiterung, Erziehung und Eltern-Kind-Beziehungen sowie Intergenerationenbeziehungen. Befragungsteilnehmer waren in der ersten Erhebungswelle je rund 4.000 Jugendliche (geboren 1991-93), junge Erwachsene (geboren 1981-83) und Erwachsene im mittleren Lebensalter (geboren 1971-73) sowie nach Möglichkeit auch deren Partner/in. Ab der zweiten Erhebungswelle werden auch Eltern und Kinder einbezogen. Am Ende des Beitrages werden einige Angaben zur Distribution der Daten als scientific use file gemacht.
  • Kotte, Markus & Volker Ludwig. 2011. Intergenerational transmission of fertility intentions and behaviour in Germany: The role of contagion. In Vienna Yearbook of Population Research 2011, Hrsg. Wiener Institut für Demographie der Österreichischen Akademie der Wissenschaften, 207-226. Wien: Verlag der Österreichischen Akademie der Wissenschaften. DOI: 10.1553/populationyearbook2011s207
  • This study investigates whether the fertility behaviour of significant others, in particular of one’s parents and siblings, affects individuals’ own fertility intentions and behaviour. Using the data of three cohorts of young Germans, we test the hypothesis that ‘contagion’ by siblings with young children explains the transmission of fertility patterns across generations. In theory, transmission might be explained by contagion, or transmission and contagion might operate independently of each other. The results show strong evidence for the transmission of fertility intentions and behaviour from parents to their offspring. Evidence for contagion by siblings is weak and contagious effects therefore do not explain transmission.
  • Kreyenfeld, Michaela, Dirk Konietzka & Rainer Walke. 2011. Dynamik und Determinanten nichtehelicher Mutterschaft in Ost- und Westdeutschland. In Partnerschaft, Fertilität und intergenerationale Beziehungen. Ergebnisse der ersten Welle des Beziehungs- und Familienpanels, Hrsg. Josef Brüderl, Laura Castiglioni & Nina Schumann, 155-174. Würzburg: Ergon Verlag. ISBN: 978-3-89913-800-9
  • Die Verfasser betrachten in einem ersten Schritt die Dynamik unverheirateter Mutterschaft im Lebenslauf. In einem zweiten Schritt untersuchen sie die Determinanten nichtehelicher Geburten. Insbesondere gehen wir der Frage nach, inwieweit die unterschiedliche Verbreitung der nichtehelichen Geburten in Ost und West auf religiöse Faktoren, insbesondere Konfessionszugehörigkeit und Kirchgangshäufigkeit zurückgeführt werden kann. Die Analysen richten sich ausschließlich auf Frauen, da es generell problematisch ist, die Elternschaftbiografie von Männern retrospektiv zu erfassen. Dies trifft in besonderem Maße auf unverheiratete Männer zu. Gegliedert ist der Beitrag wie folgt. Nach einer Darstellung der theoretischen Vorüberlegungen werden anschließend die Daten und Methoden erläutert. Ein weiterer Abschnitt gibt einen deskriptiven Überblick über die Dynamik unverheirateter Elternschaft im Lebenslauf. Als Methode verwenden die Autoren kumulierte Inzidenzfunktionen. Kumulierte Inzidenzfunktionen sind deskriptive Verfahren, um konkurrierende Risiken (z. B. den Übergang zu einer ehelichen versus nichtehelichen Geburt) abzubilden. Anschließend wird auf der Basis von ereignisanalytischen Modellen untersucht, welche Merkmale den Übergang zu einer nichtehelichen Elternschaft bestimmen. Der abschließende Abschnitt fasst die Argumentation zusammen. Die empirischen Analysen beruhen auf den Daten der ersten Welle des pairfam-Projekts. Zusätzlich werden Daten der Zusatzstudie 'Demographic Differences in Life Course Dynamics in Eastern and Western Germany' herangezogen.
  • Kreyenfeld, Michaela, Kryštof Zeman, Marion Burkimsher & Ina Jaschinski. 2011. Fertilitätsdaten für Deutschland, Österreich und die Schweiz: Wo liegen die Möglichkeiten? Was sind die Begrenzungen? Comparative Population Studies 36: 381-416. DOI: 10.4232/10.CPoS-2011-06de
  • Der folgende Beitrag gibt einen Überblick über Daten, die für fertilitätsspezifische Fragenstellungen in Deutschland, Österreich und der Schweiz verwendet werden können. Es wird zum einen die Qualität der Daten der amtlichen Geburtenstatistik, der Volkszählungen und des Mikrozensus kritisch diskutiert. Zum anderen werden auf Basis verschiedener Befragungsdaten ordnungsspezifische Fertilitätsindikatoren generiert und den Ergebnissen, die auf Basis der Geburtenstatistik gewonnen wurden, gegenübergestellt. Der Vergleich zeigt, dass in den Befragungsdaten ein „family bias” existiert, d.h. die Fertilität der jüngeren Kohorten wird überschätzt, vermutlich da jüngere Befragte, die kleine Kinder haben, leichter für Interviewer anzutreffen sind. Die Verzerrungen sind besonders groß in Befragungen mit einem familienspezifischen Schwerpunkt, während Mehrzweckumfragen einen weniger großen „Bias“ aufweisen. Die Gewichtung der Daten kann den „family bias” nicht komplett ausgleichen, was darauf zurückzuführen ist, dass die Anzahl der Kinder nicht bei der Generierung der Gewichtungsfaktoren berücksichtigt wird. Am Rande wird in diesem Beitrag auf den Einfluss von Migration hingewiesen, der die Berechnung von vergleichbaren Fertilitätsindikatoren erschwert.
  • Lois, Daniel & Johannes Kopp. 2011. Elternschaftskonstellationen bei Alleinerziehenden. In Pluralisierung der Elternschaft und Kindschaft, Hrsg. Dieter Schwab & Laszlo A. Vaskovics, 59-76. Leverkusen: Verlag Barbara Budrich (Sonderheft 8 der Zeitschrift für Familienforschung - Journal of Family Research). ISBN: 978-3-8664-9410-7
  • Der Beitrag untersucht Elternschaftskonstellationen bei Alleinerziehenden in zwei Teilfragestellungen: Erstens zeigt sich im Hinblick auf die Organisation der alltäglichen Kinderbetreuung, dass Alleinerziehende den fehlenden Elternteil zwar häufig durch die Nutzung nicht-institutionalisierter Betreuungsangebote von Netzwerkpersonen wie etwa Großeltern oder Geschwister ausgleichen. Darüber hinaus greifen alleinerziehende Eltern - zum Teil aufgrund ihrer verstärkten Erwerbstätigkeit - auch auf institutionalisierte Formen der Kinderbetreuung wie Kinderhorte nach der Schule oder Babysitter verstärkt zurück. Der Ex-Partner ist zum überwiegenden Teil nicht in die Kinderbetreuung eingebunden, auch wenn das Vorbandensein von Kindern die Kontakthäufigkeit nach der Trennung erhöht. Ein zweiter Schwerpunkt des Beitrages liegt auf der Frage, wie stabil die Lebenslage "alleinerziehend" in der individuellen Biografie ist. Die empirischen Analysen unterstützen die Hypothese, dass die zeitliche Dauer des Alleinerziehens dadurch begrenzt wird, dass Kinder alleinerziehender Eltern früher von zu Hause ausziehen. Die Dauerhaftigkeit von Ein-Eltern-Konstellationen wird jedoch insofern erhöht, da sich beim Vorhandensein von Kindern die Zeit bis zur Aufnahme einer neuen Partnerschaft verlängert.
  • Lois, Daniel & Johannes Kopp. 2011. Institutionalisierungsprozesse in Partnerschaften. Erste Ergebnisse auf der Grundlage des Beziehungs- und Familienpanels. In Partnerschaft, Fertilität und intergenerationale Beziehungen. Ergebnisse der ersten Welle des Beziehungs- und Familienpanels, Hrsg. Josef Brüderl, Laura Castiglioni & Nina Schumann, 105-124. Würzburg: Ergon Verlag. ISBN: 978-3-89913-800-9
  • Um die Institutionalisierungsschritte des Zusammenziehens, der Heirat und der Familiengründung adäquat in dem seit 2008 erhobenen Beziehungs- und Familienpanels abbilden zu können, ist im Rahmen des durch die Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft geförderten Schwerpunktprogramms 1161 ein Forschungsprojekt mit der Zielsetzung durchgeführt worden, ein entsprechendes Instrument zur Messung der Institutionalisierung zu entwickeln. Mit dem Vorliegen der ersten pairfam-Daten kann überprüft werden, inwiefern diese Ergebnisse verallgemeinerbar und tragfähig sind. Im Beitrag wird nach einer Schilderung des Konzepts der Institutionalisierung zuerst die Konstruktion dieser Skala, durch die in der ersten Welle der pairfam-Erhebung zur Verfügung stehenden Informationen diskutiert. Anschließend wird ein erster deskriptiver Überblick über den Institutionalisierungsgrad der untersuchten Partnerschaften gegeben. Abschließend werden zum ersten Mal auf Grundlage einer groß angelegten repräsentativen Stichprobe Bestimmungsgründe der Institutionalisierung empirisch untersucht.
  • Passet, Jasmin. 2011. Kinderlosigkeit im Lebensverlauf: Wie wichtig ist das Lebensziel, Kinder zu bekommen, im Vergleich mit anderen Lebenszielen. Bevölkerungsforschung Aktuell 03/2011: 7-12.
  • Die Ursachen dauerhafter Kinderlosigkeit sind vielfältig und bedingen sich wechselseitig. Dieser Beitrag beschäftigt sich mit dem Einfluss subjektiver Lebensziele auf die Entstehung von Kinderlosigkeit im Lebensverlauf auf der Basis der Daten der ersten Welle des deutschen Beziehungs- und Familienpanels (pairfam). Betrachtet werden persönliche Lebensziele von Kinderlosen mit und ohne Kinderwunsch und Personen mit Kindern in verschiedenen Lebensphasen/Altersgruppen, die zu aufschlussreichen Ergebnissen führen. So sprechen die Befunde dafür, dass das Lebensziel ein (weiteres) Kind zu bekommen, in starker Konkurrenz zu anderen Lebenszielen steht und im Vergleich zu den Bereichen Arbeit, Freizeit, Partnerschaft und sozialen Beziehungen für die Befragten die niedrigste Relevanz hat. Besonders wichtig ist hier für sie vor allem die eigene Ausbildung beziehungsweise berufliche Interessen zu verfolgen.
  • Philipov, Dimiter & Laura Bernardi. 2011. Konzepte und Operationalisierung von reproduktiven Entscheidungen am Beispiel Österreichs, Deutschlands und der Schweiz. Comparative Population Studies 36: 531-572. DOI: 10.4232/10.CPoS-2011-14de
  • Die Diskrepanz zwischen tatsächlicher und hypothetischer Fertilität (im Englischen auch unter dem Begriff Fertility Gap gebräuchlich) wurde in jüngerer Zeit zum Anlass für familienpolitische Maßnahmen genommen, um eine höhere Geburtenhäufigkeit zu erzielen. Dieser Beitrag untersucht die Relevanz einer anhand von Fertilitätsidealen und -absichten gemessenen hypothetischen Fertilität, mit der die Schätzung des Fertility Gap angestrebt wird. Ausgehend von einem Überblick der relevanten Literatur untersuchen wir die Bedeutung dieser Konzepte und deren Operationalisierung anhand empirischer Beobachtungen in drei Vergleichsländern: Österreich, Deutschland und der Schweiz. Wenngleich der Begriff des gesellschaftlichen Ideals der Fertilität mehrdeutig ist, kann er bei sorgfältiger Messung Aussagekraft in Bezug auf Reproduktionsentscheidungen bieten. Die Operationalisierung kurzfristiger und langfristiger Fertilitätsabsichten wird ebenso erörtert wie deren Realisierung. Analysen von Absichten sollten auf einem theoretischen Fundament gründen, etwa dem Miller-Pasta-Rahmen oder der sozialpsychologischen Theorie des geplanten Verhaltens. Letztere findet in Österreich und in Deutschland auf Grundlage von GGS-Daten Anwendung. Der Beitrag kommt zu dem Schluss, dass anhand des Fertility Gap mitunter falsche Schlüsse gezogen werden können, da sowohl der Indikator der tatsächlichen Fertilität als auch die Indikatoren der beabsichtigten Fertilität unpräzise sein können. Aufschlussreiche politisch relevante Informationen können aus einer spezifischen Form der Diskrepanz abgeleitet werden, wenn die Realisierung der individuellen kurzfristigen Absichten des Einzelnen betrachtet wird.
  • Rüger, Heiko, Michael Feldhaus, Katharina S. Becker & Monika Schlegel. 2011. Zirkuläre berufsbezogene Mobilität in Deutschland: Vergleichende Analysen mit zwei repräsentativen Surveys zu Formen, Verbreitung und Relevanz im Kontext der Partnerschafts- und Familienentwicklung. Comparative Population Studies 36: 193-220. DOI: 10.4232/10.CPoS-2011-05de
  • Die Mobilitätsanforderungen in der Arbeitswelt nehmen zu und gleichzeitig sind vielfältigere und komplexere Formen berufsbezogener Mobilität zu beobachten. Der Zusammenhang zwischen berufsbezogenem Mobilitätsverhalten und familienbezogenen Prozessen erfährt in der Folge zunehmende Aufmerksamkeit im Bereich der Mobilitäts- und Familienforschung. Erfassung und Analyse berufsbezogener Mobilität erfolgten jedoch bisher selten einheitlich und systematisch. Mit dem europäisch-vergleichenden Survey „Job Mobilities and Family Lives in Europe“ (JobMob) und dem „Beziehungs- und Familienpanel“ (pairfam) liegen für Deutschland zwei repräsentative Datensätze vor, die weitgehend vergleichbare Operationalisierungen bereithalten. Dies erlaubt es, in systematischer Weise vergleichende Analysen durchzuführen. Damit bietet sich in diesem Forschungsfeld erstmalig die Möglichkeit, inhaltliche Befunde einer unmittelbaren wechselseitigen Validierung zu unterziehen und diese auf ihre Generalisierbarkeit zu überprüfen. Der vorliegende Beitrag verfolgt diesbezüglich drei zentrale Ziele. Zunächst wird für die beiden Surveys ein gemeinsamer Indikator für zirkuläres berufsbezogenes Mobilitätsverhalten vorgestellt. Auf der Grundlage dieses gemeinsamen Indikators wird die Verbreitung verschiedener Mobilitätsformen und deren Zusammensetzung nach zentralen soziodemografischen Merkmalen für beide Stichproben im Vergleich untersucht. Darüber hinaus wird anhand multivariater Analysen die Relevanz berufsbezogener Mobilität im Kontext der Partnerschafts- und Familienentwicklung illustriert. Die Befunde verweisen dabei auf das Mobilitätsverhalten als wichtigen individuellen Kontextfaktor bei der Erklärung partnerschaftlicher und familialer Prozesse. Insbesondere beruflich mobile Frauen leben demnach seltener in hoch institutionalisierten Partnerschaften und sind seltener Mütter.
  • Schmahl, Franziska, Alexandra Langmeyer, Markus Schaer, Eva-Verena Wendt, Carolin Thönnissen & Sabine Walper. 2011. Effekte von feindseligen Attributionen und Konfliktstilen auf die subjektive Stabilität von Paarbeziehungen. In Partnerschaft, Fertilität und intergenerationale Beziehungen. Ergebnisse der ersten Welle des Beziehungs- und Familienpanels, Hrsg. Josef Brüderl, Laura Castiglioni & Nina Schumann, 125-151. Würzburg: Ergon Verlag. ISBN: 978-3-89913-800-9
  • Die zentrale Fragestellung, mit der sich der Artikel beschäftigt, fokussiert auf die Bedeutung dysfunktionaler Anpassungsprozesse für die subjektiv wahrgenommene Partnerschaftsstabilität. Die Verfasser gehen davon aus, dass dysfunktionale Anpassungsprozesse in der Partnerschaft, also feindselige Attributionen und negatives Konfliktverhalten, mit einer beeinträchtigten subjektiv wahrgenommenen Partnerschaftsstabilität einhergehen. Die Analyse zeigt, dass die Konflikthäufigkeit im Vergleich zu den dysfunktionalen Anpassungsprozessen tendenziell etwas weniger relevant für die Vorhersage der subjektiv wahrgenommen Partnerschaftsstabilität ist. Bei geschlechtsspezifischer Betrachtung der Bedeutung der Konflikthäufigkeit ergibt sich jedoch ein differenzierteres Bild: Für Männer ist im Gegensatz zu Frauen nur ein kleiner direkter Effekt der Konflikthäufigkeit auf die wahrgenommene Partnerschaftsstabilität zu finden. Auch in der vorausgehenden Forschung ist gezeigt worden, dass die wahrgenommene Konflikthäufigkeit in der Partnerschaft nur für Frauen, nicht aber für Männer die Trennungswahrscheinlichkeit erhöht. Von Frauen werden häufige Partnerschaftskonflikte möglicherweise bereits als ein Zeichen dafür gewertet, dass etwas mit der Partnerschaft nicht stimmt und ihr Fortbestehen in Gefahr sein könnte. Für Männer scheinen häufige Konflikte in der Partnerschaft dagegen wenig Bedeutung dafür zu haben, wie stabil sie die Partnerschaft wahrnehmen. Möglicherweise wird bei Männern der Einfluss der Konflikthäufigkeit auf die subjektive Instabilität über eine Zunahme an negativem Konfliktverhalten mediiert, sodass deren wahrgenommene Partnerschaftsstabilität erst beeinträchtigt ist, wenn sie sich aufgrund der Konflikthäufigkeit nicht mehr in der Lage fühlen, in Paarkonflikten konstruktiv zu handeln.
  • Schmitz, Andreas, Susann Sachse-Thürer, Doreen Zillmann & Hans-Peter Blossfeld. 2011. Myths and facts about online mate choice: Contemporary beliefs and empirical findings. Zeitschrift für Familienforschung - Journal of Familiy Research 23: 358-381.
  • Mit ihrer wachsenden Verbreitung ist die Partnerwahl im Internet zu einem bemerkenswerten Gegenstand des öffentlichen Diskurses geworden. Viele, meist negativ konnotierte Annahmen über die Eigenschaften und den Ablauf der Partnerwahl im Internet, insbesondere hinsichtlich ihrer Risiken und Nachteile, zirkulieren heute in den Medien und beeinflussen deren öffentliche Wahrnehmung. In diesem Beitrag präsentieren wir weit verbreitete Stereotype zum (immer noch) neuen Phänomen der Partnerwahl im Internet. Diese Klischees und Vorurteile, die in (Online-) Zeitungen und Zeitschriften, Online-Ratgebern, Blogs und Diskussionsforen recherchiert wurden, werden mit empirischen Fakten konfrontiert. Basierend auf verschiedenen deskriptiven Analysen diskutieren wir, ob bzw. inwieweit zehn populäre Vorstellungen mit der empirischen Realität der digitalen Partnersuche in Deutschland übereinstimmen.
  • Schwab, Dieter & Laszlo A. Vaskovics. 2011. Pluralisierung von Elternschaft und Kindschaft. Familienrecht,-soziologie und-psychologie im Dialog. Vol. 8. Verlag Barbara Budrich.
  • Wendt, Eva-Verena. 2011. Liebe, Sex und Partnerschaften - wie 'tickt' die heutige Jugend? Aktuelle Studien über Verhalten und Wertvorstellungen Jugendlicher. Katechetische Blätter. Heft "Freundschaft, Lust und Liebe" 136: 319-324.
  • "Generation Porno", "Generation Sex", "Deutschlands sexuelle Tragödie" - so titeln die Medien über die heutige Jugend. Wie halten Jugendliche es mit Liebe, Sex und Partnerschaft? Wie sehen ihre Vorstellungen von der Zukunft aus? Der Artikel arbeitet aktuelle Befunde rund um Sexualität von Jugendlichen auf. Diese weisen darauf hin, dass die überwiegende Mehrheit der Jugendlichen verantwortungsvoll mit ihrer Sexualität umgeht und ihre ersten sexuellen Erfahrungen im Rahmen fester Partnerschaften sammeln. Gleichzeitig verweisen die vorgestellten Studien darauf, dass weiterhin in vielen Bereichen Aufklärungsbedarf besteht, besonders in Bezug auf die Schattenseiten der Sexualität, etwa Schwangerschaftsabbruch, oder sexuelle Gewalt.
  • Wendt, Eva-Verena. 2011. Aber bitte mit Liebe! Generation Porno? Von wegen. Aktuelle Studien belegen, dass die meisten jungen Leute verantwortungsvoll mit ihrer Sexualität umgehen. Neue Gespräche. Heft "Sollbruchstelle Sexualität. Familien zwischen Wunsch und Wirklichkeit" 41: 19-21.
  • Der Artikel schafft einen Überblick über aktuelle Zahlen zum Sexualverhalten von Jugendlichen in Deutschland. Es zeigt sich, dass die meisten jungen Menschen, im Gegensatz zur weit verbreiteten Meinung immer früher sexuell aktiver Jugendlicher, verantwortungsvoll mit ihrer Sexualität umgehen. Der Trend zu immer zeitigeren sexuellen Beziehungen unter Jugendlichen hat sich seit der Jahrhundertwende verlangsamt und ist mittlerweile sogar rückläufig. Gleichzeitig weisen die Daten auf einen engen Zusammenhang zwischen romantischer und sexueller Entwicklung hin.


  • Arránz Becker, Oliver & Paul B. Hill. 2010. Wie handlungsrelevant sind Trennungsgedanken? Zur prädiktiven Bedeutung von (In-)Stabilitätswahrnehmungen für die Auflösung von Paarbeziehungen. In Partnerschaften und die Beziehungen zu Eltern und Kindern. Befunde zur Beziehungs- und Familienentwicklung in Deutschland, Hrsg. Sabine Walper & Eva-Verena Wendt, 153-180. Würzburg: Ergon Verlag. ISBN: 978-3-8991-3717-0
  • Die Verfasser geben zunächst einen Überblick über den theoretischen Hintergrund ihrer Untersuchung und den Stand der Forschung. Im Folgenden wird untersucht, in welchem Ausmaß und unter welchen Bedingungen stabilitäts- und trennungsbezogene Wahrnehmungen die spätere formale Partnerschaftsstabilität prädizieren. Gestützt auf Daten des pairfam-Minipanels werden der Effekt stabilitätsbezogener Kognitionen (subjektive Instabilität, Commitment) auf die formale Partnerschaftsstabilität sowie die Auswirkungen der Rahmenbedingungen (Stärke des Framings, Alternativen und Höhe partnerschaftsspezifischer Investitionen) auf die Stärke des Zusammenhangs zwischen subjektiver und formaler Stabilität analysiert. Zunächst wird dabei möglichen Geschlechts- und Kohortenunterschieden und der Stärke des Framings nachgegangen. Im Anschluss daran werden Moderatoreffekte der Auswirkungen der Alternativen auf dem Partnermarkt und schließlich der beziehungsspezifischen Investitionen behandelt. Es zeigt sich, dass stabilitätsbezogene Kognitionen innerhalb von Paarbeziehungen in vielen Fällen Hinweise auf spätere Trennungstendenzen geben können. Weiterführende Analysen deuten jedoch auf deutliche Einschränkungen dieses Befundes hin.
  • Brüderl, Josef. 2010. Kausalanalyse mit Paneldaten. In Handbuch der sozialwissenschaftlichen Datenanalyse, Hrsg. Christof Wolf & Henning Best, 963-994. Wiesbaden: VS-Verlag für Sozialwissenschaften. ISBN: 978-3-5311-6339-0
  • Der Beitrag gibt eine anwendungsorientierte Einführung in die Kausalanalyse mit Paneldaten. Es wird versucht, dem Anwender die Grundlogik der Paneldatenanalyse nahe zu bringen. Im ersten Abschnitt wird eine intuitive Einführung in die Paneldatenanalyse gegeben. Zuerst werden die Vorzüge von Paneldaten für die Kausalanalyse herausgearbeitet, dann werden die grundlegenden Panelregressionsmodelle vorgestellt. Deren "Mechanik" wird schließlich anhand eines fiktiven Datensatzes demonstriert. Im zweiten Abschnitt erfolgt eine präzisere Vorstellung verschiedener (linearer) Panelregressionsmodelle. Diese Modelle werden im dritten Abschnitt eingesetzt, um mit Daten des SOEP 1984 - 2007 den Effekt einer Heirat auf die Lebenszufriedenheit zu untersuchen. Im vierten Abschnitt werden einige nicht-lineare Panelregressionsmodelle vorgestellt. Der Beitrag endet mit der Diskussion irreführender Argumentationen und suboptimaler Modellklassen.
  • Dudel, Christian, Jörg Althammer & Notburga Ott. 2010. Die Verhandlungsfamilie. Empirische Evidenz familienökonomischer Verhandlungsmodelle. In Partnerschaften und die Beziehungen zu Eltern und Kindern. Befunde zur Beziehungs- und Familienentwicklung in Deutschland, Hrsg. Sabine Walper & Eva-Verena Wendt, 113-133. Würzburg: Ergon Verlag. ISBN: 978-3-8991-3717-0
  • Der ökonomische Ansatz hat die theoretische familienwissenschaftliche Forschung nachhaltig bereichert und zu einem besseren Verständnis über die Determinanten familialen Verhaltens beigetragen. Dabei hat sich der verhandlungstheoretische Ansatz als methodisch überzeugend und analytisch gehaltvoll erwiesen. Allerdings sind der empirischen Implementierung ökonomischer bargaining-Ansätze aufgrund der eingeschränkten Datenlage enge Grenzen gesetzt. Durch das hier beantragte Projekt soll sichergestellt werden, dass mit den Daten des neu zu entwickelnden Beziehungs- und Familienpanels familienökonomische Fragestellungen umfassend bearbeitet werden können und somit eine wesentliche Lücke empirischer familienwissenschaftlicher Forschung geschlossen wird.
  • Goldstein, Joshua, Michaela Kreyenfeld, Johannes Huinink, Dirk Konietzka & Heike Trappe. 2010. Familie und Partnerschaft in Ost- und Westdeutschland. Ergebnisse des Projekts „Demographic Differences of Life Course Dynamics in Eastern and Western Germany”. Rostock: Max Planck-Institut für demografische Forschung.
  • Fast zwei Jahrzehnte nach dem Fall der Mauer scheint die Frage berechtigt ob Forschung zu Unterschieden in den Lebensverläufen und Lebenszielen von Ost- und Westdeutschen nicht allmählich überflüssig wird. Tatsächlich wird mittlerweile in vielen Untersuchungen auf die regionale Unterscheidung von Ost- und Westdeutschland verzichtet. Für den Bereich der Familie besteht diese Notwendigkeit jedoch weiterhin, denn die Lebensformen und Lebensläufe haben sich in den vergangenen beiden Jahrzehnten in vielen Facetten gewandelt und sich teilweise in Ost- und Westdeutschland ganz unterschiedlich entwickelt. Die Ursachen dieser Entwicklungen sind bis heute nicht ausreichend erforscht. Ziel dieses Projektes ist es, diese Forschungslücke zu schließen.
  • Häring, Armando, Thomas Klein, Johannes Stauder & Anke Woll. 2010. Der Einfluss des Partnermarkts auf die Entstehung und Auflösung von Partnerschaften. In Partnerschaften und die Beziehungen zu Eltern und Kindern. Befunde zur Beziehungs- und Familienentwicklung in Deutschland, Hrsg. Sabine Walper & Eva-Verena Wendt, 37-54. Würzburg: Ergon Verlag. ISBN: 978-3-8991-3717-0
  • Der vorliegende Beitrag geht von einem Ansatz aus, bei dem individuelle Partnermarktgelegenheiten direkt bei den Betroffenen erfragt werden. Die Partnermarktgelegenheiten sind dabei an der Einbindung des Individuums in soziale Handlungskontexte sowie in Netzwerke orientiert und werden über die Sozialstruktur dieser Begegnungsmöglichkeiten definiert. Ausgehend von diesem Ansatz gehen die Analysen der Frage nach, wie verschiedene Indikatoren der Opportunitäten auf dem Partnermarkt die Partnerwahl und die Beziehungsstabilität existierender Partnerschaften beeinflussen. Daneben werden altersspezifische Unterschiede im Zugang zu Partnermarktgelegenheiten analysiert. Datengrundlage sind die zweite und dritte Welle des pairfam-Minipanels. Die Verfasser fragen zunächst auf theoretischer Ebene nach dem Partnermarkt, den Auswirkungen der Partnermarktgelegenheiten auf den Erfolg bei der Partnerwahl und auf die Beziehungsstabilität sowie altersspezifischen Unterschieden des Partnermarktes. Dann werden empirische Ergebnisse zu den Effekten des Partnermarktes auf den Erfolg bei der Partnerwahl, die Beziehungsstabilität sowie altersspezifischen Unterschieden im Zugang zu Partnermarktgelegenheiten dargestellt und abschließend diskutiert. Die Befunde zeigen, dass sich die theoretischen Annahmen zum Einfluss des Partnermarktes auf familiendemografische Prozesse mit den neu entwickelten Instrumenten auf Basis individueller Befragungen bestätigen lassen.
  • Hunkler, Christian & Thorsten Kneip. 2010. Die Stabilität von Ehen und nichtehelichen Lebensgemeinschaften. Ein Test des Modells der Frame-Selektion. In Partnerschaften und die Beziehungen zu Eltern und Kindern. Befunde zur Beziehungs- und Familienentwicklung in Deutschland, Hrsg. Sabine Walper & Eva-Verena Wendt, 181-212. Würzburg: Ergon Verlag. ISBN: 978-3-8991-3717-0
  • Datengrundlage der vorgelegten Analyse sind 136 Telefoninterviews mit zufällig ausgewählten Befragten, die von Juni bis August 2007 in den Großräumen Mannheim und Aachen durchgeführt wurden. Die Analyse zeigt, dass die Rahmung der Beziehung als Institution bei gleichzeitiger Internalisierung von Unauflöslichkeitsnormen eine wichtige Rolle für die Stabilität ehelicher Beziehungen spielt. Bei so gerahmten Ehen treten Kosten-Nutzen-Erwägungen in den Hintergrund und die Erklärungskraft von Rational-Choice-Ansätzen sinkt. Das zeigt sich in der Interaktion von Normen und dem Nutzen aus der Ehe, der jeglichen Einfluss auf die Stabilität verliert, wenn die Normen stark genug verankert sind. Für nichteheliche Lebensgemeinschaften greift dieser Mechanismus jedoch nicht, selbst wenn entsprechende Normen bei den Partnern verankert sind. Nach dem Modell der Frame-Selection ist der Grund hierfür die bedingte Geltung von Normen und Routinen. Einfache RC-Modelle der Ehescheidung ebenso wie normative Erklärungen sind offensichtlich jeweils alleine unzureichend und blenden wichtige Wirkmechanismen der ehelichen Stabilität aus. Mit der Erfassung des Framings von Partnerschaften wird es möglich, die jeweilige Bedingtheit der beiden Handlungsmöglichkeiten zu berücksichtigen und eine größere Erklärungskraft zu erzielen.
  • Klaus, Daniela. 2010. Warum unterstützen erwachsene Kinder ihre Eltern? Eine Prüfung des Einflusses des Bindungsstils. In Partnerschaften und die Beziehungen zu Eltern und Kindern. Befunde zur Beziehungs- und Familienentwicklung in Deutschland, Hrsg. Sabine Walper & Eva-Verena Wendt, 321-346. Würzburg: Ergon Verlag. ISBN: 978-3-8991-3717-0
  • Die Verfasserin stellt zunächst Grundzüge der Bindungstheorie und ihre Implikationen für das Unterstützerverhalten vor. Sie untersucht im Folgenden die These, dass Bindung - vermittelt über emotionale Nähe - prädiktiv für das Ausmaß der den Eltern von ihren erwachsenen Kindern zu Teil werdenden Unterstützung ist. Zur Prüfung dieser Hypothese werden Daten einer in Chemnitz erhobenen Teilstudie des pairfam-Projektes herangezogen. Die Ergebnisse der Analyse lassen sich wie folgt zusammenfassen: Erweisen sich elterliche Bindungsfiguren in der Kindheit als verlässlich und hilfreich, so impliziert das die Etablierung einer Beziehung, die durch emotionale Verbundenheit gekennzeichnet ist, was letztlich die später den Eltern entgegengebrachte expressive Fürsorge fördert.
  • Klaus, Daniela. 2010. Kinderkosten und Familiengründung. Erste Befunde einer Prüfung der Neuen Haushaltsökonomie unter Verwendung von Paardaten. Zeitschrift für Familienforschung - Journal of Family Research 22: 109-129.
  • Am Beispiel der Familiengründung wird die empirische Relevanz der Neuen Haushaltsökonomie (NHE) untersucht. Dabei geht dieser Beitrag in zweierlei Hinsicht über die übliche Anwendung dieses Ansatzes hinaus: Einerseits wird, parallel zur Opportunitätenkostenhypothese, die oft vernachlässigte Einkommenshypothese berücksichtigt. Andererseits wird das in diesem Erklärungszusammenhang zentrale Konzept der Kinderkosten nicht, wie üblich, über bildungs- oder erwerbsbezogene Indikatoren operationalisiert, sondern über die subjektive Einschätzung der persönlichen Relevanz unterschiedlicher Kostenaspekte von Elternschaft. Die Analyse basiert auf Daten von 237 Paaren, die im Rahmen einer Vorstudie des Projektes Panel Analysis of Intimate Relationships and Family Dynamics 2006 erhoben worden sind. Die angesichts des Querschnittscharakters der Daten sowie der eingeschränkten Validität einiger Indikatoren vorläufigen Ergebnisse lassen sich allenfalls als mittelmäßige Bestätigung der NHE interpretieren. Zumindest gewisse Unterstützung erfährt die Opportunitätenkostenhypothese: Mit zunehmender Bildung der Frau steigen die von ihr wahrgenommenen Opportunitätenkosten, was die Wahrscheinlichkeit der Familiengründung herabsetzt. Auch die von der Frau angegebenen direkten Kosten, die mit dem Bildungsniveau ihres Partners sinken, beeinflussen die Erstgeburt negativ, was zunächst für die Einkommenshypothese spricht. Allerdings kann nicht bestätigt werden, dass dieser positive Bildungseffekt seine Wirksamkeit über die Kinderkosten erlangt. Schließlich erweisen sich die von den Männern wahrgenommenen Kinderkosten weder als bildungsabhängig noch haben sie einen Einfluss auf die Familiengründung.
  • Kopp, Johannes, Daniel Lois, Christina Kunz & Oliver Arránz Becker. 2010. Verliebt, verlobt, verheiratet. Institutionalisierungsprozesse in Partnerschaften. Wiesbaden: VS-Verlag für Sozialwissenschaften. ISBN: 978-3-5311-6860-9
  • Auch wenn sich die Entwicklung von Partnerschaften und Beziehungen in diesem Kindervers so einfach anhört, in der Realität sind die Prozesse, durch die Partnerschaften eine gewisse Dauerhaftigkeit erreichen, wesentlich komplizierter. In dem vorliegenden Buch wird untersucht, welche Zwischenschritte bei der Institutionalisierung von Beziehungen wichtig sind und durch welche Umstände diese Verfestigung der Partnerschaft befördert oder behindert werden. Darüber hinaus wird untersucht, welche Rolle die persönlichen Netzwerke spielen und welche Ursachen und Folgen Trennungen in den verschiedenen Phasen einer Partnerschaft aufweisen.
  • Lois, Daniel, Christina Kunz & Johannes Kopp. 2010. „Verliebt, verlobt, verheiratet.“ Institutionalisierungsprozesse in Liebesbeziehungen junger Erwachsener und Jugendlicher. In Partnerschaften und die Beziehungen zu Eltern und Kindern. Befunde zur Beziehungs- und Familienentwicklung in Deutschland, Hrsg. Sabine Walper & Eva-Verena Wendt, 55-84. Würzburg: Ergon Verlag. ISBN: 978-3-8991-3717-0
  • Ziel des Beitrags ist es, den Prozess der Partnerschaftsentwicklung oder -institutionalisierung empirisch zu untersuchen. Zunächst wird erläutert, auf welchen Interaktionsebenen sich die Verfestigung einer Partnerschaft vollziehen kann. Danach wird in einem ersten Analyseschritt der Versuch unternommen, den Institutionalisierungsgrad von Partnerschaften in der Form einer auf Ereignissen basierenden Guttman-Skala zu messen. Anschließend werden Überlegungen zu Faktoren angestellt, die erklären, warum sich Partnerschaften weiter verfestigen; gleichzeitig erfolgt ein Überblick über die vorliegende Literatur. Die Datenbasis der sich anschließenden empirischen Analyse ist eine im Winter 2007 durchgeführte Befragung von ledigen Personen deutscher Staatsangehörigkeit mit Haupt- oder Nebenwohnsitz in Chemnitz. Die empirische Analyse berücksichtigt drei Bündel von Kovariaten: Alter und Partnerschaftsdauer, soziodemografische Variablen sowie die Indikatoren des Investitionsmodells. Die Untersuchung zeigt, dass der Institutionalisierungsprozess in partnerschaftlichen Beziehungen in der Regel nicht individualisiert erfolgt, sondern sozialen Regelmäßigkeiten folgt.
  • Maul, Katharina, Johannes Huinink & Torsten Schröder. 2010. Elternschaftsentscheidungen im Spannungsfeld beruflicher und familiärer Planungen. In Partnerschaften und die Beziehungen zu Eltern und Kindern. Befunde zur Beziehungs- und Familienentwicklung in Deutschland, Hrsg. Sabine Walper & Eva-Verena Wendt, 215-239. Würzburg: Ergon Verlag. ISBN: 978-3-8991-3717-0
  • Der Beitrag beschäftigt sich mit der Elternschaftsentscheidung als Basis künftiger intergenerationaler Beziehungen. Unter Nutzung der pairfam-Minipaneldaten werden die Voraussetzungen für eine künftige Elternschaft bei kinderlosen Befragten überprüft und die Bedeutung konkurrierender Ziele (Elternschaft, Beruf) einander gegenüber gestellt. Die Ergebnisse zeigen, dass die Entscheidung für eine Elternschaft nicht allein vor dem Hintergrund struktureller Voraussetzungen getroffen wird. Die Tatsache, dass wichtige Voraussetzungen für eine Familiengründung erfüllt sind, hat zwar einen großen Einfluss auf die Absicht einer Familiengründung. Die Einschätzung, dass diese Voraussetzungen hinreichend erfüllt sind, ist jedoch subjektiv gefärbt. In dieser Einschätzung gibt es geschlechtsspezifische Unterschiede.
  • Perelli-Harris, Brienna, Wendy Sigle-Rushton, Michaela Kreyenfeld, Trude Lappegård, Renske Keizer & Caroline Berghammer. 2010. The educational gradient of childbearing within cohabitation in Europe. Population and Development Review 36: 775-801. DOI: 10.1111/j.1728-4457.2010.00357.x
  • Nearly every European country has experienced some increase in nonmarital childbearing, largely due to increasing births within cohabitation. Relatively few studies in Europe, however, investigate the educational gradient of childbearing within cohabitation or how it changed over time. Using retrospective union and fertility histories, we employ competing risk hazard models to examine the educational gradient of childbearing in cohabitation in 8 countries across Europe. In all countries studied, birth risks within cohabitation demonstrated a negative educational gradient. When directly comparing cohabiting fertility with marital fertility, the negative educational gradient persists in all countries except Italy, although differences were not significant in Austria, France, and Germany. To explain these findings, we present an alternative explanation for the increase in childbearing within cohabitation that goes beyond the explanation of the Second Demographic Transition and provides a new interpretation of the underlying mechanisms that may influence childbearing within cohabitation.
  • Pinquart, Martin, Carolin Stotzka & Rainer K. Silbereisen. 2010. Ambivalenz in Entscheidungen über Elternschaft, Partnerschaft und Ehe. In Partnerschaften und die Beziehungen zu Eltern und Kindern. Befunde zur Beziehungs- und Familienentwicklung in Deutschland, Hrsg. Sabine Walper & Eva-Verena Wendt, 85-112. Würzburg: Ergon Verlag. ISBN: 978-3-8991-3717-0
  • Die Verfasser zeigen, dass Ambivalenz während der Beziehungsentscheidung verbreiteter als nach der Entscheidung ist. Jedoch ist auch hier noch bei etwa einem Zehntel der Befragten die Ambivalenz deutlich ausgeprägt gewesen. Es wird argumentiert, dass Ambivalenz bei Beziehungsentscheidungen ein beziehungsspezifisches Konstrukt ist. Es werden auch Aspekte der Herkunftsfamilie, der Persönlichkeit und soziodemografische Variablen identifiziert, die das Risiko erhöhen, sich in Bezug auf Beziehungsentscheidungen ambivalent zu verhalten. Wenn die Eltern nicht ständig zusammenlebten, ging dies mit mehr Ambivalenz in Bezug auf das Eingehen von Partnerschaften einher, war aber für Entscheidungen über die Elternschaft irrelevant. Hier nehmen vermutlich Befürchtungen zu, dass auch die eigene Partnerschaft nicht so stabil wie gehofft sein könnte, wenn man dies bei den eigenen Eltern erlebt hat. Analog erhöht Schüchternheit - also die Schwierigkeit beim Knüpfen von Kontakten und die Angst, negativ beurteilt zu werden, nur Ambivalenz in Bezug auf das Eingehen einer Partnerschaft, also beim Aufbau eines nahen Kontakts. Es wird festgestellt, dass Ambivalenz in Bezug auf Elternschaft bei der ältesten Kohorte am stärksten und bei der jüngsten Kohorte am wenigsten verbreitet sind. Jugendliche sehen Elternschaft noch idealisiert und wenig konfliktbehaftet, zumal in der Regel noch nicht sofort eine Elternschaft angestrebt wird und Kosten der Elternschaft noch stärker hypothetisch sind. Im jungen Erwachsenenalter werden die Kosten der Elternschaft und potentielle Konflikte zum Verfolgen von Zielen in anderen Lebensbereichen zentraler, was mit mehr Ambivalenz einhergeht. Es wird argumentiert, dass Ambivalenz bedeutsame Varianz im Partnerstatus, der Beziehungszufriedenheit und der angestrebten Zahl der Kinder aufklärt. Ambivalenz während der Entscheidung erhöht das Risiko, dass die Partnerschaft nicht zustande kam oder schnell wieder beendet wurde. Wer während und nach der Entscheidung ambivalenter war, war aktuell mit seiner Partnerschaft unzufriedener. Ambivalenz korreliert nicht mit der idealen Kinderzahl, sondern nur mit der erwarteten Kinderzahl. Dies spricht dafür, dass man bei Ambivalenzen die realistischen Erwartungen und nicht das Ideal nach unten korrigiert.
  • Reichle, Barbara, Sabine Franiek & Dorothea Dette-Hagenmeyer. 2010. Frühe Sozialisation und Erziehung in der Familie: Konfliktbewältigung in der Elternpartnerschaft, Erziehungsstil und das Sozialverhalten angehöriger Kinder. In Partnerschaften und die Beziehungen zu Eltern und Kindern. Befunde zur Beziehungs- und Familienentwicklung in Deutschland, Hrsg. Sabine Walper & Eva-Verena Wendt, 241-267. Würzburg: Ergon Verlag. ISBN: 978-3-8991-3717-0
  • Im Mittelpunkt des Beitrags stehen die Einflüsse der Eltern auf das Sozialverhalten ihrer Kinder. Mit den Daten aus dem pairfam-Minipanel und dem Begleitprojekt "Bewältigungskompetenzen in Erwachsenenpartnerschaften und ihre Transmission auf angehörige Kinder" werden Einflüsse der Konfliktbewältigung in der Elternpartnerschaft sowie des Erziehungsstils auf die Entwicklung der Kinder untersucht, wobei auch über die Entwicklung und Erprobung neuartiger Erhebungsinstrumente elterlicher Konflikt- und Erziehungskompetenzen berichtet wird. Im Mittelpunkt des Interesses stehen vermeintliche sozialisationsrelevante Merkmale der Elternpartnerschaft, nämlich das Bewältigungsverhalten von Eltern in Alltagskonflikten mit dem Partner, das Erziehungsverhalten und die kindliche Sozialanpassung. Dabei werden in Anlehnung an Cummings auch positive Effekte konstruktiver Konfliktlösungen untersucht und Effekte der verschiedenen Konfliktstile auf die Partnerschaftsqualität überprüft. Es wird eine Konzeptualisierung elterlicher Erziehungsstile vorgestellt. Diese Erziehungsstile werden in Beziehung zur kindlichen Sozialanpassung sowie partnerschaftlichen Konfliktbewältigungsstilen einerseits und zur kindlichen Sozialanpassung andererseits gesetzt, und zwar mit einem Schwerpunkt auf Bewältigungsstile und Erziehungsstilvarianten, die die kindliche Sozialkompetenz befördern.
  • Scherer, Stefani & Josef Brüderl. 2010. Sequenzdatenanalyse. In Handbuch der sozialwissenschaftlichen Datenanalyse, Hrsg. Christof Wolf & Henning Best, 1031-1051. Wiesbaden: VS-Verlag für Sozialwissenschaften. ISBN: 978-3-5311-6339-0
  • Eine Sequenz ist eine geordnete Liste von Elementen. Auch Lebensverläufe lassen sich als Sequenz darstellen, denn das Leben ist eine zeitlich geordnete Abfolge von Zuständen. Die Sequenzdatenanalyse stellt Verfahren zur Beschreibung und Analyse von Sequenzen/Lebensverläufen zur Verfügung. In diesem Beitrag führen wir in die grundlegenden Konzepte der Sequenzdatenanalyse ein. Wir stellen das meist verwendete Verfahren zur Berechnung der Distanz von Sequenzen (Optimal Matching) vor und erläutern, wie man darauf aufbauend Sequenzen typisieren kann. Auch einige neuere, alternative Verfahren werden kurz diskutiert. Ein ausführliches Anwendungsbeispiel zum Arbeitsmarkteintritt deutscher Männer und Frauen demonstriert die einzelnen Schritte einer Sequenzdatenanalyse und führt das Potential dieser Verfahren vor Augen.
  • Steinbach, Anja & Johannes Kopp. 2010. Die intergenerational-stake-Hypothese: Warum sehen junge Erwachsene und Eltern ihre gemeinsame Beziehung unterschiedlich? In Partnerschaften und die Beziehungen zu Eltern und Kindern. Befunde zur Beziehungs- und Familienentwicklung in Deutschland, Hrsg. Sabine Walper & Eva-Verena Wendt, 269-287. Würzburg: Ergon Verlag. ISBN: 978-3-8991-3717-0
  • Ausgangspunkt des Beitrags ist die 'intergenerational stake'-Hypothese: Eltern sehen die Beziehung zu ihren Kindern positiver als es die Kinder tun. Meist findet sich diese Annahme in Hinblick auf die Wahrnehmung von emotionaler Nähe, sinnvoll erscheint sie aber auch in Hinblick auf andere Dimensionen intergenerationaler Beziehungen wie die Wahrnehmung von Konflikten oder den Austausch von Unterstützungsleistungen. Für die Bundesrepublik Deutschland fehlt es bisher an einer systematischen Untersuchung. Mit Hilfe des pairfam-Minipanels war es möglich, über einen einfachen Mittelwertvergleich zu zeigen, dass sich hinsichtlich der Einschätzung der emotionalen Nähe sowie der Konflikthaftigkeit der intergenerationalen Beziehungen Hinweise darauf finden, dass Eltern ihre Beziehung zu ihren Kindern positiver sehen als die Kinder. Eine übereinstimmende Einschätzung ist jedoch immer der häufigste Fall und in einer nicht zu vernachlässigenden Gruppe sehen die Eltern die Beziehung kritischer als ihre Kinder.
  • Walper, Sabine & Eva-Verena Wendt. 2010. Partnerschaften und die Beziehungen zu Eltern und Kindern: Eine Einführung. In Partnerschaften und die Beziehungen zu Eltern und Kindern. Befunde zur Beziehungs- und Familienentwicklung in Deutschland, Hrsg. Sabine Walper & Eva-Verena Wendt, 7-34. Würzburg: Ergon Verlag. ISBN: 978-3-8991-3717-0
  • Die Verfasserinnen illustrieren in dieser Einleitung den Entstehungskontext des deutschen Beziehungs- und Familienentwicklungspanels pairfam, das zahlreiche aktuelle Themen der Beziehungs- und Familienforschung mit einem interdisziplinären Zugang aufgreift. Sie illustrieren zunächst zentrale demografische Trends in Deutschland wie veränderte Partnerschaftsbeziehungen, Veränderungen im Verhältnis Familie und Kinder und veränderte Generationenbeziehungen. Vor diesem Hintergrund werden aktuelle Perspektiven und Themen der Paar- und Familienforschung skizziert. Abschließend wird ein Überblick über die Beiträge des Sammelbands gegeben, die gleichzeitig einen Ausblick über das Potenzial des pairfam-Panels auf den Gebieten 'Entwicklung von Paarbeziehungen' und 'Eltern und Kinder in unterschiedlichen Entwicklungsphasen' geben.
  • Walper, Sabine, Carolin Thönnissen, Eva-Verena Wendt & Markus Schaer. 2010. Der lange Arm der Familie: Die Paarbeziehungen junger Männer und Frauen im Lichte ihrer Beziehung zu Mutter und Vater. In Partnerschaften und die Beziehungen zu Eltern und Kindern. Befunde zur Beziehungs- und Familienentwicklung in Deutschland, Hrsg. Sabine Walper & Eva-Verena Wendt, 289-319. Würzburg: Ergon Verlag. ISBN: 978-3-8991-3717-0
  • Der Beitrag beschäftigt sich mit der Transmission von Beziehungserfahrungen aus der Herkunftsfamilie auf Partnerschaften im Jugend- und jungen Erwachsenenalter. Dabei werden sowohl die zugrunde liegenden Mechanismen des Modell- und Rollenlernens wie auch Befunde zur Transmission emotionaler Sicherheit und der Wert positiver Erziehungserfahrungen für spätere Partnerschaften vor dem Hintergrund entwicklungspsychologischer Aspekte diskutiert. Die Verfasser zeigen, dass die aktuelle wie auch retrospektiv erinnerte Beziehung zu den Eltern bzw. deren Erziehungsverhalten unterschiedliche Bereiche der Beziehungsqualität in jungen Partnerschaften beeinflusst. Hierbei wird durch die Differenzierung mütterlicher und väterlicher Einflüsse auf die Partnerschaften Jugendlicher und junger Erwachsener deutlich, dass derartige Transmissionseffekte geschlechtsspezifisch zu analysieren sind. Die Daten des pairfam-Minipanels sprechen für ein deutliches Muster überwiegend gegengeschlechtlicher Einflüsse im Transmissionsprozess.
  • Weiß, Bernd & Michael Wagner. 2010. Beeinflussen Konflikte die Partnerschaftsstabilität? Eine Längsschnittanalyse auf der Grundlage zweier Paarbefragungen. In Partnerschaften und die Beziehungen zu Eltern und Kindern. Befunde zur Beziehungs- und Familienentwicklung in Deutschland, Hrsg. Sabine Walper & Eva-Verena Wendt, 135-152. Würzburg: Ergon Verlag. ISBN: 978-3-8991-3717-0
  • Die hier vorgelegten Analysen geben einen ersten Einblick in das kausale Verhältnis von partnerschaftlicher Interaktion, Partnerschaftsqualität und Partnerschaftsstabilität. Die Datenbasis bilden die ersten drei Wellen des pairfam-Minipanels sowie Daten des Projekts 'Partnerschaften und Ehen von Jugendlichen und Erwachsenen in Köln'. Ausgangspunkt ist die These, dass kein direkter Effekt der Konflikthäufigkeit auf die Beziehungsstabilität existiert. Die Analysen zeigen, dass Paare mit hoher Konflikthäufigkeit mit ihrer Beziehung weniger zufrieden sind und sich häufiger trennen. Ein weiterer Befund betrifft die Effekte der Partnerschaftsdauer auf die Konflikthäufigkeit. Hier ergibt eine Pfadanalyse, dass die Dauer einer Partnerschaft signifikant positiv mit der Konflikthäufigkeit zusammenhängt. Allerdings finden sich in der Literatur auch Belege für einen negativen Zusammenhang.


  • Feldhaus, Michael & Monika Schlegel. 2009. Vielfalt (mobiler) Lebensformen? APuZ - Aus Politik und Zeitgeschichte 41: 37-38.
  • Es werden erste Ergebnisse der neu erhobenen pairfam-Daten zur Vielfalt familialer und nichtfamilialer Lebensformen vorgestellt. Dabei werden insbesondere partnerschaftliche Mobilitätstypen berücksichtigt.
  • Huinink, Johannes & Michael Feldhaus. 2009. Family Research from the Life Course Perspective. International Sociology 24: 299-324. DOI: 10.1177/0268580909102910
  • This article presents an argument for overcoming some of the limits of current family research. To start, some major research questions concerning the future challenges of demographic change and its implications for modern welfare states are addressed. The authors propose an agenda for making progress in this field via two interrelated steps. First, they propose an integration of theoretical approaches explaining family dynamics and design a conceptual framework to model couples' and family dynamics as a process of purposeful individual action and decision-making over the life course. Second, methodological requirements of family research from this theoretical perspective are identified. Conclusions are drawn with regard to longitudinal data collection covering all dimensions of couples' and family dynamics and not just the structural dimensions.
  • Klaus, Daniela. 2009. Why Do Adult Children Support Their Parents? Journal of Comparative Family Studies 40: 227-241.
  • This study investigates the reasons why adult children support their parents. In the current literature, four factors commonly appear in causal explanations of children's helping behaviors: intimacy, altruism, obligation, and reciprocity. Yet, attempts to test the combined or relative explanatory power of these factors are rare, and the possibility that the causal relationships might change as children and parents age has not been considered. This study was designed to fill this gap. It is based on a sub-sample of 620 adult children of different age groups taken from the 2005/2006 pre-study of the German 'Panel Analysis of Intimate Relationships and Family Dynamics'. The dependent variable of interest is the degree of material and instrumental support given to mothers and fathers. The most important explanatory variables were short-term reciprocity, the degree of a child's attachment to his or her parent, and altruism. The explanatory effect of these variables changed across different stages of the parent-child relationship.
  • Kopp, Johannes & Anja Steinbach. 2009. Generationenbeziehungen. Ein Test der intergenerational-stake-Hypothese. Kölner Zeitschrift für Soziologie und Sozialpsychologie 61: 283-294.
  • Soziale Beziehungen werden von den Beteiligten unterschiedlich gesehen. Diese bei Forschungen zu Generationenbeziehungen als intergenerational-stake-Hypothese bezeichnete Annahme wird anhand der emotionalen Nähe, der Wahrnehmung von Konflikten und des Austauschs von Unterstützungsleistungen zwischen familialen Generationen überprüft. Es zeigt sich, dass Eltern tendenziell eine größere emotionale Nähe und weniger Konflikte sehen als ihre erwachsenen Kinder. Hinsichtlich von Unterstützungsleistungen scheinen erhaltene Hilfen mehr Gewicht zu haben als gegebene Leistungen - und dies für Eltern wie für ihre Kinder. Da in der Praxis der empirischen Sozialforschung nur selten beide Parteien einer Beziehung befragt werden können, wird deshalb abschließend untersucht, mit welchen Abweichungen oder Verzerrungen zu rechnen ist, wenn eine Beschränkung der Perspektive erfolgt. Die berechneten Modelle zeigen, dass die dadurch entstehenden Veränderungen relativ gering sind und in der Praxis die Befragung einer Seite ausreichend zu sein scheint.


  • Arránz Becker, Oliver & Paul B. Hill. 2008. Bildungshomogamie und Partnerschaftserfolg – eine dyadische Analyse. In Neuere Entwicklungen in der Beziehungs- und Familienforschung. Vorstudien zum Beziehungs- und Familienentwicklungspanel (pairfam), Hrsg. Michael Feldhaus & Johannes Huinink, 151-185. Würzburg: Ergon Verlag. ISBN: 978-3-8991-3619-7
  • Die Verfasser geben zunächst einen Überblick über den theoretischen Hintergrund ihrer Untersuchung und den Stand der Forschung. Im Folgenden wird untersucht, in welchem Ausmaß und unter welchen Bedingungen stabilitäts- und trennungsbezogene Wahrnehmungen die spätere formale Partnerschaftsstabilität prädizieren. Gestützt auf Daten des pairfam-Minipanels werden der Effekt stabilitätsbezogener Kognitionen (subjektive Instabilität, Commitment) auf die formale Partnerschaftsstabilität sowie die Auswirkungen der Rahmenbedingungen (Stärke des Framings, Alternativen und Höhe partnerschaftsspezifischer Investitionen) auf die Stärke des Zusammenhangs zwischen subjektiver und formaler Stabilität analysiert. Zunächst wird dabei möglichen Geschlechts- und Kohortenunterschieden und der Stärke des Framings nachgegangen. Im Anschluss daran werden Moderatoreffekte der Auswirkungen der Alternativen auf dem Partnermarkt und schließlich der beziehungsspezifischen Investitionen behandelt. Es zeigt sich, dass stabilitätsbezogene Kognitionen innerhalb von Paarbeziehungen in vielen Fällen Hinweise auf spätere Trennungstendenzen geben können. Weiterführende Analysen deuten jedoch auf deutliche Einschränkungen dieses Befundes hin.
  • Brüderl, Josef, Laura Castiglioni, Ulrich Krieger & Klaus Pforr. 2008. Design und Feldphase des Mini-Panels. In Neuere Entwicklungen in der Beziehungs- und Familienforschung. Vorstudien zum Beziehungs- und Familienentwicklungspanel (pairfam), Hrsg. Michael Feldhaus & Johannes Huinink, 45-76. Würzburg: Ergon Verlag. ISBN: 978-3-8991-3619-7
  • Das Ziel der deutschen "Panel Study of Intimate Relationships and Family Dynamics (PAIRFAM)" besteht, so die Verfasser, in der Untersuchung der Beziehungs- und Familienentwicklung auf Basis eines wiederholten Surveys (Panel). Die inhaltlichen Schwerpunkte des Forschungsprogramms liegen auf der Gründung und Aufrechterhaltung von Beziehungen, dem Timing der Geburt des ersten Kindes und dem Abstand zur Geburt des zweiten Kindes, der Aufrechterhaltung intergenerationaler Beziehungen sowie der Stabilität von Beziehungen. Zwischen 2004 and 2006 hat PAIRFAM eine dreiwellige Pilotstudie ("Mini-Panel") mit etwa 600 Befragten durchgeführt. Es werden das Design beschrieben und die Feldphase des Mini-Panels zusammengefasst. Es wird argumentiert, dass in Anbetracht der schwierigen Zielgruppe (Jugendliche und junge Erwachsene in einem urbanen Umfeld), der Tatsache, dass aufgrund der kurzen Intervalle zwischen den Wellen die Feldphasen relativ schnell durchgeführt werden mussten, und der nicht-professionellen Interviewer, das Mini-Panel ansehnliche Ergebnisse liefert: Aus dem Mini-Panel sind wertvolle Hinweise bezüglich einer Optimierung des Designs für das Hauptpanel erhalten worden.
  • Castiglioni, Laura, Klaus Pforr & Ulrich Krieger. 2008. The Effect of Incentives on Response Rates and Panel Attrition: Results of a Controlled Experiment. Survey Research Methods 2: 151-158. DOI: 10.18148/srm/2008.v2i3.599
  • Steadily declining response rates lead to an increased usage of incentives in all kind of surveys. As for mail surveys, much empirical evidence supporting the usage of unconditional incentives is available (Berk, Mathiowetz, Ward and White 1987; Church 1993). For face-to-face stud- ies, however, fewer results are available, and even less often in experimental settings (Martin, Abreu and Winters 2001; Singer, Hoewyk, Gebler, Raghunathan and McGonagle 1999). We conducted a three wave panel CAPI survey (N=600), where respondents were randomly assigned to three experimental groups: the first group received an unconditional incentive in form of a 10 e voucher, the second group was promised a 10 e voucher conditional upon participation, the third group was a control group that received no incentive. The allocation to a given experimental group was constant across the three waves and interviewers were kept blind to the experimental conditions. This research adds to the methodological literature in several ways: firstly, we compared the effectiveness of prepaid and conditional monetary incentives in a face-to-face interview in cross-sectional and longitudinal perspective, and found that conditional incentives performed significantly better in retaining respondents till the third wave. Secondly, we controlled for accurateness of the interviewers’ work on the field, and found evidence that improving selec- tion and training of interviewers remains mandatory, since poor quality in the interviewer pool cannot be compensated by incentives.
  • Feldhaus, Michael & Johannes Huinink. 2008. Neuere Entwicklungen in der Beziehungs- und Familienforschung. Vorstudien zum Beziehungs- und Familienentwicklungspanel (pairfam). Würzburg: Ergon-Verlag. ISBN: 978-3-8991-3619-7
  • Gesellschaften wie die Bundesrepublik Deutschland erleben seit den letzten Jahrzehnten weitreichende kulturelle, ökonomische und sozialstrukturelle Veränderungen. Wir registrieren niedrige Geburtenzahlen, eine Alterung der Gesellschaft und erleben einen Stabilitätsverlust traditioneller Lebensgemeinschaften sowie einen Bedeutungsgewinn weniger verbindlicher Lebensformen. Gleichzeitig erhöhen sich die Anforderungen an das Humanvermögen der nachwachsenden Generation und an elterliche Erziehungskompetenzen. Begleitend erfolgt ein Strukturwandel des Arbeitsmarktes, der sich z.T. schwerlich mit dem Eingehen langfristiger sozialer Bindungen vereinbaren lässt. Vor diesem Hintergrund ist das Wissen um partnerschaftliche und familiale Entwicklungsdynamiken für die zukünftige Gestaltung gesellschaftlichen Zusammenlebens essentiell. Es gilt, genauer zu erforschen, nach welchen Kriterien beziehungs- und familienrelevante Entscheidungen - mit welchen individuellen, partnerschaftlichen und familialen Folgen - getroffen werden. Dazu bedarf es eines Forschungsansatzes, der neben strukturellen Indikatoren die psychischen Einflussfaktoren und wechselseitigen Perspektiven der Akteure mit einbezieht. Dies ist das Ziel des Beziehungs- und Familienentwicklungspanels. In dem vorliegenden Band werden neben konzeptuellen Überlegungen methodische und inhaltliche Befunde aus den umfangreichen empirischen Vorarbeiten zum Beziehungs- und Familienentwicklungspanel präsentiert. Die Aufsätze stellen einen substantiellen Beitrag zur aktuellen, längsschnittlich orientierten Beziehungs- und Familienforschung dar.
  • Feldhaus, Michael & Mandy Boehnke. 2008. Ungeplante Schwangerschaften – Wider das Ideal der Naturbeherrschung. In Die Natur der Gesellschaft. Verhandlungen des 33. Kongresses der Deutschen Gesellschaft für Soziologie in Kassel 2006, Hrsg. Karl-Siegbert Rehberg, 1680-1693. Frankfurt: Campus. ISBN: 978-3-5933-8440-5
  • Prozesse einer allgemein zunehmenden Informalisierung und Technisierung der Gesellschaft machen auch vor dem generativen Verhalten nicht halt. Zwischen einer ursprünglich vorherrschenden Natürlichkeit von Reproduktion ist vermittelt über den medizinisch-technischen Fortschritt das Ideal der Planbarkeit fertilen Verhaltens getreten. Gegenwärtige mediale und wissenschaftliche Diskurse verweisen auf zwei Seiten von Planbarkeit und Fertilität: einerseits die durch Verhütung gesicherte Planbarkeit gegen ein Kind wie auch andererseits die - notfalls medizinisch unterstützte - Planbarkeit zum Kind. Empirisches Material spricht jedoch eine andere Sprache, deuten sie doch auf diametrale Prozesse zu diesem Planbarkeitsideal. Der Beitrag wird sich auf einen der beschriebenen zwei Aspekte konzentrieren: die ungeplanten Schwangerschaften. Wie 'natürlich' bzw. ungeplant sind ungeplante Schwangerschaften? Die sehr wenigen Studien (z.B. DESIS, Frauen leben, SOEP), die über ungeplante Schwangerschaften berichten, geben für die Bundesrepublik einen Anteil zwischen 30 und 40 Prozent ungeplanter Schwangerschaften an. International betrachtet schwanken die Ergebnisse hierzu beträchtlich. In Zeiten sicherer Verhütungsmittel und wenn man berücksichtigt, dass Schwangerschaften biologisch betrachtet nur in recht engen Zeitfenstern ('fruchtbare Tage') eintreten können, stellt sich die Frage, wie sich der hohe Anteil von ungeplanten Schwangerschaften erklärt. Die diesbezüglich üblicherweise zu findenden Erklärungen, die auf geringe Bildung, niedriges Alter sowie unsichere Anwendung von und geringes Wissen über Kontrazeptiva, oder auch auf ein uneindeutiges Verständnis des Begriffes von Planbarkeit verweisen, sind nicht wirklich überzeugend, zieht man etwa neuere Ergebnisse zum Verhütungsverhalten heran. Denkbar ist zusätzlich, dass gerade auch Ambivalenzen im Kinderwunsch das generative Verhalten beeinflussen und eher auf inkonsequente Verhütungspraxen hinweisen. Der Beitrag wird versuchen, diesen Aspekten mittels vorliegender nationaler und ggf. internationaler Studien zu ungeplanten Schwangerschaften näher zu kommen. Aktuelles empirisches Material bietet der Datensatz des so genannten Mini-Panels des PAIRFAM-Projekts (Panel Analysis of Intimate Relationships and Family Dynamics). Er ist einer der wenigen Datensätze, der neben der expliziten Erhebung generativer Intentionen prospektiv auch die proximalen Faktoren (wie z.B. das Verhütungsverhalten, Einstellungen zur Schwangerschaft usw.) mit erhebt und nähere Antworten auf das Planungsverhalten von fertilen Verhaltens verspricht.
  • Huinink, Johannes & Michael Feldhaus. 2008. Beziehungs- und Familienentwicklung – eine konzeptionelle Einführung in ein Forschungsprogramm. In Neuere Entwicklungen in der Beziehungs- und Familienforschung. Vorstudien zum Beziehungs- und Familienentwicklungspanel (pairfam), Hrsg. Michael Feldhaus & Johannes Huinink, 13-44. Würzburg: Ergon Verlag. ISBN: 978-3-8991-3619-7
  • Im Beitrag werden inhaltliche Aspekte eines Forschungsprogramms zur Beziehungs- und Familienentwicklung vorgestellt. Dabei handelt es sich um das DFG-Schwerpunktprogramm 1161 'Beziehungs- und Familienentwicklungspanel', das den institutionellen und finanziellen Rahmen des PAIRFAM-Projekts bietet. In den ersten beiden Phasen dieses Schwerpunktprogramms wurden und werden gegenwärtig die Vorbereitungsarbeiten im Kontext einer umfangreichen Begleitforschung durchgeführt. Es werden methodische Anforderungen formuliert und Grundzüge eines theoretischen Rahmens vorgestellt. Die Ausführungen begründen einen konkreten Bedarf an neuen Daten und detaillierten Analysen im Rahmen einer Panelstudie. Die Ergebnisse basieren vornehmlich auf empirischen Analysen mit Daten aus der ersten und zweiten Welle eines Probepanels, das als Mini-Panel bezeichnet wird. Mit der Implementierung des PAIRFAM-Projektes, so die Verfasser, sollten vertiefende Erkenntnisse für die Grundlagenforschung sowie für die zukünftige sozialpolitische Ausgestaltung beziehungs- und familienrelevanter Fragestellungen und deren Verknüpfungen mit anderen wichtigen gesellschaftlichen Teilbereichen zur Verfügung gestellt werden. Mit dem geplanten PAIRFAM-Projekt sind daher entscheidende Weiterentwicklungen und Erkenntnisgewinne in der Erforschung von Beziehungs- und Familienentwicklungsprozessen zu erwarten. Die Daten von PAIRFAM werden ein öffentliches Gut sein, welches wie das Sozioökonomische Panel unter Beachtung der datenschutzrechtlichen Vorschriften der sozial wissenschaftlichen Forschung unmittelbar zur Verfügung gestellt wird.
  • Huinink, Johannes, Torsten Schröder & Mandy Boehnke. 2008. Kinderwunsch und Familiengründung: Die Bedeutung von Voraussetzungen und Entscheidungsgrundsätzen. In Neuere Entwicklungen in der Beziehungs- und Familienforschung. Vorstudien zum Beziehungs- und Familienentwicklungspanel (pairfam), Hrsg. Michael Feldhaus & Johannes Huinink, 321-350. Würzburg: Ergon Verlag. ISBN: 978-3-8991-3619-7
  • Auf der Basis eines handlungstheoretischen Modells, das die besondere komplexe Entscheidungssituation im Hinblick auf die Gründung einer Familie berücksichtigt, werden vertiefende Analysen zum Kinderwunsch und seinen Bestimmungsfaktoren vorgestellt. Es wird gezeigt, dass unter den Befragten der ersten Welle des Mini-Panels eine hohe Bereitschaft zur Elternschaft besteht, dass die Diskrepanz zwischen Wunsch und erwarteter Wirklichkeit aber erheblich ist. Anhand der Analysen zum Entscheidungsmodus und zu den Voraussetzungen wird argumentiert, dass Elternschaft immer auch, aber nicht ausschließlich, rationalen Erwägungen folgt. Alternative Arten der Entscheidung werden akzeptiert - gleichwohl spielen Planung und Kalkulation eine zentrale Rolle. Durch eine Anpassung der elternschaftsrelevanten Voraussetzungen und der zeitlichen Vorstellungen wird den mehr oder weniger günstigen Rahmenbedingungen Rechnung getragen. Auch haben lebenslaufstheoretische Überlegungen Unterstützung erfahren, nach denen günstige Rahmenbedingungen dazu beitragen, dass eine Elternschaft nicht weiter aufgeschoben wird, während umgekehrt die Dinglichkeit der Realisierung einer Elternschaft zu einer Reduktion der angeführten Voraussetzung führen dürfte. Welche der Voraussetzungen besondere Bedeutung haben, und welche kausale Beziehung zwischen den wahrgenommenen Voraussetzungen und der Akzeptanz der alternativen Entscheidungsregeln besteht, ließ sich anhand der vorliegenden Querschnittsdaten nicht eindeutig belegen. Neben der Paarbeziehung stehen aber wohl finanzielle Aspekte und Fragen der Unterstützung bei der Bewältigung der elterlichen Aufgaben im Vordergrund.
  • Klein, Thomas & Jan Eckhard. 2008. Partnerschafts- und berufsbezogene Aspekte des Kinderwunsches von Männern und Frauen. In Neuere Entwicklungen in der Beziehungs- und Familienforschung. Vorstudien zum Beziehungs- und Familienentwicklungspanel (pairfam), Hrsg. Michael Feldhaus & Johannes Huinink, 379-402. Würzburg: Ergon Verlag. ISBN: 978-3-8991-3619-7
  • Im Mittelpunkt des Forschungsinteresses stehen die zunehmende Instabilität von Partnerschaftsbeziehungen, die wachsenden Ansprüche an die Partnerschaftsbeziehungen sowie die zunehmenden Unsicherheiten der Berufsbiographie (etwa durch verlängerte Ausbildungszeiten, aber auch durch wachsende Beschäftigungsschwierigkeiten). Nach einer Erläuterung der datentechnischen und methodischen Grundlagen erfolgt die empirische Analyse der unterstellten Zusammenhänge auf Basis der 2006 erhobenen Panel-Daten ("Mini-Panel") des DFG-Schwerpunktprogramms zur Beziehungs- und Familienentwicklung. Anschließend wird untersucht, inwiefern die Motivation von Männern und Frauen in unterschiedlicher Weise von der Partnerschaftsinstabilität und von den Ansprüchen an die Partnerschaft beeinträchtigt ist. Es wird abschließend der Frage nachgegangen, inwiefern sich berufsbiographische Unsicherheiten für Männer und Frauen in unterschiedlicher Weise auf die Motivation zur Elternschaft auswirken. Die dargestellten Ergebnisse geben deutliche Hinweise darauf, dass die zunehmende Partnerschaftsinstabilität sowie die gestiegenen Ansprüche vor allem für Männer relevante Aspekte sind, welche die Entscheidung gegen eine Familiengründung begünstigen. Hinzu kommt die nach wie vor offensichtlich stark verbreitete Rollenauffassung und Rollenzuweisung des männlichen Familienversorgers. Die steigende Berufsorientierung von Frauen und der Wunsch, Mutterschaft und Erwerbstätigkeit zu verbinden, reduziert keineswegs die Notwendigkeit eines sicheren Arbeitsplatzes des männlichen Partners als bedeutsame Voraussetzung für die Bereitschaft zur Geburt eines Kindes. Vor dem Hintergrund wachsender berufsbiographischer Unsicherheiten (etwa durch längere Ausbildungswege und Beschäftigungsschwierigkeiten) kann auch dieser männerspezifische Aspekt zu einem immer bedeutsamer werdenden Negativfaktor der Geburtenentwicklung werden, auch wenn die tradierte Geschlechtsrollenverteilung in Bezug auf Frauen an Bedeutung verlieren mag.
  • Klein, Thomas & Johannes Stauder. 2008. Partnermärkte in Deutschland im Spiegel eines neuen Erhebungsinstruments. In Neuere Entwicklungen in der Beziehungs- und Familienforschung. Vorstudien zum Beziehungs- und Familienentwicklungspanel (pairfam), Hrsg. Michael Feldhaus & Johannes Huinink, 77-114. Würzburg: Ergon Verlag. ISBN: 978-3-8991-3619-7
  • Die Analyse bezieht sich auf die Begegnungsmöglichkeiten der Individuen und deren soziale Strukturierung. Die Begegnungsmöglichkeiten werden über die Ausbildung, über den Arbeitsplatz und weitere Aktivitäten und deren Handlungskontexte definiert und vorstrukturiert. In Bezug auf die Partnerwahl lassen sich die sozialen Interaktionsgelegenheiten, die mit den Handlungskontexten jeweils verbunden sind, als Teilheiratsmärkte begreifen. Im Mittelpunkt des Partnermarktkonzepts stehen die zumindest kurzfristig nicht (oder nur unter hohen Kosten) frei wählbaren Aktivitäten, die obendrein viel Zeit absorbieren. Mit berücksichtigt sind die Einbindung in Freundschaftsnetzwerke sowie regelmäßig ausgeübte Freizeitaktivitäten, bei denen das Motiv der Partnersuche zumeist nicht den Ausschlag gibt. Das Partnermarktkonzept knüpft mithin an bestehende Einbindungen des Individuums in soziale Strukturen an und zielt somit auf die sozialen Steuerungsmechanismen der Opportunitäten und Restriktionen bei der Partnersuche. Vor dem Hintergrund der Darstellung von theoretischen Überlegungen zum Konzept des Partnermarkts und deren Operationalisierung werden das entwickelte Erhebungsinstrument und der durchgeführten Validierungsuntersuchungen präsentiert. Anschließend folgen die empirischen Ergebnisse zur Strukturierung von Partnermärkten in Deutschland sowie deren Diskussion.
  • Kneip, Thorsten. 2008. Soziale Einbettung und partnerschaftliche Stabilität. Der Einfluss partnerschaftsspezifischen Sozialkapitals. In Neuere Entwicklungen in der Beziehungs- und Familienforschung. Vorstudien zum Beziehungs- und Familienentwicklungspanel (pairfam), Hrsg. Michael Feldhaus & Johannes Huinink, 431-458. Würzburg: Ergon Verlag. ISBN: 978-3-8991-3619-7
  • Die Überlappung der Partnernetzwerke, deren stabilisierende Wirkung auf Partnerschaften schon länger bekannt ist, lässt sich, so der Verfasser, als Indikator für soziales Kapital mit spezifischem (Erwartungs-) Wert innerhalb der bestehenden Beziehung interpretieren. Diese Interpretation erhält Unterstützung durch den Befund, dass der Überlappungseffekt auch unter Kontrolle direkterer Maße für alternative Mechanismen bestehen bleibt. Darüber hinaus zeigt sich der Effekt aber noch deutlicher, wenn an Stelle des Überlappungsgrades theorienähere Operationalisierungen verwendet werden. Die Studie liefert damit einen Beitrag zur theoretischen Klärung eines bekannten empirischen Befunds. Über das Konzept des (beziehungsspezifischen) sozialen Kapitals stellt sie gleichzeitig ein Anknüpfungspunkt an allgemeinere theoretische Modelle her. Als besonders geeignet zur Erfassung von beziehungsspezifischem Sozialkapital erscheint, so die These, ein Maß, das die mit der Beziehungsstärke gewichtete Anzahl der Netzwerkbeziehungen erfasst und damit die Aspekte der relativen Bewertung und Mobilisierungswahrscheinlichkeit inkorporiert. Weniger geeignet scheint eine darüber hinausgehende Berücksichtigung des abnehmenden Grenznutzens redundanter Beziehungen. Gegen die Verwendung eines solchen Maßes sprechen auch die deutlich höheren Anforderungen an das Datenmaterial bei gleichzeitig nicht gestiegener Erklärungskraft. Während die Überlappung sehr einfach und sparsam im Namensgenerator-Design erfasst werden kann und die Berechnung der gewichteten Anzahl keinen weiteren Erhebungsaufwand fordert, müssen für ein solches Maß zusätzlich die Verbindungen aller Netzpersonen untereinander erhoben werden.
  • Kunze, Sabine & Reinhold Sackmann. 2008. Die Zeitperspektiven von Planung und Realisierung im Fertilitätsprozess. Timing, Spacing und Stopping der ersten Familienerweiterung. In Neuere Entwicklungen in der Beziehungs- und Familienforschung. Vorstudien zum Beziehungs- und Familienentwicklungspanel (pairfam), Hrsg. Michael Feldhaus & Johannes Huinink, 351-378. Würzburg: Ergon Verlag. ISBN: 978-3-8991-3619-7
  • Die Verfasser argumentieren, dass erst die (partnerschaftliche) Entscheidung, keine weiteren Kinder mehr zu wollen, den Fertilitätsprozess beschließt. Paritätenspezifisch lassen sich unterschiedliche zeitliche Muster erkennen, wann diese Entscheidung getroffen wird. Nach dem zweiten Kind erfolgt sie zeitnah nach der Geburt, während bei dem ersten Kind ein längerer Zeitraum von mindestens ein bis zwei Jahren nach der Geburt vergeht, bis die Stopping-Entscheidung gefällt wird. Als absolute obere Stopping-Norm konnte für Frauen das Alter von 40 Jahren festgestellt werden, das als Deadline den Entscheidungsprozess unter zusätzlichen Druck stellt. In Deutschland gibt es, so die These, eine Übereinstimmung zwischen der institutionell gesetzten Normaldauer der Erziehungszeit von drei Jahren, dem Kindergarteneintritt mit drei Jahren und informellen Vorstellungen zu einem optimalen Abstand von Kindern, die miteinander spielen können, von zwei bis vier Jahren. Die Planungsvorstellungen der Eltern des Mini-Panels übernehmen diesen Rhythmus von circa drei Jahren nach der Geburt des letzten Kindes. Diese Rush hour könnte entzerrt werden, wenn die Übereinstimmung von institutionellen und informellen Zeiten sinken würde. Etwa wenn die Dauer der Elternzeit verlängert würde oder der Kindergarteneintritt verzögert wird. Dies erscheint aufgrund der gegenwärtigen gesellschaftlichen Präferenz für einen Ausbau vorschulischer Erziehungselemente und eine größere Vereinbarkeit eher ein unrealistisches Szenario zu sein.
  • Pinquart, Martin, Carolin Stotzka & Rainer K. Silbereisen. 2008. „Ob ich will: ja und nein“ – Ambivalenz während und nach Entscheidungen über Partnerschaft und Elternschaft. In Neuere Entwicklungen in der Beziehungs- und Familienforschung. Vorstudien zum Beziehungs- und Familienentwicklungspanel (pairfam), Hrsg. Michael Feldhaus & Johannes Huinink, 257-290. Würzburg: Ergon Verlag. ISBN: 978-3-8991-3619-7
  • Die Verfasser zeigen, dass Ambivalenz während der Beziehungsentscheidung verbreiteter als nach der Entscheidung ist. Jedoch ist auch hier noch bei etwa einem Zehntel der Befragten die Ambivalenz deutlich ausgeprägt gewesen. Es wird argumentiert, dass Ambivalenz bei Beziehungsentscheidungen ein beziehungsspezifisches Konstrukt ist. Es werden auch Aspekte der Herkunftsfamilie, der Persönlichkeit und soziodemografische Variablen identifiziert, die das Risiko erhöhen, sich in Bezug auf Beziehungsentscheidungen ambivalent zu verhalten. Wenn die Eltern nicht ständig zusammenlebten, ging dies mit mehr Ambivalenz in Bezug auf das Eingehen von Partnerschaften einher, war aber für Entscheidungen über die Elternschaft irrelevant. Hier nehmen vermutlich Befürchtungen zu, dass auch die eigene Partnerschaft nicht so stabil wie gehofft sein könnte, wenn man dies bei den eigenen Eltern erlebt hat. Analog erhöht Schüchternheit - also die Schwierigkeit beim Knüpfen von Kontakten und die Angst, negativ beurteilt zu werden, nur Ambivalenz in Bezug auf das Eingehen einer Partnerschaft, also beim Aufbau eines nahen Kontakts. Es wird festgestellt, dass Ambivalenz in Bezug auf Elternschaft bei der ältesten Kohorte am stärksten und bei der jüngsten Kohorte am wenigsten verbreitet sind. Jugendliche sehen Elternschaft noch idealisiert und wenig konfliktbehaftet, zumal in der Regel noch nicht sofort eine Elternschaft angestrebt wird und Kosten der Elternschaft noch stärker hypothetisch sind. Im jungen Erwachsenenalter werden die Kosten der Elternschaft und potentielle Konflikte zum Verfolgen von Zielen in anderen Lebensbereichen zentraler, was mit mehr Ambivalenz einhergeht. Es wird argumentiert, dass Ambivalenz bedeutsame Varianz im Partnerstatus, der Beziehungszufriedenheit und der angestrebten Zahl der Kinder aufklärt. Ambivalenz während der Entscheidung erhöht das Risiko, dass die Partnerschaft nicht zustande kam oder schnell wieder beendet wurde. Wer während und nach der Entscheidung ambivalenter war, war aktuell mit seiner Partnerschaft unzufriedener. Ambivalenz korreliert nicht mit der idealen Kinderzahl, sondern nur mit der erwarteten Kinderzahl. Dies spricht dafür, dass man bei Ambivalenzen die realistischen Erwartungen und nicht das Ideal nach unten korrigiert.
  • Rehberg, Karl-Siegbert. 2008. Die Natur der Gesellschaft. Verhandlungen des 33. Kongresses der Deutschen Gesellschaft für Soziologie in Kassel 2006. Frankfurt: Campus. ISBN: 978-3-5933-8440-5
  • Der Kongress der Deutschen Gesellschaft für Soziologie beschäftigte sich 2006 mit der Natur der Gesellschaft. Hintergrund für die Debatten war die Reflexion über den Menschen als ein Natur- und Kulturwesen. Von medizinisch- gentechnischen Fragen bis zur Robotik, von Naturkatastrophen, Migration und demografischem Wandel bis hin zu Terrorismus und Krieg bietet der Band ein weites Spektrum an Themen. Enthalten sind alle Vorträge der Eröffnungs- und Abschlussveranstaltung, der Plena sowie die Mittags- und Abendvorlesungen; dazu eine CD-ROM mit den Referaten der Sektionssitzungen, Ad-hoc-Gruppen und Sonderveranstaltungen.
  • Reichle, Barbara & Dorothea Dette-Hagenmeyer. 2008. Individuelle und dyadische Bewältigung von Alltagskonflikten: Themen, Copingstrategien und Partnerschaftsqualität. In Neuere Entwicklungen in der Beziehungs- und Familienforschung. Vorstudien zum Beziehungs- und Familienentwicklungspanel (pairfam), Hrsg. Michael Feldhaus & Johannes Huinink, 229-256. Würzburg: Ergon Verlag. ISBN: 978-3-8991-3619-7
  • Entgegen der Befunde anderer Studien erweisen sich in der vorgestellten Studie die bivariaten Korrelationen zwischen Einkommen bzw. Bildungsstand und Partnerschaftsqualität als nicht signifikant. Da dies jedoch nicht auf systematische Effekte schließen lässt, werden diese Variablen nicht in die regressionsanalytischen Auswertungen einbezogen. Ein höheres Bildungsniveau des Mannes ging in der zweiten Kohorte mit geringfügig höherer erlebter Gemeinsamkeit der Frau einher, in der dritten Kohorte ein höheres Einkommen der Frau mit höherer erlebter Gemeinsamkeit des Mannes. Bei der dyadischen Regression von Partnerschaftsqualität auf Bewältigungsverhalten sind die Akteureffekte für die Prädiktoren positiv-konstruktives Verhalten und Resignation und Rückzug in der erwarteten Richtung festgestellt worden. Bilanzierung und Ungerechtigkeit geht hingegen nur für die Gemeinsamkeit mit niedrigeren Werten einher. Hypothesenkonträr ist der positive Zusammenhang von Aggression und Streit mit der Gemeinsamkeit gewesen. Da in der bivariaten Analyse die erwartete Richtung des Zusammenhangs aufgetreten ist, liegt die Annahme eines Suppressoreffektes nahe. Insgesamt zeigt die Untersuchung des Zusammenhangs von Konfliktbewältigungsverhalten und Partnerschaftsqualität, dass positives Bewältigungsverhalten signifikant zu einer höheren erlebten Gemeinsamkeit und Partnerschaftszufriedenheit beiträgt, und zwar für Frauen und Männer und sowohl als Akteur- als auch als Partnereffekt.
  • Schulz, Florian. 2008. Tagein, tagaus. Zur Erhebung der Zeitverwendung im Rahmen der Vorstudie zum Beziehungs- und Familienentwicklungspanel. In Neuere Entwicklungen in der Beziehungs- und Familienforschung. Vorstudien zum Beziehungs- und Familienentwicklungspanel (pairfam), Hrsg. Michael Feldhaus & Johannes Huinink, 291-320. Würzburg: Ergon Verlag. ISBN: 978-3-8991-3619-7
  • Der Verfasser gibt einen Überblick über die Erfassung der Zeitverwendung im Alltag in der Vorstudie zum Beziehungs- und Familienentwicklungspanel, dem sog. "PAIRFAM-Mini-Panel". Die Erhebungsinstrumente werden vorgestellt und auf theoretischer und methodologischer Ebene miteinander verglichen. Es wird gezeigt, dass die im Mini-Panel erhobenen Zeitbudgets recht gut mit bekannten Erkenntnissen bevölkerungsrepräsentativer Untersuchungen übereinstimmen. Zusätzlich wird untersucht, in welchem empirischen Verhältnis die Daten der verschiedenen eingesetzten Erhebungsverfahren zueinander stehen. Die präsentierten Ergebnisse zeigen, dass es durchaus systematische Unterschiede in den Daten der Tagebuch- und Zeitschätzungsmethoden gibt, wenn die Zeitverwendung die zu erklärende Variable darstellt. Diese Befunde stehen in Einklang mit internationalen Forschungsergebnissen. Der Autor kommt zu dem Schluss, dass auf die Erhebung von Zeitbudgets in einer Untersuchung zum Beziehungs- und Familienleben aus gewichtigen theoretischen Gründen nicht verzichtet werden darf. Jedoch ist bei der Auswahl der Erhebungsinstrumente für eine neue Studie äußerste Sorgfalt geboten, da unterschiedliche Messverfahren mitunter zu unterschiedlichen Ergebnissen und damit unterschiedlichen theoretischen Schlussfolgerungen führen können.
  • Steinbach, Anja. 2008. Intergenerational Solidarity and Ambivalence: Types of Relationships in German Families. Journal of Comparative Family Studies 39: 115-127. 
  • The article examines how positive and negative aspects of family relations can be integrated. It determines the four types of relations such as amicable, civil, ambivalent, and disharmonious. It aims to combine the theoretical assumptions of intergenerational ambivalence with the concept of intergenerational solidarity. An overview of both theoretical concepts is given as well as the sample, data, and instruments. Also presented are the results of multivariate models regarding the relation of indicators of ambivalence and solidarity.
  • Steinbach, Anja & Bernhard Nauck. 2008. Improvement and Future Challenges for the Research Infrastructure in the Field „Intergenerational Relationships". Developing the Research Infrastructure for the Social and Behavioral Sciences in Germany and Beyond: Progress since 2001, Current Situation. Expertise.
  • Steinbach, Anja & Johannes Kopp. 2008. Intergenerationale Beziehungen. Theoretische Diskussionen, empirische Befunde und offene Fragen. In Neuere Entwicklungen in der Beziehungs- und Familienforschung. Vorstudien zum Beziehungs- und Familienentwicklungspanel (pairfam), Hrsg. Michael Feldhaus & Johannes Huinink, 403-430. Würzburg: Ergon Verlag. ISBN: 978-3-8991-3619-7
  • Vor allem in Anbetracht der immer höheren Lebenserwartung und der damit verbundenen Möglichkeiten der ,gewonnenen Jahre' ist das Thema Generationenbeziehungen in den letzten Jahren verstärkt in den Mittelpunkt der familiensoziologischen Diskussion gerückt. Ziel dieses Beitrages ist es nun, zuerst den theoretischen und empirischen Forschungsstand zu dieser Thematik kurz aufzuarbeiten. Es zeigt sich dabei, dass die für die Bundesrepublik vorliegenden empirischen Analysen immer nur Teilaspekte dieser Diskussion erfassen. Aus diesem Grunde wurde im Rahmen des Pairfam-Minipanels erstmals der Versuch unternommen, die entsprechenden theoretischen Konzepte umfassend empirisch abzubilden. In dieser Studie wurden alle in der Literatur diskutierten Facetten intergenerationaler Beziehungen operationalisiert. Sowohl bei der theoretischen Diskussion als auch bei der empirischen Analyse offenbaren sich aber etliche konzeptionelle Lücken, die in einem abschließenden Abschnitt diskutiert werden sollen.
  • Steinbach, Anja & Johannes Kopp. 2008. When Will I See You Again? Intergenerational Contacts in Germany. In Families, Ageing and Social Policy. Generational Solidarity in European Welfare States, Hrsg. Chiara Saraceno, 88-104. Cheltenham/Northampton, MA: Edward Elgar. ISBN: 978-1-8472-0648-0
  • In consideration of recent demographic trends, the historically unique longevity and the political discussions concerning social security and care for the elderly, it is apparent that the topic of intergenerational relationships is becoming more and more important- not only for politics, but also for social research. Therefore a lot of literature can be found regarding the different aspects of intergenerational relations. A closer look at this research, however, reveals a number of limitations. First, most studies come from the field of gerontology and focus on the relationships between (very) old parents and their children. Second, intergenerational relations are seldom the main focus of the used empirical surveys. This means that not all of the aspects of these complex relationships are captured. Third, most studies focus on descriptive results; theoretical and empirical explanations are often missing. In this chapter some steps will be presented which try to close these gaps. In the first section of this chapter the discussion concerning the different aspects or dimensions of intergenerational relations will be briefly presented, revealing that intergenerational contact is not only one of the most interesting aspects of intergenerational relations, but also a precondition for most other dimensions of intergenerational relations. Also the empirical research on intergenerational contact - specifically for Germany- is considered here. In the second section new empirical data are presented, described and - in the third section- more deeply analysed. We close this contribution with some suggestions concerning further research on intergenerational relations.
  • Walper, Sabine, Angelika Guglhör-Rudan, Carolin Thönnissen, Eva-Verena Wendt & Kathrin Beckh. 2008. Paarbeziehungen im Jugend- und Erwachsenenalter: Entwicklungsbedingte Besonderheiten und Einflüsse der Herkunftsfamilie. In Neuere Entwicklungen in der Beziehungs- und Familienforschung. Vorstudien zum Beziehungs- und Familienentwicklungspanel (pairfam), Hrsg. Michael Feldhaus & Johannes Huinink, 115-150. Würzburg: Ergon Verlag. ISBN: 978-3-8991-3619-7
  • Die Verfasser untersuchen die Unterschiede in der Qualität von Paarbeziehungen im Vergleich von drei Altersgruppen und die Einflüsse der Herkunftsfamilie. Vor dem Hintergrund der Präsentation der theoretischen Überlegungen und der bisherigen Forschungsbefunde werden die eigenen Analysen und Ergebnisse dargestellt. Es wird argumentiert, dass sich die Unabhängigkeit in der eigenen Partnerschaft als stark durch die Unabhängigkeit der Eltern in deren Partnerschaft modelliert erweist. Weder die Verbundenheit der Eltern noch die Qualität der Beziehung zu Mutter und/oder Vater haben einen Einfluss auf das Ausmaß zugestandener Unabhängigkeit. Dieser Aspekt der Partnerschaft scheint also von spezifischen Vorbildern abzuhängen und weniger generell sozialisiert zu werden. Allerdings sollte der Befund nicht vorschnell dahingehend gedeutet werden, dass die intergenerationale Transmission von Unabhängigkeit in der Partnerschaft nur direkt erfolgt. So ist es durchaus denkbar, dass eine größere Unabhängigkeit der Eltern in deren Partnerschaft auch die Autonomiegewährung gegenüber den Kindern beeinflusst und diese direkten Erfahrungen im Umgang mit den Eltern in die Partnerschaft getragen werden. Inwieweit dies zutrifft, lässt sich leider anhand der Daten nicht beantworten. Insgesamt verweisen die Forschungsergebnisse auf komplexe Zusammenhänge zwischen Erfahrungen in der Herkunftsfamilie und der Qualität der eigenen Partnerschaft. Die Befunde sprechen dafür, dass sowohl im Jugend- als auch im Erwachsenenalter den Eltern noch eine bedeutsame Rolle als Gestalter von Beziehungserfahrungen zukommt, die die nachwachsende Generation in ihre Partnerschaftsbeziehungen hinein trägt. Die Vorteile positiver Beziehungen in der Herkunftsfamilie scheinen mit steigendem Alter eher stärker als schwächer zu werden. Mit Blick auf die Entwicklung von Partnerschaften wird es von besonderem Interesse sein, die Altersunterschiede längsschnittlich nachzuzeichnen und auch danach zu fragen, inwieweit Erfahrungen aus frühen Entwicklungsphasen - auch aus früheren Liebesbeziehungen - in spätere Partnerschaften hinein getragen werden. Entsprechende Informationen fehlen nicht nur für Deutschland, sondern sind auch international rar gesät.
  • Weiß, Bernd & Michael Wagner. 2008. Stehen Konflikte einer guten Partnerschaft entgegen? Eine empirische Analyse auf Grundlage dyadischer Daten. In Neuere Entwicklungen in der Beziehungs- und Familienforschung. Vorstudien zum Beziehungs- und Familienentwicklungspanel (pairfam), Hrsg. Michael Feldhaus & Johannes Huinink, 187-228. Würzburg: Ergon Verlag. ISBN: 978-3-8991-3619-7
  • Die Verfasser zeigen, dass besonders häufig Konflikte in den Bereichen Freizeitgestaltung und Kindererziehung auftreten. Bemerkenswert ist auch, dass im Bereich der Arbeitsteilung eine hohe Übereinstimmung zwischen den Partnern beim Konfliktniveau besteht. Eine wichtige Erkenntnis ist aber in diesem Zusammenhang, dass es keinen Lebensbereich gibt, bei dem Konflikte und Meinungsverschiedenheiten besonders starke Auswirkungen auf die Paarzufriedenheit haben. Eine Klassifikation der Konflikte in kognitiv und affektiv ist fruchtbar. Zwar muss diese Klassifikation weiter validiert werden, es ist aber sehr auffallend, dass kognitive Konflikte in anderer Weise mit der Paarzufriedenheit assoziiert sind als dies bei emotionalen Konflikten der Fall ist. Es wird auch eine mögliche kurvilineare (umgekehrt u-förmige) Beziehung zwischen Konflikthäufigkeit und Partnerschaftszufriedenheit auf Paarebene untersucht. Dabei werden die Chancen bestimmt, mit der Partnerschaft zufrieden zu sein, wenn man die Kombination der Konfliktniveaus beider Partner berücksichtigt. Es wird argumentiert, dass Paare mit der Konfliktniveaukombination mittel/hoch und hoch/hoch signifikant seltener eine "gute" Partnerschaft führen, als Paare mit mittlerem Konfliktniveau, von denen angenommen wurde, dass sie den höchsten Zufriedenheitsgrad erreichen. Gleiches gilt, wenngleich nicht statistisch signifikant, auch für Paare mit niedrigem Konfliktniveau beziehungsweise der Konfliktniveaukombination niedrig/hoch. Einzig für Paare mit der Kombination niedriges beziehungsweise mittleres Konfliktniveau deutet sich an, dass diese eine höhere Chance haben, eine "gute" Partnerschaft zu führen.
  • Wendt, Eva-Verena. 2008. Sexualität und Bindung. Qualität und Motivation sexueller Paarbeziehungen im Jugend- und jungen Erwachsenenalter. Weinheim: Juventa Verlag. ISBN: 978-3-7799-1791-5
  • Bindungserfahrungen und Sexualität im Jugend- und jungen Erwachsenenalter stehen im Mittelpunkt der Studie. Wie gestalten Jugendliche und junge Erwachsene ihre Sexualität? Welchen Einfluss haben Vertrauen und Sicherheit in der Partnerschaft auf die Sexualität junger Paare? Spielen frühere Bindungserfahrungen mit den Eltern eine Rolle für die Sexualität? Die vorliegende Studie untersuchte Paare im Jugend- und jungen Erwachsenenalter im Hinblick auf ihre Sexualität in der aktuellen Partnerschaft. Fokussiert wurde dabei sowohl die Qualität der sexuellen Beziehung wie auch die sexuelle Motivation der Befragten. Neben Informationen zur Beziehungsentwicklung und Sexualität im Jugend- und jungen Erwachsenenalter sowie einem ausführlichen Überblick über die aktuelle Befundlage des noch jungen Forschungsfelds „Bindung und Sexualität“, stellt sie die Ergebnisse eines DFG-Projekts zur Beziehungsgestaltung junger Paare vor. In Bezug auf die theoretische und konzeptuelle Einordnung der Ergebnisse werden Besonderheiten der Sexualität im Jugend- und jungen Erwachsenenalter dargestellt. Darüber hinaus werden die Befunde in evolutionsbiologische und bindungstheoretische Annahmen eingeordnet sowie überinvolvierte oder vermeidende Strategien in der Sexualität diskutiert. In einer abschließenden Integration der Ergebnisse erfolgt die Ableitung praktischer Implikationen für Therapie und Beratung.
  • Wendt, Verena, Martin Diewald & Frieder R. Lang. 2008. Interdependenzen zwischen verwandtschaftlichen und beruflichen Beziehungs-Netzwerken (IDUN): Entwicklung eines sparsamen Netzwerkinstrumentes und erste Ergebnisse. In Neuere Entwicklungen in der Beziehungs- und Familienforschung. Vorstudien zum Beziehungs- und Familienentwicklungspanel (pairfam), Hrsg. Michael Feldhaus & Johannes Huinink, 459-481. Würzburg: Ergon Verlag. ISBN: 978-3-8991-3619-7
  • Die Verfasser schildern die Entwicklung eines paneltauglichen Erhebungsinstrumentes zu sozialen Netzwerken, welches in der ersten Welle des Minipanels eingesetzt wurde. Zusätzlich zu den Daten der ersten Welle des Minipanels verwenden sie auch die erste Welle einer begleitend in Bielefeld und Halle durchgeführten längsschnittlichen Erhebung (IDUN-Projekt), die mit einem umfangreicheren Beziehungsinstrument durchgeführt worden ist. Im Vergleich beider Instrumente geht es darum, Kosten und Nutzen verschiedener Erhebungsmodalitäten im Hinblick auf die Implementation im Hauptpanel zu prüfen. Vor diesem Hintergrund werden erste deskriptive Ergebnisse auf Basis dieser Instrumentenentwicklung dargestellt, die die potentielle Eignung dieses Instruments für die Überprüfung der handlungstheoretischen Überlegungen zu Interdependenzen betreffen. Die dargestellten Ergebnisse beruhen lediglich auf Querschnittsdaten und können die erwarteten Interdependenzeffekte zwar exemplarisch illustrieren, aber noch nicht im strengeren Sinn empirisch belegen. Es wird näher auf die möglichen Interdependenzen zwischen beruflichen und verwandtschaftlichen Beziehungen eingegangen und die im Minipanel und in der IDUN-Erhebung verwendeten Netzwerkinstrumente verglichen. Es werden auch einige für die Interpretation der Befunde illustrierende Informationen zur Erhebung präsentiert. Anschließend werden die Ergebnisse vorgestellt. In der Darstellung wird auf die Frage eingegangen, in welcher Weise das jeweilige Erhebungskonzept zu spezifischen Verzerrungen in der Darstellung und Befundlage beiträgt. Zum Schluss werden die wichtigsten Gesichtspunkte zur Anwendung und Auswertung des Instrumentariums zusammengefasst


  • Huinink, Johannes. 2007. Herausforderungen einer lebenslaufbasierten Beziehungs- und Familienforschung. BIOS 20: 156-163.
  • Das komplexe Zusammenspiel zwischen Beziehungsdynamik, Familiendynamik, anderen Lebensbereichen und den objektiven Gegebenheiten der Wohlfahrtsproduktion im Lebenslauf wird in vielerlei Hinsicht noch nicht verstanden. Hier wird ein konzeptionelles Schema vorgestellt, das als theoretischer Rahmen für Familienforschung aus Lebenslaufperspektive dienen kann und dessen methodologische Anforderungen diskutiert werden. Abschließend wird eine Forschungsagenda zur Beziehungs- und Familienforschung in modernen Wohlfahrtsstaaten skizziert, die die Basis für ein Forschungsprogramm in Deutschland zur Durchführung einer langfristig angelegten Panelstudie, des 'Beziehungs- und Familienentwicklungspanels' (PAIRFAM) bildet. So wird es möglich sein, die Beziehungs- und Familiendynamik aus der Mikroperspektive der individuellen Entscheidungsfindung über den Lebensverlauf hinweg zu verfolgen.


  • Busch, Friedrich W. & Rosemarie Nave-Herz. 2005. Familie und Gesellschaft. Beiträge zur Familienforschung. Oldenburg: BIS-Verlag. ISBN: 978-3-8142-0960-9
  • Die mit den Begriffen Familie, Ehe, Partnerschaft, familiale Lebensformen etc. verbundenen Sachverhalten sind immer wieder Gegenstand theoretischer wie empirischer Arbeiten aus den verschiedenen Einzeldisziplinen der Familienwissenschaft. Angemessen behandelt werden können sie aber wohl nur interdisziplinär. Deswegen arbeiten an der Carl von Ossietzky Universität Oldenburg auch seit Mitte der 1980er Jahre Soziologen, Erziehungswissenschaftler, Bildungsforscher, Psychologen, Therapeuten und Familienhelfer in der Interdisziplinären Forschungsstelle Familienwissenschaft (IFF) zusammen, um gemeinsam nach dem Selbstverständnis familienwissenschaftlicher Forschungen, ihren Methoden und methodologischen Grundlagen zu suchen und ihre Ergebnisse in der wissenschaftlichen Öffentlichkeit zur Diskussion zu stellen. Die in diesem Band versammelten Texte gehen zurück auf eine Ringvorlesung, die im Studienjahr 2004/2005 von der IFF unter der Rahmenthematik Familie und Gesellschaft durchgeführt wurde. Neben Mitgliedern der Forschungsstelle konnten ausgewiesene Wissenschaftlerinnen und Wissenschaftler zu Vorträgen gewonnen werden.
  • Feldhaus, Michael & Johannes Huinink. 2005. Längsschnittliche Beziehungs- und Familienforschung. Familie und Gesellschaft. Beiträge zur Familienforschung, Hrsg. Friedrich-W. Busch & Rosemarie Nave-Herz, 187-207. Oldenburg: BIS-Verlag. ISBN: 978-3-8142-0960-9
  • Kinderlosigkeit und Bevölkerungsentwicklung rufen familienpolitische Maßnahmen auf den Plan. Der Beitrag befasst sich mit den Faktoren, die zur Entscheidung für oder gegen ein Kind beitragen und stellt das 'Beziehungs- und Familienentwicklungs-Panel' (PAIRFAM) vor. Das Ziel dieses Schwerpunktprogramms ist die theoretische, methodische und empirische Fortentwicklung der Erforschung der Beziehungs- und Familienentwicklung.